JavaScript

JSclient-side JavaScriptserver-side JavaScriptJava.JSJavaScript Delegation - Functions as Roles (Traits and Mixins)scriptscriptsbrowser consolesclient-side
JavaScript, often abbreviated as JS, is a high-level, interpreted programming language that conforms to the ECMAScript specification.wikipedia
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HTML

HyperText Markup Language(X)HTML.html
Alongside HTML and CSS, JavaScript is one of the three core technologies of the World Wide Web.
With Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and JavaScript, it forms a triad of cornerstone technologies for the World Wide Web.

ECMAScript

ES6ECMAScript 6ECMA
JavaScript, often abbreviated as JS, is a high-level, interpreted programming language that conforms to the ECMAScript specification. ActionScript and JScript were other well-known implementations of ECMAScript.
It was created to standardize JavaScript, so as to foster multiple independent implementations.

Cascading Style Sheets

CSSCSS3Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
Alongside HTML and CSS, JavaScript is one of the three core technologies of the World Wide Web.
CSS is a cornerstone technology of the World Wide Web, alongside HTML and JavaScript.

JavaScript engine

JavaScriptJavaScript Enginesdedicated engine
The vast majority of websites use it, and all major web browsers have a dedicated JavaScript engine to execute it.
A JavaScript engine is a computer program that executes JavaScript (JS) code.

Object-oriented programming

object-orientedobject orientedobject-oriented programming language
As a multi-paradigm language, JavaScript supports event-driven, functional, and imperative (including object-oriented and prototype-based) programming styles.
JavaScript,

Brendan Eich

In 1995, Netscape Communications recruited Brendan Eich with the goal of embedding the Scheme programming language into its Netscape Navigator.
Brendan Eich (born July 4, 1961) is an American technologist and creator of the JavaScript programming language.

Netscape

Netscape CommunicationsNetscape Communications CorporationNetscape.com
In 1994, a company called Mosaic Communications was founded in Mountain View, California and employed many of the original NCSA Mosaic authors to create Mosaic Netscape.
Netscape is credited with creating the JavaScript programming language, the most widely used language for client-side scripting of web pages.

Functional programming

functionalfunctional programming languagefunctional language
As a multi-paradigm language, JavaScript supports event-driven, functional, and imperative (including object-oriented and prototype-based) programming styles.
JavaScript, one of the world's most widely distributed languages, has the properties of a dynamically typed functional language, in addition to imperative and object-oriented paradigms.

PDF

PDF format.pdfPDF file
Initially only implemented client-side in web browsers, JavaScript engines are now embedded in many other types of host software, including server-side in web servers and databases, and in non-web programs such as word processors and PDF software, and in runtime environments that make JavaScript available for writing mobile and desktop applications, including desktop widgets.
PDF 1.7, the sixth edition of the PDF specification that became ISO 32000-1, includes some proprietary technologies defined only by Adobe, such as Adobe XML Forms Architecture (XFA) and JavaScript extension for Acrobat, which are referenced by ISO 32000-1 as normative and indispensable for the full implementation of the ISO 32000-1 specification.

Interpreted language

interpretedinterpreted programming languageinterpreter
JavaScript, often abbreviated as JS, is a high-level, interpreted programming language that conforms to the ECMAScript specification.
JavaScript

Prototype-based programming

prototype-basedprototypeprototypes
As a multi-paradigm language, JavaScript supports event-driven, functional, and imperative (including object-oriented and prototype-based) programming styles. It is a language that is also characterized as dynamic, weakly typed, prototype-based and multi-paradigm.
A common criticism made against prototype-based languages is that the community of software developers is unfamiliar with them, despite the popularity and market permeation of JavaScript.

List of server-side JavaScript implementations

server-side JavaScript
Since the mid-2000s, additional server-side JavaScript implementations have been introduced, such as Node.js in 2009.
This is a list of server-side JavaScript implementations.

Web page

webpageweb pageswebpages
JavaScript enables interactive web pages and thus is an essential part of web applications.
Client-side computer code such as JavaScript or code implementing Ajax techniques can be provided either embedded in the HTML of a web page or, like CSS stylesheets, as separate, linked downloads specified in the HTML.

