A report on Jazz

American jazz composer, lyricist, and pianist Eubie Blake made an early contribution to the genre's etymology
Albert Gleizes, 1915, Composition for "Jazz" from the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
Ethel Waters sang "Stormy Weather" at the Cotton Club.
Al Jolson in 1929
Dance in Congo Square in the late 1700s, artist's conception by E. W. Kemble from a century later
In the late 18th-century painting The Old Plantation, African-Americans dance to banjo and percussion.
The blackface Virginia Minstrels in 1843, featuring tambourine, fiddle, banjo and bones
Scott Joplin in 1903
W. C. Handy at 19, 1892
The Bolden Band around 1905
Jelly Roll Morton, in Los Angeles, California, c. 1917 or 1918
The King & Carter Jazzing Orchestra photographed in Houston, Texas, January 1921
Louis Armstrong began his career in New Orleans and became one of jazz's most recognizable performers.
Benny Goodman (1943)
Duke Ellington at the Hurricane Club (1943)
The "classic quintet": Charlie Parker, Tommy Potter, Miles Davis, Dizzy Gillespie, and Max Roach performing at Three Deuces in New York City. Photograph by William P. Gottlieb (August 1947), Library of Congress.
Machito (maracas) and his sister Graciella Grillo (claves)
Dizzy Gillespie, 1955
Mongo Santamaria (1969)
Art Blakey (1973)
John Coltrane, 1963
Peter Brötzmann is a key figure in European free jazz.
Naná Vasconcelos playing the Afro-Brazilian Berimbau
Randy Weston
C pentatonic scale beginning on the I (C pentatonic), IV (F pentatonic), and V (G pentatonic) steps of the scale.
V pentatonic scale over II–V–I chord progression
Fusion trumpeter Miles Davis in 1989
Wynton Marsalis
David Sanborn, 2008
John Zorn performing in 2006
Steve Coleman in Paris, July 2004

Music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime.

- Jazz
American jazz composer, lyricist, and pianist Eubie Blake made an early contribution to the genre's etymology

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American blues singer Ma Rainey (1886–1939), the "Mother of the Blues"

Blues

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Music genre and musical form which originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1860s by African-Americans from roots in African-American work songs and spirituals.

Music genre and musical form which originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1860s by African-Americans from roots in African-American work songs and spirituals.

American blues singer Ma Rainey (1886–1939), the "Mother of the Blues"
A minor pentatonic scale;
Musicologist John Lomax (left) shaking hands with musician "Uncle" Rich Brown in Sumterville, Alabama
Sheet music from "Saint Louis Blues" (1914)
Bessie Smith, an early blues singer, known for her powerful voice
A typical boogie-woogie bass line
John Lee Hooker
Blues legend B.B. King with his guitar, "Lucille"
Texas blues guitarist Stevie Ray Vaughan, 1983
Italian singer Zucchero is credited as the "Father of Italian Blues", and is among the few European blues artists who still enjoy international success.
Eric Clapton performing at Hyde Park, London, in June 2008
Duke Ellington straddled the big band and bebop genres. Ellington extensively used the blues form.
The music of Taj Mahal for the 1972 movie Sounder marked a revival of interest in acoustic blues.

The blues form, ubiquitous in jazz, rhythm and blues, and rock and roll, is characterized by the call-and-response pattern, the blues scale and specific chord progressions, of which the twelve-bar blues is the most common.

Davis in his New York City home, c. undefined 1955–56; photograph by Tom Palumbo

Miles Davis

38 links

American trumpeter, bandleader, and composer.

American trumpeter, bandleader, and composer.

Davis in his New York City home, c. undefined 1955–56; photograph by Tom Palumbo
The house at 1701 Kansas Avenue in East St. Louis, Illinois, where Davis lived from 1939 to 1944
Tommy Potter, Charlie Parker, Max Roach, Miles Davis, Duke Jordan in August 1947
Davis on piano with Howard McGhee (trumpet), Joe Albany (pianist, standing) and Brick Fleagle (guitarist, smoking), September 1947
During the 1950s, Davis started using a mute on his trumpet. It became part of his signature sound for the rest of his career.
Davis performing in Antibes, France, in July 1963
Davis performing at Töölö Sports Hall (Messuhalli) in Helsinki, Finland, in October 1964
Davis performing in 1971
Davis's septet in November 1971; left to right: Gary Bartz, Davis, Keith Jarrett, Michael Henderson, Leon "Ndugu" Chancler, James Mtume, and Don Alias
Davis and Cicely Tyson in 1982
Davis performing in 1985
Davis performing in Strasbourg, 1987
Davis at the North Sea Jazz Festival, 1991
Davis's grave in Woodlawn Cemetery, with headstone inscribed with the beginning notes of one of his compositions, "Solar"
World's first statue of Davis, unveiled in 2001, by Grzegorz Łagowski, in Kielce, Poland
The westernmost part of 77th Street in New York City has been named Miles Davis Way. He once lived on the block.

He is among the most influential and acclaimed figures in the history of jazz and 20th-century music.

Alto sax player Charlie Parker was a leading performer and composer of the bebop era. He is pictured here with Tommy Potter, Max Roach and Miles Davis at the Three Deuces club in New York City.

