Javanese language

JavaneseOld JavaneseJavanese wordJavanese-languageGêdrìkBasa JawajavJavanese dialectsjvOld Javanese language
Javanese (, '; ; colloquially known as, '; ) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.wikipedia
829 Related Articles

Javanese people

JavaneseJavaJavanese culture
Javanese (, '; ; colloquially known as, '; ) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.
The Javanese people (Javanese: Ngoko: (Wong Jawa), Krama: (Tiyang Jawi) ; (Indonesian: Suku Jawa or Orang Jawa) are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java.

Java

Java IslandJavaneseJava, Indonesia
Javanese (, '; ; colloquially known as, '; ) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese: ) is an island of Indonesia, bordered by the Indian Ocean on the south and the Java Sea on the north.

Austronesian languages

AustronesianAustronesian languageAustronesian language family
Javanese is one of the Austronesian languages, but it is not particularly close to other languages and is difficult to classify.
Major Austronesian languages include Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Javanese, and Filipino (Tagalog).

Indonesian language

IndonesianBahasa IndonesiaIndonesia
Most speakers of Javanese also speak Indonesian, the standardized form of Malay spoken in Indonesia, for official and commercial purposes as well as a means to communicate with non-Javanese-speaking Indonesians.
Most Indonesians, aside from speaking the national language, are fluent in at least one of the more than 700 indigenous local languages; examples include Javanese, Sundanese and Balinese, which are commonly used at home and within the local community.

Sundanese language

SundaneseBasa SundaSunda
Its closest relatives are the neighbouring languages such as Sundanese, Madurese and Balinese.
Sundanese appears to be most closely related to Madurese and Malay, and more distantly related to Javanese.

Malaysia

Federation of MalaysiaMalaysianMalaya
There are speakers of Javanese in Malaysia (concentrated in the states of Selangor and Johor) and Singapore.
Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word "melayu" or "mlayu" may have been used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to steadily accelerate or run.

East Java

Jawa TimurEast Java Provinceeastern Java
The language is spoken in Yogyakarta, Central and East Java, as well as on the north coast of West Java.
The Indonesian language is the official language of the province as well as the whole nation, but Javanese and Madurese are the most frequently used language.

Javanese script

JavaneseHanacarakaCacarakan
Javanese is written with the Latin script, Javanese script, and Arabic script.
The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa and Hanacaraka, formally known as Déntawyanjana and Carakan, is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia.

Balinese language

BalineseBaliBalinese vocabulary
Its closest relatives are the neighbouring languages such as Sundanese, Madurese and Balinese.
Balinese itself is not mutually intelligible with Indonesian but may be understood by Javanese speakers after some exposure.

Banyuwangi Regency

BanyuwangiBanjuwangiBanjoewangie
These three dialects form a dialect continuum from northern Banten in the extreme west of Java to Banyuwangi Regency in the eastern corner of the island.
The name Banyuwangi is Javanese for "fragrant water", connected to the Javanese folklore of Sri Tanjung.

Malay language

MalayBahasa MelayuMalay-language
Most speakers of Javanese also speak Indonesian, the standardized form of Malay spoken in Indonesia, for official and commercial purposes as well as a means to communicate with non-Javanese-speaking Indonesians.
Some Malay dialects, however, show only limited mutual intelligibility with the standard language; for example, Kelantanese or Sarawakian pronunciation is difficult for many fellow Malaysians to understand, while Indonesian contains many words unfamiliar to speakers of Malaysian, some because of Javanese, Sundanese or other local language influence, and some because of the independent development of Indonesian slang and colloquial parlance.

South Sumatra

South SumateraSouthSouth Sumatra Province
It was the court language in Palembang, South Sumatra, until the palace was sacked by the Dutch in the late 18th century.
The term Malayu is a Javanese-Sundanese term to refer Malay people of Sumatra, while Keling — derived from historical Kalinga kingdom of Southern India, refer to people of Indian descent that inhabit the archipelago.

