A report on Java and Majapahit

Mount Bromo in East Java
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872
The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java 1945
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Betawi mask dance (Tari Topeng Betawi)
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
SambaSunda music performance, featuring traditional Sundanese music instruments.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
Lakshmana, Rama and Shinta in Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Water buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, in Central Java.
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Java transport network
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
"Welcome!" statue in Central Jakarta
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor.
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang.
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Asia in the early 14th century
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

Majapahit (ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀; ), also known as Wilwatikta (ꦮꦶꦭ꧀ꦮꦠꦶꦏ꧀ꦠ; ) was a Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

- Majapahit

The eastern Javanese kingdoms of Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit were mainly dependent on rice agriculture, yet also pursued trade within the Indonesian archipelago, and with China and India.

- Java
Mount Bromo in East Java

20 related topics with Alpha

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A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb

Javanese people

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A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb
Javanese adapted many aspects of Indian culture, such as the Ramayana epic.
Sultan Amangkurat II of Mataram (upper right) watching warlord Untung Surapati fighting Captain Tack of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). ca 1684 AD.
A Javanese courtly ceremony at Keraton Surakarta in 1932.
Javanese cultural expressions, such as wayang and gamelan are often used to promote the excellence of Javanese culture.
Gamelan is one of Javanese cultural expression that demonstrate refinement.
Javanese abugida.
Javanese priyayi (aristocrat) and servants, c. undefined 1865.
Javanese temple.
Traditional Javanese house.
Example of Javanese cuisine. Clockwise: fried tempeh, mlinjo crackers, gudeg with rice wrapped in teak leaf, green chili sambal and sliced lime.
Nasi tumpeng, the quintessentially Javanese rice dish, symbolises the volcano.
A Javanese sailor.
Inhabitants of Jave la Grande (Great Java island), from Nicholas Vallard's manuscript sea atlas (1547). The people are armed with spear and shortsword with curving hilt, a feature of Indonesian weapon (golok?). The man riding a horse seems to be a leader or noble. The servant behind him carried a parasol. Several men is wearing turbans, which may indicate that they are Muslims, but the women did not cover their head like Muslims do (it needs to be noted that, this custom of Muslim women not wearing a veil in Indonesia is quite common until after World War 2). In the background are several raised wooden huts, also a feature of Indonesian building. It is unknown whether these huts are for dwelling or serve as a temporary shelter for people working on the orchard.
Javanese migrant workers in Suriname, circa 1940
A decorative kris with a figure of Semar as the handle. The bilah has thirteen luk
Varieties of Javanese keris
Weapons of Java: Machetes, maces, bow and arrows, blowpipe, sling
Weapon of Java: Keris
Short swords, shields, and a matchlock gun (istinggar)
Javanese weapons and standards
Various keris and pole weapons of Java.
Javanese woodworkers making traditional masks during the Dutch East Indies era
The carpenters' tools of the Javanese people
Javanese agricultural tools
A drawing of Javanese manufacturing tools, handicrafts, and musical instruments
Javanese musical instruments, many of which require the skills of blacksmith and carpenters
Javanese masks
Javanese temple.

The Javan or Javanese (Javanese:, Wong Jawa (in Ngoko register); , Tiyang Jawi (in Krama register)) are indigenous ethnic group native to the central and eastern hemisphere of Java island, Indonesia.

Raden Wijaya would later establish Majapahit near the delta of the Brantas River in modern-day Mojokerto, East Java.

Indonesia

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Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
Population pyramid 2016
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
An Indonesian batik
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.

It consists of over 17,000 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, and parts of Borneo and New Guinea.

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent.

East Java

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Statues of Singhasari temple, circa 1910s
The Ampel Mosque in Surabaya, the oldest surviving mosque in Java and second oldest in Indonesia, was built in 1421.
Operation Transom, destroyed Tanjung Perak in 1944.
Eastern Salient of Java mountain range view from Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park at early morning
Light snow and frost is common at East Java highlands over 1500 meters above sea level in middle of year during late night until morning.
Administrative Map of East Java
Surabaya is one of the industrial, transportational, commercial, and financial center of Indonesia.
Surabaya-Gempol Expressway
Penataran train in Malang railway station
Tanjung Perak at night
Terminal 1 of Juanda International Airport
Reog, famous Ponorogoan dance
Gandrung, iconic Banyuwangi dance
Islamic Santri students celebrate Santri day in Southern Malang
Deer in Baluran National Park
Rujak Cingur, traditional dish from East Java
CLS Knights, most famous professional basketball club in Indonesia.
Islamic Ampel Mosque, Surabaya (circa 1920s)
Kayutangan Catholic Church, Downtown Malang (circa 1935)
Traditional East Java Christian Church, Mojowarno, Jombang
Tengger (Hindu temple) Pura Luhur Ponten, near Bromo Crater
Buddhist Maha Vihara Mojopahit, Trowulan, Mojokerto
Kwan Sing Bio Chinese Temple, Tuban
Jawa Timur Park in Batu
Madakaripura waterfall in Probolinggo
Ijen crater in Banyuwangi
Kedung Tumpang beach in Tulungagung
House of Sampoerna, Surabaya
Trowulan ancient city, Mojokerto
Maulana Malik Ibrahim tomb complex
Sempu Island, located in the south of Malang

