JavaScript

Server-side JavaScriptclient-side JavaScriptJSOnline JavaScript IDEJavaJavaScript programming language.JSJavaScript Delegation - Functions as Roles (Traits and Mixins)LiveScriptscript
JavaScript, often abbreviated as JS, is a high-level, just-in-time compiled, object-oriented programming language that conforms to the ECMAScript specification.wikipedia
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ECMAScript

ES6ECMA-262ECMAScript 6
JavaScript, often abbreviated as JS, is a high-level, just-in-time compiled, object-oriented programming language that conforms to the ECMAScript specification. ActionScript and JScript were other well-known implementations of ECMAScript.
It was created to standardize JavaScript to help foster multiple independent implementations.

Object-oriented programming

object-orientedobject orientedobject-oriented programming language
JavaScript, often abbreviated as JS, is a high-level, just-in-time compiled, object-oriented programming language that conforms to the ECMAScript specification. As a multi-paradigm language, JavaScript supports event-driven, functional, and imperative (including object-oriented and prototype-based) programming styles. JavaScript has curly-bracket syntax, dynamic typing, prototype-based object-orientation, and first-class functions.
JavaScript,

HTML

Hypertext Markup LanguageHTML 3.2HTML 4
Alongside HTML and CSS, JavaScript is one of the core technologies of the World Wide Web.
It can be assisted by technologies such as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and scripting languages such as JavaScript.

Cascading Style Sheets

CSSCSS3Cascading Style Sheet
Alongside HTML and CSS, JavaScript is one of the core technologies of the World Wide Web.
CSS is a cornerstone technology of the World Wide Web, alongside HTML and JavaScript.

JavaScript engine

ECMAScript engineJavaScriptJavaScript Engines
The vast majority of websites use it, and major web browsers have a dedicated JavaScript engine to execute it.
A JavaScript engine is a computer program that executes JavaScript (JS) code.

Functional programming

functionalfunctional programming languagefunctional language
As a multi-paradigm language, JavaScript supports event-driven, functional, and imperative (including object-oriented and prototype-based) programming styles.
JavaScript, one of the world's most widely distributed languages, has the properties of a dynamically typed functional language, in addition to imperative and object-oriented paradigms.

Brendan Eich

Eich, Brendan
In 1995, Netscape Communications recruited Brendan Eich with the goal of embedding the Scheme programming language into its Netscape Navigator.
Brendan Eich (born July 4, 1961) is an American technologist and creator of the JavaScript programming language.

JSON

JavaScript Object NotationJSON SchemaECMA-404
The JSON serialization format, used to store data structures in files or transmit them across networks, is based on JavaScript.
It was derived from JavaScript, but many modern programming languages include code to generate and parse JSON-format data.

Netscape

Netscape Communications CorporationNetscape CommunicationsNetscape Communications Corp.
In 1994, a company called Mosaic Communications was founded in Mountain View, California and employed many of the original NCSA Mosaic authors to create Mosaic Netscape.
Netscape is credited with creating the JavaScript programming language, the most widely used language for client-side scripting of web pages.

PDF

Portable Document FormatPDF format.pdf
Initially only implemented client-side in web browsers, JavaScript engines are now embedded in many other types of host software, including server-side in web servers and databases, and in non-web programs such as word processors and PDF software, and in runtime environments that make JavaScript available for writing mobile and desktop applications, including desktop widgets.
PDF 1.7, the sixth edition of the PDF specification that became ISO 32000-1, includes some proprietary technologies defined only by Adobe, such as Adobe XML Forms Architecture (XFA) and JavaScript extension for Acrobat, which are referenced by ISO 32000-1 as normative and indispensable for the full implementation of the ISO 32000-1 specification.

Prototype-based programming

prototype-basedprototypeprototypes
As a multi-paradigm language, JavaScript supports event-driven, functional, and imperative (including object-oriented and prototype-based) programming styles. JavaScript has curly-bracket syntax, dynamic typing, prototype-based object-orientation, and first-class functions.
A common criticism made against prototype-based languages is that the community of software developers is unfamiliar with them, despite the popularity and market permeation of JavaScript.

List of server-side JavaScript implementations

Comparison of server-side JavaScript solutionsGLUEscriptserver-side JavaScript
Since the mid-2000s, additional server-side JavaScript implementations have been introduced, such as Node.js in 2009.
This is a list of server-side JavaScript implementations.

List of programming languages by type

Curly bracket programming languagecurly bracketsbracket-delimited languages
JavaScript has curly-bracket syntax, dynamic typing, prototype-based object-orientation, and first-class functions.
Scripting languages such as Tcl and ECMAScript (ActionScript, ECMAScript for XML, JavaScript, JScript) have been embedded into applications.