Server-side scripting

server-sideserver side scriptingserver-side language
In December 1995, soon after releasing JavaScript for browsers, Netscape introduced an implementation of the language for server-side scripting with Netscape Enterprise Server.
Server-side scripting is distinguished from client-side scripting where embedded scripts, such as JavaScript, are run client-side in a web browser, but both techniques are often used together.

Document Object Model

DOMDocument Object Model (DOM)Browser based
It has APIs for working with text, arrays, dates, regular expressions, and the DOM, but the language itself does not include any I/O, such as networking, storage, or graphics facilities, relying for these upon the host environment in which it is embedded.
The history of the Document Object Model is intertwined with the history of the "browser wars" of the late 1990s between Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer, as well as with that of JavaScript and JScript, the first scripting languages to be widely implemented in the JavaScript engines of web browsers.

Ajax (programming)

AjaxAJAX-basedAsynchronous JavaScript and XML
This community effort was sparked in 2005 when Jesse James Garrett released a white paper in which he coined the term Ajax, and described a set of technologies, of which JavaScript was the backbone, used to create web applications where data can be loaded in the background, avoiding the need for full page reloads and leading to more dynamic applications.
Ajax (also AJAX ; short for "Asynchronous JavaScript And XML") is a set of Web development techniques using many web technologies on the client side to create asynchronous Web applications.

ActionScript

ActionScript 3object-oriented programming languageActionScript 3.0
ActionScript and JScript were other well-known implementations of ECMAScript.
It is now a dialect of ECMAScript (meaning it is a superset of the syntax and semantics of the language more widely known as JavaScript), though it originally arose as a sibling, both being influenced by HyperTalk.

Prototype JavaScript Framework

Prototype
This resulted in a renaissance period of JavaScript usage spearheaded by open source libraries and the communities that formed around them, with libraries such as Prototype, jQuery, Dojo Toolkit, MooTools, and others being released.
The Prototype JavaScript Framework is a JavaScript framework created by Sam Stephenson in February 2005 as part of the foundation for Ajax support in Ruby on Rails.

Dojo Toolkit

DojoDojo Objective Harnessdōjō toolkit
This resulted in a renaissance period of JavaScript usage spearheaded by open source libraries and the communities that formed around them, with libraries such as Prototype, jQuery, Dojo Toolkit, MooTools, and others being released.
Dojo Toolkit (stylized as dōjō toolkit) is an open-source modular JavaScript library (or more specifically JavaScript toolkit) designed to ease the rapid development of cross-platform, JavaScript/Ajax-based applications and web sites.

Website

web sitewebsitesonline
The vast majority of websites use it, and all major web browsers have a dedicated JavaScript engine to execute it.
Dynamic HTML uses JavaScript code to instruct the web browser how to interactively modify the page contents.

Douglas Crockford

Alas, there was still turmoil between the various players; Douglas Crockford—then at Yahoo!—joined forces with Microsoft in 2007 to oppose ECMAScript 4, which led to the ECMAScript 3.1 effort.
Douglas Crockford is an American computer programmer and entrepreneur who is best known for his ongoing involvement in the development of the JavaScript language, for having popularized the data format JSON (JavaScript Object Notation), and for developing various JavaScript related tools such as JSLint and JSMin.

MooTools

This resulted in a renaissance period of JavaScript usage spearheaded by open source libraries and the communities that formed around them, with libraries such as Prototype, jQuery, Dojo Toolkit, MooTools, and others being released.
MooTools (My Object-Oriented Tools) is a lightweight, object-oriented JavaScript framework.

Web application

web-basedweb applicationsweb app
JavaScript enables interactive web pages and thus is an essential part of web applications.
In contrast, web applications use web documents written in a standard format such as HTML and JavaScript, which are supported by a variety of web browsers.

Dynamic programming language

dynamicdynamic languagedynamic languages
It is a language that is also characterized as dynamic, weakly typed, prototype-based and multi-paradigm.
Popular dynamic programming languages include JavaScript, Python, Ruby, PHP, Lua and Perl.

JavaScript syntax

Automatic Semicolon Insertiondefensive semicolondestructuring assignment
One syntactic difference from C is automatic semicolon insertion, which allows the semicolons that would normally terminate statements to be omitted.
The syntax of JavaScript is the set of rules that define a correctly structured JavaScript program.