East Java (ꦗꦮꦮꦺꦠꦤ꧀; ; Kangean: Laok Jebe; Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia located in the easternmost hemisphere of Java island.

Ken Arok dynasty's descendants became kings of Singhasari and Majapahit from the 13th until the 15th century.

Bali

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Province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands.

Province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands.

Subak irrigation system
Puputan monument
2002 Bali bombings memorial
Aerial photograph of Bali
Mount Agung is the highest point of Bali.
Bali myna is found only on Bali and is critically endangered.
Monkeys in Uluwatu
Uluwatu
Wood carving
Kuta Beach is a popular tourist spot.
Ogoh-ogoh procession on the eve of Nyepi
I Gusti Ngurah Rai International Airport
One of the major forms of transport is the scooter.
Bali Mandara Toll Road
Balinese people
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Hindu temples.
Holy Spirit Cathedral, Denpasar
Kecak dance
Balinese cuisine
Cremation ceremony in Ubud
Kapten I Wayan Dipta Stadium, the home of Bali United F.C.
The cliff of Nusa Penida with Kelingking beach at the foregound
Detailed map of Bali
Several tourist spot in Bali island, from top left to right: Sunset over Amed beach with Mount Agung in the background, Garuda Wisnu Kencana monument, Tanah Lot temple, view from top of Besakih Temple, scuba diving around Pemuteran, The Rock Bar at Jimbaran Bay, and various traditional Balinese people activities
Trans Sarbagita bus
Pura Ulun Danu Bratan
Kecak dance
Cremation ceremony in Nusa Penida
Melasti, is a Hindu Balinese purification ceremony and ritual
Rejang, A sacred balinesse dance to greet The Gods that come down to the earth on ceremony day
Penataran Lempuyang Temple, Gunung Lempuyang, Bali
Ibnu Batutah Mosque, Kuta
Saint Joseph's Church, Denpasar
Ling Sii Miao Buddhist Temple, Denpasar

East of Java and west of Lombok, the province includes the island of Bali and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan, and Nusa Ceningan.

The Hindu Majapahit Empire (1293–1520 AD) on eastern Java founded a Balinese colony in 1343.

Gamelan musical instrument

Gamelan

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Traditional ensemble music of the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese peoples of Indonesia, made up predominantly of percussive instruments.

Traditional ensemble music of the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese peoples of Indonesia, made up predominantly of percussive instruments.