Banten

Banten ProvinceBantamBantam Residency
These three dialects form a dialect continuum from northern Banten in the extreme west of Java to Banyuwangi Regency in the eastern corner of the island.
The Javanese language is also spoken by many Javanese migrants from Central or East Java.

Indonesians

IndonesianIndonesiaIndonesian people
Most speakers of Javanese also speak Indonesian, the standardized form of Malay spoken in Indonesia, for official and commercial purposes as well as a means to communicate with non-Javanese-speaking Indonesians.
Most Indonesians, aside from speaking the national language, are fluent in another regional language (examples include Javanese, Sundanese and others), which are commonly used at home and within the local community.

Madurese language

MaduresemadMadura
Its closest relatives are the neighbouring languages such as Sundanese, Madurese and Balinese.
Thus, despite apparent geographic spread, Madurese is more related to Balinese, Malay, Sasak, and Sundanese, than it is to Javanese, the language right next door.

List of languages by number of native speakers

numbermost spoken languages20 languages with the largest numbers of native speakers
Javanese is the tenth largest language by native speakers and the largest language without official status.

Phonation

voicingvoice qualityphonatory
The relevant distinction in phonation of the plosives is described as stiff voice versus slack voice.
Javanese does not have modal voice in its stops, but contrasts two other points along the phonation scale, with more moderate departures from modal voice, called slack voice and stiff voice.

Indonesia

Republic of IndonesiaIndonesianIndonesian Republic
Javanese (, '; ; colloquially known as, '; ) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.
Of these, Javanese is the most widely spoken.

Literary language

literaryformal writingliterary English
In Madura, Bali, Lombok, and the Sunda region of West Java, it is also used as a literary language.
In the Javanese language, alphabet characters derived from the alphabets used to write Sanskrit, no longer in ordinary use, are used in literary words as a mark of respect.

Central Java

CentralCentral Java ProvinceJawa Tengah
The language is spoken in Yogyakarta, Central and East Java, as well as on the north coast of West Java.
On the eve of the World War II in 1942, Central Java was subdivided into seven residencies (Dutch: residentie or plural residenties, Javanese karésiḍènan or karésidhènan) which corresponded more or less with the main regions of this area.

Suriname

SurinamSurinameseRepublic of Suriname
Javanese is also spoken by traditional immigrant communities of Javanese descent in Suriname (the Dutch colony of Surinam until 1975) and in New Caledonia.
The Javanese language is used by the descendants of Javanese contract workers, and is common in Suriname.

North Sumatra

North SumateraSumatera Utaranorthern Sumatra
It is also spoken elsewhere by the Javanese people in other provinces of Indonesia, which are numerous due to the government-sanctioned transmigration program in the late 20th century, including Lampung, Jambi, and North Sumatra provinces.
The Javanese people, especially around rural and plantation areas, use Javanese in daily conversation, while the urban Javanese mostly speak Indonesian.

West Java

West Java ProvinceJabarSunda
The language is spoken in Yogyakarta, Central and East Java, as well as on the north coast of West Java.
In some areas near the southern borders with Central Java, Javanese is also spoken.

Subject–verb–object

SVOsubject-verb-objectSVO word order
Modern Javanese usually employs SVO word order.
Languages regarded as SVO include: Albanian, Arabic dialects, Assyrian, Bosnian, Chinese, English, Estonian, Finnish (but see below), French, Ganda, Greek, Hausa, Icelandic (with the V2 restriction), Igbo, Italian, Javanese, Khmer, Latvian, Macedonian, Malay (Malaysian and Indonesian), Modern Hebrew, Polish, Portuguese, Quiche, Reo Rapa, Romanian, Russian (but see below), Slovene, Spanish, Swahili, Thai and Lao, Ukrainian (but see below), Vietnamese, Yoruba and Zulu.

New Caledonia

New-CaledoniaNouvelle-CalédonieNCL
Javanese is also spoken by traditional immigrant communities of Javanese descent in Suriname (the Dutch colony of Surinam until 1975) and in New Caledonia.
Other significant language communities among immigrant populations are those of Wallisian and Javanese language speakers.