Jargon File

The Jargon FileHacker koanThe New Hacker's Dictionaryhacker slangNew Hacker's DictionaryThe Hacker's DictionaryAI koansHacker's DictionaryHacker's Jargon FileJargon7767819960
The Jargon File is a glossary and usage dictionary of slang used by computer programmers.wikipedia
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Eric S. Raymond

Eric RaymondEric Steven RaymondRaymond, Eric
Eric S. Raymond; third edition published 1996).
In the 1990s, he edited and updated the Jargon File, currently in print as The New Hacker's Dictionary.

Raphael Finkel

The Jargon File (referred to here as "Jargon-1" or "the File") was made by Raphael Finkel at Stanford in 1975.
He compiled the first version of the Jargon File.

Hacker

hackinghackerscomputer hacker
The concept of the file began with the Tech Model Railroad Club (TMRC) that came out of early PDP-1 and TX-0 hackers in the 1950s, where the term hacker emerged and the ethic, philosophies and some of the nomenclature emerged.
(For example, "Linus Torvalds, the creator of Linux, is considered by some to be a hacker.") A large segment of the technical community insist the latter is the "correct" usage of the word (see the Jargon File definition below).

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MITM.I.T.Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Some terms, such as frob, foo and mung are believed to date back to the early 1950s from the Tech Model Railroad Club at MIT and documented in the 1959 Dictionary of the TMRC Language compiled by Peter Samson.
In addition to developing the predecessors to modern computing and networking technologies, students, staff, and faculty members at Project MAC, the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and the Tech Model Railroad Club wrote some of the earliest interactive computer video games like Spacewar! and created much of modern hacker slang and culture.

Don Woods (programmer)

Don WoodsWoods
Raphael Finkel dropped out of active participation shortly thereafter and Don Woods became the SAIL contact for the File (which was subsequently kept in duplicate at SAIL and MIT, with periodic resynchronizations).
Later, he worked at the Stanford AI lab (SAIL), where among other things he became the SAIL contact for, and a contributor to, the Jargon File.

Tech Model Railroad Club

enthusiastsmodel railroad clubTMRC
Some terms, such as frob, foo and mung are believed to date back to the early 1950s from the Tech Model Railroad Club at MIT and documented in the 1959 Dictionary of the TMRC Language compiled by Peter Samson.
Compiled in the TMRC Dictionary, it included terms that later became part of the hacker's Jargon File, such as "foo", "mung", and "frob".

PDP-10

DECsystem-10DEC PDP-10DEC-10
The original Jargon File was a collection of terms from technical cultures such as the MIT AI Lab, the [[Stanford University centers and institutes#Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory|Stanford AI Lab]] (SAIL) and others of the old ARPANET AI/LISP/PDP-10 communities, including Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Carnegie Mellon University, and Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
This event spelled the doom of ITS and the technical cultures that had spawned the original jargon file, but by the 1990s it had become something of a badge of honor among old-time hackers to have cut one's teeth on a PDP-10.

Guy L. Steele Jr.

Guy L. Steele, Jr.Guy SteeleGuy L. Steele
It was published in paperback form in 1983 as The Hacker's Dictionary (edited by Guy Steele), revised in 1991 as The New Hacker's Dictionary (ed.
In 1982, Steele edited The Hacker's Dictionary (Harper & Row, 1983; ISBN: 0-06-091082-8), which was a print version of the Jargon File.

Mung (computer term)

mungMung (Mash Until No Good)munge
Some terms, such as frob, foo and mung are believed to date back to the early 1950s from the Tech Model Railroad Club at MIT and documented in the 1959 Dictionary of the TMRC Language compiled by Peter Samson.

Geoff Goodfellow

The other Jargon-1 editors (Raphael Finkel, Don Woods, and Mark Crispin) contributed to this revision, as did Stallman and Geoff Goodfellow.
Goodfellow, a contributor to the Jargon File and participant in the early days of the Silicon Valley computer culture, did not believe in patenting his idea.

Hacker culture

hackerhackershacking
In 1981, a hacker named Charles Spurgeon got a large chunk of the File published in Stewart Brand's CoEvolution Quarterly (issue 29, pages 26–35) with illustrations by Phil Wadler and Guy Steele (including a couple of Steele's Crunchly cartoons). The book is particularly noted for helping (or at least trying) to preserve the distinction between a hacker (a consummate programmer) and a cracker (a computer criminal); even though not reviewing the book in detail, both the London Review of Books and MIT Technology Review remarked on it in this regard.
The Jargon File, an influential but not universally accepted compendium of hacker slang, defines hacker as "A person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and stretching their capabilities, as opposed to most users, who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary."

Incompatible Timesharing System

ITSITS operating systemIncompatible Time-sharing System
Richard Stallman was prominent among the contributors, adding many MIT and ITS-related coinages.
The Jargon File started as a combined effort between people on the ITS machines at MIT and at Stanford University SAIL.