Gamelan musical instrument
Musicians performing musical ensemble, The 8th century bas-relief of Borobudur Temple, Central Java, Indonesia
A gamelan player playing bonang. Gamelan Yogyakarta style during a Javanese wedding.
Gamelan is mentioned in the Kakawin Nagarakertagama in a palm-leaf manuscript called lontar that was written by Mpu Prapanca in 1365 AD. A collection of National Library of Indonesia in Jakarta
The court of the Sultan of Yogyakarta, c. 1876. Performance of Bedhaya Sacred Dance accompanied by Javanese Gamelan Ensemble
Various Javanese musical instrument in Gamelan Salindro, The History of Java by Thomas Stamford Raffles (1781-1826).
Javanese Gamelan Munggang (one of sacred gamelans) being played (as part of ritual) in Surakarta Sunanate, Central Java, Indonesia, 2000
A sindhen is singing a Javanese song accompanied by Gamelan ensemble
Javanese Gamelan in Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore
Balinese Gamelan in Museu de la Música de Barcelona, Spain
K.P.H. Notoprojo, a famous Indonesian Javanese Gamelan and Rebab player, between 1945 and 1955
The three major indigenous genres of gong-chime music prevalent in Southeast Asia: this includes the Gamelan of western Indonesia; the kulintang of the southern Philippines, eastern Indonesia, and eastern Malaysia; and the piphat of Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Burma
Pande (Gamelan Maker) is burning Gong in Besalen in Central Java, Indonesia
Pandes (Gamelan Makers) are forging a gamelan instrument called Kempul (small hanging gong) after burning it, Central Java, Indonesia
Gamelan is used by patients at Sumber Porong Mental Hospital in Java, between 1902 and 1922
Michael Tenzer played Balinese Gamelan in 1992
Gamelan Degung Ensemble performance for the recording at the Radio Republik Indonesia studio, Jakarta, on 24 April 1966
K.R.T. Rahayu Supanggah, one of gamelan maestros. He introduced gamelan to almost the entire world, actively researching, writing, training, creating compositions, teaching, and performing
Kempul
Gong Ageng
Kenong
Bonang
Demung
Saron
Peking
Gendèr
Slenthem
Kendang
thumb|Bedug
thumb|Gambang
Kethuk/Kempyang
thumb|Celempung
thumb|Siter
thumb|Rebab
thumb|Suling or Seruling
thumb|Kemanak
thumb|Kecer
thumb|Keprak
Gong Lanang
Gong Wadon
Gong Klentong
Trompong
Reyong
Ugal
Kantilan
Pemade
Kenyur
Jegogan
Jublag
Klenang
Kendhang Semaradana
Ceng-ceng Kepyak
Ceng-ceng Ricik
Gentora
Suling gambuh
Gender wayang
Rindhik
Curing
Javanese gamelan being played in Keraton Yogyakarta, Indonesia, on 25 October 2009
thumb|Wayang Kulit performance with Gamelan accompaniment in the context of the appointment of the throne for Hamengkubuwono VIII's fifteen years in Yogyakarta, between 1900 and 1940
A gamelan ensemble with a group of singers (Sindhen (Female) and Gerong (Male) at the Mangkunegaran Royal Palace in Surakarta, Central Java, between 1870 and 1892
A Gamelan Ensemble was played to accompany the inauguration of the Prince of the late Paku Alam VII at Pakualaman Palace, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, before 1949
A Dalang (Puppeteer), Sindhen (singer) and Wiyaga (gamelan musicians) with Javanese Gamelan at Keraton Yogyakarta the Sultan's Palace in Yogyakarta - Around 1885
Gamelan orchestra in East Java, late 19th century
Balinese Gamelan Performance (part of the ritual) in a Temple, Bali, Circa 1920
A balinese dancer performed Kebyar duduk dance accompanied by a Balinese gamelan Ensemble, Bali, Indonesia, before 1952
Barong dance performance accompanied by a gamelan ensemble, Bali, Indonesia, before 1959
Balinese girls practiced legong dance accompanied by gamelan in Ubud, Bali, Dutch east Indies, between 1910 and 1930
Balinese Gamelan in a village near Sukawati, Bali after the Cremation Ceremony on 21 September 1922
Balinese gamelan being played in Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, on 23 September 2010
Sundanese Gamelan with a dancer and Wayang Golek in a hut in Cibodas Botanical Garden, West Java on 28 September 1904
A Gamelan Ensemble and Dance show party for the Regent of Preanger (Now Parahyangan) West Java, between 1880 and 1920
Sundanese Gamelan ensemble of Bandung's Regent, West Java, Dutch east Indies, between 1857 and 1890
A gamelan laras slendro Si Ketuyung (sacred gamelan), a set of gamelan instruments made in 1748, a legacy of Sultan Sepuh IV, Keraton Kasepuhan, Cirebon, Indonesia
Gamelan Degung Ensemble, This photo was taken at Annual Exhibition in Java. between 1910 and 1930
Sundanese Gamelan Degung Performance from West Java, Indonesia, on 6 November 2007
