Java (programming language)

JavaJava programming languageJava languageJava programmingJava-basedJava Language SpecificationFlow JavaJava applicationJava source codeJava™
Java is a general-purpose programming language that is class-based, object-oriented, and designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.wikipedia
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Java bytecode

bytecodebyte codeJava byte code
Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of the underlying computer architecture.
A Java programmer does not need to be aware of or understand Java bytecode at all.

Programmer

software developercomputer programmerdeveloper
It is intended to let application developers write once, run anywhere (WORA), meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation.
A programmer's most oft-used computer language (e.g., Assembly, COBOL, C, C++, C#, Java, Lisp, Python) may be prefixed to the term programmer.

Sun Microsystems

SunSun Microsystems, Inc.Sun workstation
Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since been acquired by Oracle) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. (Sun for short) was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.

James Gosling

Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since been acquired by Oracle) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. James Gosling, Mike Sheridan, and Patrick Naughton initiated the Java language project in June 1991.
James Arthur Gosling, OC (born May 19, 1955) is a Canadian computer scientist, best known as the founder and lead designer behind the Java programming language.

Sun acquisition by Oracle

acquiredacquisition of Sunacquisition of Sun Microsystems
Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since been acquired by Oracle) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform.
Significantly, Oracle, previously only a software vendor, now owned both hardware and software product lines from Sun (e.g. SPARC Enterprise and Java, respectively).

Java version history

Java 8Java 7Java 9
The latest versions are Java 13, released in September 2019, and Java 11, a currently supported long-term support (LTS) version, released on September 25, 2018; Oracle released for the legacy Java 8 LTS the last free public update in January 2019 for commercial use, while it will otherwise still support Java 8 with public updates for personal use up to at least December 2020.
The Java language has undergone several changes since JDK 1.0 as well as numerous additions of classes and packages to the standard library.

GNU Classpath

Classpath
Meanwhile, others have developed alternative implementations of these Sun technologies, such as the GNU Compiler for Java (bytecode compiler), GNU Classpath (standard libraries), and IcedTea-Web (browser plugin for applets).
GNU Classpath is a free software implementation of the standard class library for the Java programming language.

GNU Compiler for Java

GCJGNU Interpreter for JavaCNI
Meanwhile, others have developed alternative implementations of these Sun technologies, such as the GNU Compiler for Java (bytecode compiler), GNU Classpath (standard libraries), and IcedTea-Web (browser plugin for applets).
The GNU Compiler for Java (GCJ) is a free compiler for the Java programming language.

Patrick Naughton

James Gosling, Mike Sheridan, and Patrick Naughton initiated the Java language project in June 1991.
Patrick Naughton is an American software developer, one of the creators of the Java programming language.

IcedTea

IcedTea-Web
Meanwhile, others have developed alternative implementations of these Sun technologies, such as the GNU Compiler for Java (bytecode compiler), GNU Classpath (standard libraries), and IcedTea-Web (browser plugin for applets).
IcedTea-Web is a free software implementation of Java Web Start and the Java web browser plugin.

Java applet

appletJava appletsJava
Major web browsers soon incorporated the ability to run Java applets within web pages, and Java quickly became popular.
A Java applet was a small application written in the Java programming language, or another programming language that compiles to Java bytecode, and delivered to users in the form of Java bytecode.

Web application

web-basedweb applicationsweb app
particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 9 million developers.

Oracle Corporation

OracleOracle Technology NetworkOracle Corp.
The latest versions are Java 13, released in September 2019, and Java 11, a currently supported long-term support (LTS) version, released on September 25, 2018; Oracle released for the legacy Java 8 LTS the last free public update in January 2019 for commercial use, while it will otherwise still support Java 8 with public updates for personal use up to at least December 2020.
Since the acquisition, Oracle has discontinued OpenSolaris and StarOffice, and sued Google over their newly acquired Java patents from Sun.

Java Platform, Standard Edition

Java SEJ2SEJava
In 2006, for marketing purposes, Sun renamed new J2 versions as Java EE, Java ME, and Java SE, respectively.
The platform uses Java programming language and is part of the Java software-platform family.

C (programming language)

CC programming languageC language
The syntax of Java is similar to C and C++, but it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them.
Many later languages have borrowed directly or indirectly from C, including C++, C#, Unix's C shell, D, Go, Java, JavaScript, Limbo, LPC, Objective-C, Perl, PHP, Python, Rust, Swift, Verilog and SystemVerilog (hardware description languages).

Oak (programming language)

Oak
The language was initially called Oak after an oak tree that stood outside Gosling's office.
The language later evolved to become Java.

Java Platform, Micro Edition

Java MEJ2MEJava
In 2006, for marketing purposes, Sun renamed new J2 versions as Java EE, Java ME, and Java SE, respectively.
The platform uses the object-oriented Java programming language.

Programming language

programming languageslanguagedialect
Java is a general-purpose programming language that is class-based, object-oriented, and designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
Java came to be used for server-side programming, and bytecode virtual machines became popular again in commercial settings with their promise of "Write once, run anywhere" (UCSD Pascal had been popular for a time in the early 1980s).

C++

C++ programming languageC++98C with Classes
The syntax of Java is similar to C and C++, but it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them.
As of 2019, C++ is now the fourth most popular programming language, behind Java, C, and Python.

Interface (Java)

interfacesinterfaceJava interface
Each package contains a set of related interfaces, classes, and exceptions.
An interface in the Java programming language is an abstract type that is used to specify a behavior that classes must implement.

Library (computing)

librarylibrariessoftware library
The original and reference implementation Java compilers, virtual machines, and class libraries were originally released by Sun under proprietary licenses.
Simula was the first object-oriented programming language, and its classes were nearly identical to the modern concept as used in Java, C++, and C#.

Java package

packagepackagesJava
The classes in the Java APIs are organized into separate groups called packages.
A Java package organizes Java classes into namespaces,

Computer architecture

architecturearchitecturesCPU architecture
Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of the underlying computer architecture.

Application programming interface

APIAPIsapplication programming interfaces
Sun has defined and supports four editions of Java targeting different application environments and segmented many of its APIs so that they belong to one of the platforms.
For example, because Scala and Java compile to compatible bytecode, Scala developers can take advantage of any Java API.

Interpreter (computing)

interpreterinterpretedinterpreters
However, the overhead of interpreting bytecode into machine instructions made interpreted programs almost always run more slowly than native executables.
Some systems, such as Smalltalk and contemporary versions of BASIC and Java may also combine two and three.