Security hacker

hackerhackinghackers
The book is particularly noted for helping (or at least trying) to preserve the distinction between a hacker (a consummate programmer) and a cracker (a computer criminal); even though not reviewing the book in detail, both the London Review of Books and MIT Technology Review remarked on it in this regard.
Eric S. Raymond, author of The New Hacker's Dictionary, advocates that members of the computer underground should be called crackers.

Cyberpunk

cyber-punkCyberpunksCircuit Central
Aside from these guides and the Encyclopedia of New Media, the Jargon file, especially in print form, is frequently cited for both its definitions and its essays, by books and other works on hacker history, cyberpunk subculture, computer jargon and online style, and the rise of the Internet as a public medium, in works as diverse as the 20th edition of A Bibliography of Literary Theory, Criticism and Philology edited by José Ángel García Landa (2015); Wired Style: Principles of English Usage in the Digital Age by Constance Hale and Jessie Scanlon of Wired magazine (1999); Transhumanism: The History of a Dangerous Idea by David Livingstone (2015); Mark Dery's Flame Wars: The Discourse of Cyberculture (1994) and Escape Velocity: Cyberculture at the End of the Century (2007); ''Beyond Cyberpunk!
According to the Jargon File, "Gibson's near-total ignorance of computers and the present-day hacker culture enabled him to speculate about the role of computers and hackers in the future in ways hackers have since found both irritatingly naïve and tremendously stimulating."

Quotation marks in English

smart quotesinside or outsidelogical (as opposed to typesetter's) punctuation
The Chicago Manual of Style, the leading American academic and book-publishing style guide, beginning with its 15th edition (2003) explicitly defers, for "computer writing", to the quotation punctuation style – logical quotation – recommended by the essay "Hacker Writing Style" in The New Hacker's Dictionary (and cites NHD for nothing else).
According to the Jargon File from 1983, American hackers switched to what they later discovered to be the British quotation system because placing a period inside a quotation mark can change the meaning of data strings that are meant to be typed character-for-character.

Internet slang

netspeakInternet jargonChat language
A volunteer editor produced two updates, reflecting later influences (mostly excoriated) from text messaging language, LOLspeak, and Internet slang in general; the last was produced in January 2012.

Glossary

glossariescore glossaryidioticon
The Jargon File is a glossary and usage dictionary of slang used by computer programmers.

Language-for-specific-purposes dictionary

usage dictionaryLanguage for specific purposes dictionaryLSP dictionary
The Jargon File is a glossary and usage dictionary of slang used by computer programmers.

Slang

slang termSlang termsinformal
The Jargon File is a glossary and usage dictionary of slang used by computer programmers.

Programmer

software developercomputer programmerdeveloper
The Jargon File is a glossary and usage dictionary of slang used by computer programmers.

MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

Project MACMIT Artificial Intelligence LaboratoryComputer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
The original Jargon File was a collection of terms from technical cultures such as the MIT AI Lab, the [[Stanford University centers and institutes#Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory|Stanford AI Lab]] (SAIL) and others of the old ARPANET AI/LISP/PDP-10 communities, including Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Carnegie Mellon University, and Worcester Polytechnic Institute.

ARPANET

ARPA networkDarpanetAdvanced Research Projects Agency Network
The original Jargon File was a collection of terms from technical cultures such as the MIT AI Lab, the [[Stanford University centers and institutes#Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory|Stanford AI Lab]] (SAIL) and others of the old ARPANET AI/LISP/PDP-10 communities, including Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Carnegie Mellon University, and Worcester Polytechnic Institute.

Artificial intelligence

AIA.I.artificially intelligent
The original Jargon File was a collection of terms from technical cultures such as the MIT AI Lab, the [[Stanford University centers and institutes#Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory|Stanford AI Lab]] (SAIL) and others of the old ARPANET AI/LISP/PDP-10 communities, including Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Carnegie Mellon University, and Worcester Polytechnic Institute.

Lisp (programming language)

LispLisp programming languageLisp 1.5
The original Jargon File was a collection of terms from technical cultures such as the MIT AI Lab, the [[Stanford University centers and institutes#Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory|Stanford AI Lab]] (SAIL) and others of the old ARPANET AI/LISP/PDP-10 communities, including Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Carnegie Mellon University, and Worcester Polytechnic Institute.

BBN Technologies

Bolt, Beranek and NewmanBBNBolt Beranek and Newman
The original Jargon File was a collection of terms from technical cultures such as the MIT AI Lab, the [[Stanford University centers and institutes#Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory|Stanford AI Lab]] (SAIL) and others of the old ARPANET AI/LISP/PDP-10 communities, including Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Carnegie Mellon University, and Worcester Polytechnic Institute.