Sekaten, Gamelan Sekaten Kanjeng Kiai Guntur Madu (One of Some Javanese Sacred Gamelan) is usually beaten every day for a week during the Sekaten celebration at the Keraton Yogyakarta. The community was very enthusiastic about listening to the strains of the heirloom gamelan, on 26 November 2017
Melasti, a self-purification ceremony to welcome Nyepi by all Hindus in Bali. This ceremony is held on the beach with the aim of purifying oneself from all bad deeds.
Galungan, a Balinese holiday celebrating the victory of dharma over adharma in Besakih temple complex in Karangasem, Bali, Indonesia
Tingalan Dalem Jumenengan, The 40th Royal coronations anniversary of Susoehoenan Pakubuwono X in Surakarta Sunanate.
Ngaben, the Hindu funeral ceremony of Bali, Indonesia. It is performed to release the soul of a dead person.
Wedding Ceremony, Javanese Wedding ceremony in Java
Legong, Legong Kraton Dance (Legong of the Palace) in Ubud Palace, Bali, Indonesia. In the background, the Gamelan orchestra accompanies the performance, on 23 August 2008
Bedhaya dance performance at the wedding of Hoesein Djajadiningrat and Partini in the palace of Prang Wedono (Mangkoe Negoro VII), the father of the bride, at Solo, Java, in January 1921
Jaipong, The Sundanese Jaipongan Langit Biru dance performance in West Java Pavilion, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta
Balinese Ramayana dance drama, performed in Sarasvati Garden in Ubud, Bali
King Duryodana in Wayang wong performance in Taman Budaya Rahmat Saleh, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
Ramayana Ballet Performance near Prambanan Temple complex in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
thumb|Dalang (Puppet master), Sindhen (traditional Javanese singer), and Wiyaga (Gamelan musicians) in Wayang Kulit Show in Java
thumb|Wayang Golek Performance in Yogyakarta
Wayang Beber performance of the desa Gelaran at the home of Dr. Wahidin Soedirohoesodo at Yogyakarta in the middle Dr. GAJ Hazeu, Dutch East Indies, in 1902
Kethoprak (Javanese popular drama depicting legends, historical or pseudo-historical events). Performance by Kethoprak Tobong Kelana Bhakti Budaya, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Ludruk performance, East Java, Indonesia
Sandiwara performance, West Java, Indonesia
thumb|javanese poetry, Sindhens performance with Gamelan Ensemble on a ceremony in Java, Indonesia, on 5 November 2015
tembang sunda, Sundanase singer sings Sundanese song in a festival
Campursari performance by Didi kempot
Balinese women gamelan Gong Kebyar in Balinese Cultural Festival, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, on 17 June 2013
Gamelan performance at Borobudur International Performances and Art Festival 2018
Gamelan players at Balinese art festival 2018
Kyai Barleyan, a Javanese gamelan at Oberlin College in Ohio. Acquired in 1970, it is believed to be the third-oldest gamelan in use in the United States.
Gamelan Son of Lion, a Javanese-style iron American gamelan based in New York City that is devoted to new music, playing in a loft in SoHo, Manhattan, United States in 2007
Sundanese Gamelan Degung being played in Museo Nacional de las Culturas Mexico, Indra Swara Gamelan Group, on 2 April 2018
Golek Ayun-Ayun Dance performance accompanied by Gamelan Ensemble at Bangsal Sri Manganti Keraton Yogyakarta.
The Sundanese Jaipongan dance performance accompanied by Gamelan Ensemble in West Java Pavilion, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta.
Gamelan ensemble (or gambelan in Balinese term) accompanying barong performance (Bali lion dance) at Garuda Wisnu Kencana cultural complex, Bali, Indonesia.
Telek (masked) dance accompanied by Gamelan ensemble in Bali, between 1950 and 1957.
Wayang wong performance accompanied by Gamelan in Java, between 1890 and 1916.
A gamelan ensemble consisting of children in a temple complex in Bali, between 1910 and 1920.
Children practiced dance with gamelan at Kebun Dalem Semarang, Dutch east Indies, circa 1867.
A gamelan set in an exhibition at the museum of the Royal Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences (Now, National Museum of Indonesia), Batavia, circa 1896.
Gamelan Kaduk Manis Rengga (sacred gamelan) from Kraton Surakarta, Java, 2003.
A wayang klithik (flat woodden puppet) performance with a gamelan orchestra in Ngandong, Java, in 1918.
Gamelan Sekati (One of Some Javanese Sacred Gamelan in the Keraton Yogyakarta) is being played to accompany Sekaten Ceremony in front of Kauman Great Mosque in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, on 27 April 2004.
Gamelan Nyi Asep Mangsa, Indra Swara, México, on 27 March 2015.
A Gamelan Ensemble accompanies Wayang Kulit Show (the Indonesian Shadow Play) in Java, circa 1870.