Bebop

26 links

Alto sax player Charlie Parker was a leading performer and composer of the bebop era. He is pictured here with Tommy Potter, Max Roach and Miles Davis at the Three Deuces club in New York City.
"In spite of the explanations of the origins of these words, players actually did sing the words "bebop" and "rebop" to an early bop phrase as shown in the following example."
Several bebop musicians headlining on 52nd Street, May 1948
Dizzy Gillespie, at the Downbeat Club, NYC, ca 1947

Bebop or bop is a style of jazz developed in the early-to-mid-1940s in the United States.

Gillespie playing, post 1979

Dizzy Gillespie

30 links

Gillespie playing, post 1979
Gillespie with John Lewis, Cecil Payne, Miles Davis, and Ray Brown, between 1946 and 1948
Gillespie performing in 1955
Gillespie holding memoir To Be or Not to Bop published in 1979
Gillespie in concert, Deauville, Normandy, France, July 1991
Gillespie performs with his bent trumpet in 1988.
Statue of Gillespie in his hometown of Cheraw, South Carolina

John Birks "Dizzy" Gillespie (October 21, 1917 – January 6, 1993) was an American jazz trumpeter, bandleader, composer, educator and singer.

Jazz fusion

23 links

John McLaughlin performs during his Mahavishnu Orchestra period
Spyro Gyra combines jazz with R&B, funk and pop.
Steve Coleman in Paris, July 2004

Jazz fusion (also known as fusion and progressive jazz ) is a music genre that developed in the late 1960s when musicians combined jazz harmony and improvisation with rock music, funk, and rhythm and blues.

Benny Goodman, one of the first swing bandleaders to achieve widespread fame

Swing music

19 links

Benny Goodman, one of the first swing bandleaders to achieve widespread fame
Frank Sinatra

Swing music is a style of jazz that developed in the United States during the late 1920s and early 1930s.

Coltrane in 1963

John Coltrane

27 links

Coltrane in 1963
Coltrane's first recordings were made when he was a sailor.
Coltrane icon at St. John Coltrane African Orthodox Church
Coltrane in Amsterdam, 1961
As Coltrane's interest in jazz became experimental, he added Pharoah Sanders (center; circa 1978) to his ensemble.
Percussionist Rashied Ali (pictured in 2007) augmented Coltrane's sound.
Musicians at St John Coltrane African Orthodox Church, San Francisco 2009
John Coltrane House, 1511 North Thirty-third Street, Philadelphia

John William Coltrane (September 23, 1926 – July 17, 1967) was an American jazz saxophonist and composer.

Armstrong in 1953

Louis Armstrong

23 links

American trumpeter and vocalist.

American trumpeter and vocalist.

Armstrong in 1953
Louis Armstrong (2002), hand-colored etching by Adi Holzer
Armstrong with his first trumpet instructor, Peter Davis, in 1965
Armstrong was a member of Fate Marable's New Orleans Band in 1918, here on board the S.S. Sidney
"Heebie Jeebies" by Louis Armstrong and his Hot Five
Photo of Armstrong in 1936
Armstrong in 1953
Armstrong in 1955
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Record of Armstrong's visit to Brazil, 1957.
Armstrong with Lucille Wilson (c. 1960s)
Armstrong in Belgium in 1952
Autograph of Armstrong on the muretto of Alassio
Selmer trumpet, given as a gift by King George V of the United Kingdom to Louis Armstrong in 1933
With Jack Teagarden (left) and Barney Bigard (right), Armstrong plays the trumpet in Helsinki, Finland, October 1949.
Louis Armstrong in 1966
Armstrong entertains Grace Kelly on the set of High Society in 1956.
Armstrong alongside Barbra Streisand in Hello, Dolly! (1969)
The Flushing Cemetery resting place of Louis 'Satchmo' Armstrong
Louis Armstrong visit to Israel, April 1959

He is among the most influential figures in jazz.

Paul Whiteman and his orchestra in 1921

Big band

18 links

Paul Whiteman and his orchestra in 1921
Paul Whiteman and his orchestra in 1921
The United States Navy Band Northwest (NBNW) Big Band plays at a concert held in Oak Harbor High School.
Typical seating arrangement for a 17-piece big band
Ockbrook Big Band at Pride Park Stadium
Benny Goodman and Peggy Lee
Glenn Miller, a major in the U.S. Army Air Forces during World War II, led a 50-piece military band that specialized in swing music
The Grand Central Big Band.

A big band or jazz orchestra is a type of musical ensemble of jazz music that usually consists of ten or more musicians with four sections: saxophones, trumpets, trombones, and a rhythm section.

Ellington c. 1940s

Duke Ellington

19 links

American composer, pianist, and leader of his eponymous jazz orchestra from 1923 through the rest of his life.

American composer, pianist, and leader of his eponymous jazz orchestra from 1923 through the rest of his life.

Ellington c. 1940s
British pressing of "East St. Louis Toodle-Oo" (1927)
Adelaide Hall - Adelaide Hall, recorded Creole Love Call with Ellington in 1927. The recording became a worldwide hit.
Duke Ellington at the Hurricane Club, Broadway & W. 51St, New York City, May 1943
Ellington poses with his piano at the KFG Radio Studio on November 3, 1954.
James Stewart and Ellington in Anatomy of a Murder (1959)
Ellington receiving the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Nixon, 1969
Ellington in 1973
Mercer referred to Mildred Dixon as his mother.
Ellington on the Washington, D.C. quarter released in 2009
Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6535 Hollywood Blvd.

Although a pivotal figure in the history of jazz, in the opinion of Gunther Schuller and Barry Kernfeld, "the most significant composer of the genre", Ellington himself embraced the phrase "beyond category", considering it a liberating principle, and referring to his music as part of the more general category of American Music.