Document Object Model

DOMDocument Object Model (DOM)DOM tree
It has APIs for working with text, arrays, dates, regular expressions, and the DOM, but the language itself does not include any I/O, such as networking, storage, or graphics facilities. With the release of Internet Explorer 4, Microsoft introduced the concept of Dynamic HTML, but the differences in language implementations and the different and proprietary Document Object Models remained and were obstacles to widespread take-up of JavaScript on the Web.
The history of the Document Object Model is intertwined with the history of the "browser wars" of the late 1990s between Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer, as well as with that of JavaScript and JScript, the first scripting languages to be widely implemented in the JavaScript engines of web browsers.

Server-side scripting

server-sideserver side scriptingserver-side language
In December 1995, soon after releasing JavaScript for browsers, Netscape introduced an implementation of the language for server-side scripting with Netscape Enterprise Server.
Server-side scripting is distinguished from client-side scripting where embedded scripts, such as JavaScript, are run client-side in a web browser, but both techniques are often used together.

Ajax (programming)

AjaxAjax frameworkAJAX-based
This community effort was sparked in 2005 when Jesse James Garrett released a white paper in which he coined the term Ajax, and described a set of technologies, of which JavaScript was the backbone, used to create web applications where data can be loaded in the background, avoiding the need for full page reloads and leading to more dynamic applications.
Ajax (also AJAX ; short for asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a set of web development techniques using many web technologies on the client side to create asynchronous web applications.

ActionScript

ActionScript 3ActionScript 3.0object-oriented programming language
ActionScript and JScript were other well-known implementations of ECMAScript.
It is now an implementation of ECMAScript (meaning it is a superset of the syntax and semantics of the language more widely known as JavaScript), though it originally arose as a sibling, both being influenced by HyperTalk.

World Wide Web

WebWWWthe web
Alongside HTML and CSS, JavaScript is one of the core technologies of the World Wide Web.
With Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and JavaScript, it forms a triad of cornerstone technologies for the World Wide Web.

Website

web sitewebsitesonline
The vast majority of websites use it, and major web browsers have a dedicated JavaScript engine to execute it.
Dynamic HTML uses JavaScript code to instruct the web browser how to interactively modify the page contents.

Web application

web-basedweb applicationsweb app
JavaScript enables interactive web pages and is an essential part of web applications.
In contrast, web applications use web documents written in a standard format such as HTML and JavaScript, which are supported by a variety of web browsers.

Prototype JavaScript Framework

PrototypePrototype.js
This resulted in a renaissance period of JavaScript usage spearheaded by open source libraries and the communities that formed around them, with libraries such as Prototype, jQuery, Dojo Toolkit, MooTools, and others being released.
The Prototype JavaScript Framework is a JavaScript framework created by Sam Stephenson in February 2005 as part of the foundation for Ajax support in Ruby on Rails.

Dojo Toolkit

DojoDojo FoundationDijit Editor
This resulted in a renaissance period of JavaScript usage spearheaded by open source libraries and the communities that formed around them, with libraries such as Prototype, jQuery, Dojo Toolkit, MooTools, and others being released.
Dojo Toolkit (stylized as dōjō toolkit) is an open-source modular JavaScript library (or more specifically JavaScript toolkit) designed to ease the rapid development of cross-platform, JavaScript/Ajax-based applications and web sites.

Douglas Crockford

Alas, there was still turmoil between the various players; Douglas Crockford—then at Yahoo!—joined forces with Microsoft in 2007 to oppose ECMAScript 4, which led to the ECMAScript 3.1 effort.
Douglas Crockford is an American computer programmer and entrepreneur who is involved in the development of the JavaScript language.

MooTools

Moo.fx
This resulted in a renaissance period of JavaScript usage spearheaded by open source libraries and the communities that formed around them, with libraries such as Prototype, jQuery, Dojo Toolkit, MooTools, and others being released.
MooTools (My Object-Oriented Tools) is a lightweight, object-oriented JavaScript framework.

Dynamic HTML

DHTMLDOM ScriptingDHTML (Dynamic HTML)
With the release of Internet Explorer 4, Microsoft introduced the concept of Dynamic HTML, but the differences in language implementations and the different and proprietary Document Object Models remained and were obstacles to widespread take-up of JavaScript on the Web.
Dynamic HTML, or DHTML, is a collection of technologies used together to create interactive and animated websites by using a combination of a static markup language (such as HTML), a client-side scripting language (such as JavaScript), a presentation definition language (such as CSS), and the Document Object Model (DOM).