The instruments developed into their current form during the Majapahit Empire.

This gamelan is closely related to the early days of the spread of Islam by Wali Sanga in Java.

Borobudur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Borobudur

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9th-century Mahayana Buddhist temple in Magelang Regency, not far from the town of Muntilan, in Central Java, Indonesia.

9th-century Mahayana Buddhist temple in Magelang Regency, not far from the town of Muntilan, in Central Java, Indonesia.

Borobudur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Candi Borobudur viewed from the northwest. The monument was mentioned in the Karangtengah and Tri Tepusan inscriptions.
Straight-line arrangement of Borobudur, Pawon, and Mendut
Exposed Buddha image within the stupas of Borobudur upper terraces
A painting by G.B. Hooijer (c. 1916–1919) reconstructing the scene of Borobudur during its heyday
Borobudur stupas overlooking a mountain. For centuries, it was deserted.
Borobudur's main stupa in mid 19th-century, a wooden deck had been installed above the main stupa.
Borobudur in 1872.
Terrace on the temple of Borobudur 1913
Borobudur after Van Erp's restoration in 1911. Note the reconstructed chhatra pinnacle on top of the main stupa (now dismantled).
The Unfinished Buddha from the main stupa of Borobudur at Karmawibhangga Museum, to which the Buddhists give offerings, along with the main stupa's chhatra on its back.
Embedding concrete and PVC pipe to improve Borobudur's drainage system during the 1973 restoration
A 1968 Indonesian stamp promoting restoration of Borobudur
Buddhist pilgrims meditate on the top platform
Vesak ceremony at Borobudur
Location of Borobudur relative to Mount Merapi and Yogyakarta
Borobudur is surrounded by mountains, including twin volcanoes Mount Merbabu (left) and Merapi (right)
Tourists in Borobudur
Borobudur ground plan taking the form of a Mandala
Aerial view of Borobudur, it took the form of a step pyramid and mandala plan
Half cross-section with 4:6:9 height ratio for foot, body and head, respectively
Stairs of Borobudur through arches of Kala
A narrow corridor with reliefs on the wall
The position of narrative bas-reliefs stories on Borobudur wall
The Karmavibangga scene on Borobudur's hidden foot, on the right depicting sinful act of killing and cooking turtles and fishes, on the left those who make living by killing animals will be tortured in hell, by being cooked alive, being cut, or being thrown into a burning house.
Queen Maya riding horse carriage retreating to Lumbini to give birth to Prince Siddhartha Gautama
Prince Siddhartha Gautama became an ascetic hermit.
A relief of Jataka story of giant turtle that saving drowned sailors.
A relief of the Gandavyuha story from Borobudur 2nd level north wall.
A Buddha statue with the hand position of dharmachakra mudra
Head from a Borobudur Buddha statue in Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam.
Headless Buddha statue in Borobudur. Since its discovery, numbers of heads have been stolen and installed in museums abroad.
Lion gate guardian
Sukarno and India's Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru visiting Borobudur in June 1950.
Emblem of Central Java displaying Borobudur.
Relief panel of a ship at Borobudur.
Musicians performing a musical ensemble, probably the early form of gamelan.
The Apsara of Borobudur.
The scene of King and Queen with their subjects.
One relief on a corridor wall.
A weapon, probably the early form of keris.
A detailed carved relief stone.
Tara holding a Chamara
Surasundari holding a lotus
Close up of a relief
Great Departure from Lalitavistara
Dancer dancing to orchestra of cymbals, chime cymbals and flutes.
World Heritage inscription of Borobudur Temple
The procedures signage for visiting Borobudur Temple
The inscription of Borobudur restoration in 1973 by the former Indonesian president Soeharto
The scattered parts of Borobudur Temple at Karmawibhangga Museum. People still can't locate their original positions.
A Buddha statue inside a stupa

The only old Javanese manuscript that hints the monument called Budur as a holy Buddhist sanctuary is Nagarakretagama, written by Mpu Prapanca, a Buddhist scholar of Majapahit court, in 1365.

There is uncertainty about Hindu and Buddhist rulers in Java around that time.

The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods

Mataram Kingdom

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Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 11th centuries.

Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 11th centuries.

The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods
The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods
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The Plaosan temple with Mount Merapi in the background.
Canggal inscription (732), created by King Sanjaya.
The 9th century Central Javanese gold and silver image of the Mahayana Buddhist goddess Tara
The construction of Kalasan temple was mentioned in Kalasan inscription, under the auspices of King Panangkaran.
The construction of Manjusrigrha temple was mentioned in Manjusrigrha inscription, under the auspices of King Panangkaran and completed during Dharanindra reign.
The construction of Mendut temple was initiated and completed during the reign of King Indra (r. 780–800), a valiant king of Shailendra dynasty.
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription (circa 900 CE) from the Laguna de Bay area in Luzon, the Philippines. The inscription invokes the "chief" (pamegat) of "Mdang" as one of the authorities in the clearing of a debt owed to the "chief and commander" (pamegat senapati) of "Tundun".
The massive stone stupa-mandala of Borobudur was completed in 825 during the reign of King Samaratungga.
Ratu Boko, a fortified hill, probably referred in Shivagrha inscription as the location of a battle.
Shivagrha inscription dated 778 Saka (856 CE), one of the historical source dated from the Mataram Kingdom.
Ijo, a 10th-century Hindu temple located on Ijo Hill Southeast from Prambanan
A battle scene depicted on a bas-relief in Prambanan.
Bubrah temple
Sajiwan Buddhist temple, linked to Nini Haji Rakryan Sanjiwana or Sri Kahulunnan
Borobudur ship, a ship used by Javanese people for sailing as far as Ghana.
Towering Merapi volcano overlooking Prambanan prasad tower. It was suggested that Merapi volcanic eruption had devastated Mataram capital, forcing them to relocate in the east.
Sambisari temple buried five metres under volcanic debris of Mount Merapi.
Barong Hindu temple, constructed on large terraces.
Badut temple near Malang, East Java circa 8th century
Anjukladang inscription (937), issued by King Sindok during his power consolidation in East Java.
Bodhisattva Manjushri from Goa Gajah cave, Bali, demonstrated the influence of Javanese Mataram Sailendran art.
Ancient Javanese vessel depicted in Borobudur. In 990 King Dharmawangsa launched a naval attack against Srivijaya in Sumatra, the hostility between two kingdoms has led to the collapse of Mataram kingdom.
Buddhist bronze figure depicting Boddhisattva Padmapani, 10th-century dated from late period of Mataram Kingdom
Plaosan twin temples
The scene of the Javanese court depicted in Borobudur bas relief
Prambanan prāsāda (towers) viewed from Ratu Boko hill, the area in Prambanan Plain was the location of the Mataram capital.
The bas relief of 8th century Borobudur depicts the scene in royal court.
Image of Boddhisattva on Plaosan temple.
The bas-relief in 8th century Borobudur depicting rice agriculture in ancient Java
Earliest evidence of a currency system in Java — Javanese gold mas or tahil ingots, circa the 9th century
A nobleman accompanied by his entourage and servants, a bas-relief of Borobudur.
A Buddhist hermit meditating in secluded forest, Borobudur bas-relief
The statue of Dhyani Buddha Vairocana, Avalokitesvara, and Vajrapani inside the Mendut temple
Shiva statue in main chamber of Prambanan.
The Wonoboyo hoard displays the immense wealth and artistic achievement of the Mataram kingdom.
The magnificent 9th-century Hindu temple of Prambanan, Yogyakarta, was a major Hindu monument in the kingdom of Mataram.
Bas relief in Prambanan depicting a scene taken from Ramayana. The translation of Indian epic into Javanese Kakawin Ramayana took place during Mataram kingdom.
National Vesak ceremony in Borobudur, the Hindu-Buddhist temples dated from Mataram Kingdom are especially important for pilgrimage and ceremony for Indonesian Buddhist and Hindus.
The Javanese Ramayana Ballet perform in Prambanan open air stage. The Mataram Kingdom era has left a profound impact in Javanese culture.

The outcome was that the Mataram kingdom was divided into two powerful kingdoms; the Shivaist dynasty of Mataram kingdom in Java led by Rakai Pikatan and the Buddhist dynasty of Srivijaya kingdom in Sumatra led by Balaputradewa.

The proper urban development as a city took place later in 13th-century Majapahit's Trowulan.

The territory of Sunda Kingdom

Sunda Kingdom

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The territory of Sunda Kingdom
The word Sunda written in Sundanese script
Batutulis inscription (dated 1533), in Bogor, commemorate the great King of Sunda Sri Baduga Maharaja (rule 1482-1521).
The Sundanese royal party arrived at the port of Hujung Galuh by Junk Sassana, a type of Javanese junk, which also incorporates Chinese techniques, such as using iron nails alongside wooden dowels, the construction of watertight bulkhead, and addition of central rudder.
Sundanese traditional house with Julang Ngapak roof in Garut circa 1920s. It was built on poles and having a thatched roof, as described in a 12th-century Chinese source.
Old map of Java still thought that land of Sunda in the west is separated from the rest of Java island. Here the capital of Sunda is called Daio which refer to Dayeuh Pakuan Pajajaran
The ruin of Bojongmenje Hindu temple in Priangan highlands, estimated was built in the 7th century.
Citarum River separates Sunda and Galuh
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
Sanghyang Tapak inscription
One of Kawali inscriptions
Statue of a Hindu god from Talaga near Kuningan, West Java, dated from the Sunda Kingdom.
Keraton Kasepuhan of Cirebon. By 1482, the Sunda kingdom lost its important eastern port of Cirebon.
The port of Sunda Kelapa, the cradle of Jakarta. For centuries it was the royal port of Sunda Kingdom serving the capital Dayeuh Pakuan Pajajaran 60 kilometres inland to the south until it fell to Demak and Cirebon forces in 1527.
The Port of Banten in the 16th century. The Islamic Sultanate of Banten was responsible for the demise of Hindu Sunda Kingdom, and supplant it as the dominant polity in western parts of Java in the following centuries.
Hindu Brahmin's ritual objects, including bronze bell and holy water container from Kawali, the historic capital of Galuh Kingdom.
Location of Pakuan Pajajaran copied from book "Kabudayaan Sunda Zaman Pajajaran" Part 2", 2005
Makuta Binokasih Sanghyang Paké, the royal crown of Sunda kingdom. After the fall of Pajajaran to Banten, the crown was evacuated to Sumedang Larang and become their regalia.
A Sundanese woman retrieving rice from a leuit, Sundanese economy mainly rely on rice agriculture
The statue of Shiva Mahadeva from Cibodas village, Cicalengka Subdistrict, Bandung Regency, West Java. Possibly from the Sunda Kingdom period 8th to 9th century.
A bronze statue of Hindu god Shiva discovered in Talaga near Kuningan, West Java. Sunda kingdom period, circa 14th century.
Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between Portuguese Kingdom and Hindu Sunda Kingdom, at National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta.
Lontar palm-leaf manuscript written in Sundanese

The Sunda Kingdom (Karajaan Sunda, ) was a Sundanese Hindu kingdom located in the western portion of the island of Java from 669 to around 1579, covering the area of present-day Banten, Jakarta, West Java, and the western part of Central Java.

The specific mention of Majapahit, Malacca and Demak, allow us to date the writing of the story in the 15th century, probably the latter part of this century, or the early 16th century at the latest.

Wayang kulit performance by the famous Indonesian dalang (puppet master) Manteb Soedharsono, with the story "Gathutkaca Winisuda", in Bentara Budaya Jakarta, Indonesia, on 31 July 2010

Wayang

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Wayang kulit performance by the famous Indonesian dalang (puppet master) Manteb Soedharsono, with the story "Gathutkaca Winisuda", in Bentara Budaya Jakarta, Indonesia, on 31 July 2010
There are three main components of wayang kulit shows including dalang, gamelan (music and sindhen), and wayang kulit itself
Blencong, a Javanese oil lamp in the form of the mythical Garuda bird for wayang kulit performances, before 1924
Palm leaves manuscript of kakawin Arjunawiwaha is written by Mpu Kanwa in 1035 CE
A dalang (puppet master) depicting a fight in a wayang kulit performance
A wayang kulit (leather shadow puppet) performance using kelir (thin fabric) as a border between the puppeteer (dalang) who plays the puppets and the audience
Wayang golek performance (3D wooden puppet), Indonesia
Menak Amir Hamzah manuscripts, before 1792.
Dalang (puppet master), sindhen (traditional Javanese singer), and wiyaga (gamelan musicians) in a wayang kulit show in Java
The front view of the Wayang Museum seen from Fatahillah Square (Taman Fatahillah)
Wayang kulit performance with gamelan accompaniment in the context of the appointment of the throne for Hamengkubuwono VIII's fifteen years in Yogyakarta, between 1900 and 1940
A dalang (puppeteer) in a {{Transl|jv|wayang golek}} (wooden puppet) performance, between 1880 and 1910
Wayang Beber performance of the desa Gelaran at the home of Dr. Wahidin Soedirohoesodo at Yogyakarta; in the middle Dr. GAJ Hazeu, Dutch East Indies, in 1902
Kumbakarna, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1914
Gatot Kaca, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1914
Wibisana, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1933
Princess Shinta, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1983
Yudhishthira, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1914
Princess Tari, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1934
Cepot, a Sundanese Punokawan, Indonesia
Rahwana, Indonesia in 2004
Ramawijaya, Indonesia in 2004
Gatot kaca, Indonesia in 2015
Kumbakarna, Indonesia before 1976
Dewi Drupadi, Indonesia before 1976
Menak Jingga, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1953
Damar Wulan, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1933
Demon, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1950
Figure of Batara Guru
Duryudhana, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1986
Brathasena, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1986
Final fight in alun-alun in Kediri, East Java. Tawang Alun kills Klana. Indonesia 17th century
Princess Sekar Taji, mbok Kili (left), and Ganda Ripa or Panji (right) in the palace in Kediri, 17th century
Radèn Gunung Sari on horse says goodbye to his advisers Tratag and Gimeng before travelling to princess Kumuda Ningrat, 18th century
Princess Sekar Taji and Panji meet in Paluhamba market, 17th century
Princess Sekar Taji in palace garden approached by Klana, 17th century
Competition between Panji Sepuh (left) and Jaya Puspita (right), 18th century
Pandava and Krishna in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance
King Duryodana in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance in Taman Budaya Rahmat Saleh, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
Giants in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance
Punokawan in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance
Rama and Shinta in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} Ramayana Ballet performance
Opening of {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance, usually showing traditional Javanese dance
Dancing {{Transl|jv|wayang topeng}} in Malang
Studio portrait of {{Transl|jv|wayang topeng}} actors
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} Malang
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} in Java
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} in Java
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} in Java
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Anggada, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Jayadrata, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Kendran, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Sangruda, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Duryadana, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Gatakaca, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Jayengrana, a collection from Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Umarmaya, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Umarmadi, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Jiweng, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Putri Murtinjung, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang Golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, King Maktal (Albania), a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
{{Transl|jv|Kancil}}
{{Transl|jv|Srigala}}
{{Transl|jv|Macan}}
{{Transl|jv|Baya}}
{{Transl|jv|Keong}}
{{Transl|jv|Nenek Petani}}
Wayang glass painting depiction of Bharatayudha battle.
A wayang kulit set and a gamelan ensemble collection, Indonesia section at the Musical Instrument Museum, Phoenix, Arizona, United States.
A {{lang|jv|wayang}} show in Java, Indonesia, presenting a {{lang|jv|wayang}} puppet.
Wayang golek (3D wooden puppet), Gatot Kaca, Indonesia in 2017.
Sundanese wayang golek (3D wooden puppet), Indonesia.
A {{lang|jv|wayang klithik}} (flat wooden puppet) performance with a gamelan orchestra in Ngandong, Java, in 1918.
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet show) accompanied by a gamelan ensemble in Java, circa 1870.
{{lang|jv|Wayang}} (shadow puppets) from central Java, a scene from Irawan's Wedding, mid-20th century, University of Hawaii Dept. of Theater and Dance.
{{lang|jv|Wayang beber}} depiction of a battle.
{{lang|jv|Wayang kulit}} and {{lang|jv|wayang golek}} {{lang|jv|dalang}} (puppeteer), Ki Entus Susmono.
{{lang|jv|Wayang golek}} performance in Yogyakarta.
Wayang kulit (leather shadow puppet) performance.
Kayon (Gunungan).
{{lang|jv|Wayang makassar}}

', also known as ' (ꦮꦪꦁ), is a traditional form of puppet theatre play originated on the Indonesian island of Java.

The origin of the stories involved in these puppet plays comes from the kingdoms of eastern Java: Jenggala, Kediri and Majapahit.

A modern artist's impression of Gajah Mada, based on the outdated, earlier illustration by M. Yamin

Gajah Mada

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Gajah Mada (c.

Gajah Mada (c.

A modern artist's impression of Gajah Mada, based on the outdated, earlier illustration by M. Yamin
The terracotta figure collection of Trowulan Museum. Mohammad Yamin used this clay image as a popular depiction of Gajah Mada.
The expansion of the Majapahit empire in the 14th century much owed to Gajah Mada
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
According Nagarakretagama, Bubat square is located on northern parts of Majapahit capital city. The residence of Mahapatih Gajah Mada also located in northern part of the city, tradition linked this gate with Gajah Mada's residence.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite was named after Palapa oath.

1290 – c. 1364), also known as Jirnnodhara was, according to Old Javanese manuscripts, poems, and mythology, a powerful military leader and Mahapatih (the approximate equivalent of a modern Prime Minister) of the Javanese empire of Majapahit during the 14th century.

The telling of the oath is described in the Pararaton (Book of Kings), an account on Javanese history that dates from the 15th or 16th century: