A report on Jazz and Rhythm and blues

American jazz composer, lyricist, and pianist Eubie Blake made an early contribution to the genre's etymology
Louis Jordan in New York City, c. undefined July 1946
Albert Gleizes, 1915, Composition for "Jazz" from the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
The habanera rhythm shown as tresillo (lower notes) with the backbeat (upper note)
Ethel Waters sang "Stormy Weather" at the Cotton Club.
Fats Domino in 1956
Al Jolson in 1929
Piano excerpt from the rumba boogie "Mardi Gras in New Orleans" (1949) by Professor Longhair. 2–3 claves are written above for rhythmic reference.
Dance in Congo Square in the late 1700s, artist's conception by E. W. Kemble from a century later
3–2 clave written in two measures in cut-time
In the late 18th-century painting The Old Plantation, African-Americans dance to banjo and percussion.
Tresillo answered by the backbeat, the essence of clave in African American music
The blackface Virginia Minstrels in 1843, featuring tambourine, fiddle, banjo and bones
Bo Diddley's "Bo Diddley beat" is a clave-based motif.
Scott Joplin in 1903
Ray Charles in 1971
W. C. Handy at 19, 1892
Ruth Brown was known as the "Queen of R&B"
The Bolden Band around 1905
Della Reese
Jelly Roll Morton, in Los Angeles, California, c. 1917 or 1918
Sam Cooke
The King & Carter Jazzing Orchestra photographed in Houston, Texas, January 1921
Eric Burdon & the Animals (1964)
Louis Armstrong began his career in New Orleans and became one of jazz's most recognizable performers.
Benny Goodman (1943)
Duke Ellington at the Hurricane Club (1943)
The "classic quintet": Charlie Parker, Tommy Potter, Miles Davis, Dizzy Gillespie, and Max Roach performing at Three Deuces in New York City. Photograph by William P. Gottlieb (August 1947), Library of Congress.
Machito (maracas) and his sister Graciella Grillo (claves)
Dizzy Gillespie, 1955
Mongo Santamaria (1969)
Art Blakey (1973)
John Coltrane, 1963
Peter Brötzmann is a key figure in European free jazz.
Naná Vasconcelos playing the Afro-Brazilian Berimbau
Randy Weston
C pentatonic scale beginning on the I (C pentatonic), IV (F pentatonic), and V (G pentatonic) steps of the scale.
V pentatonic scale over II–V–I chord progression
Fusion trumpeter Miles Davis in 1989
Wynton Marsalis
David Sanborn, 2008
John Zorn performing in 2006
Steve Coleman in Paris, July 2004

The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, rocking, jazz based music ... [with a] heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular.

- Rhythm and blues

The mid-1950s saw the emergence of hard bop, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues, gospel, and blues to small groups and particularly to saxophone and piano.

- Jazz
American jazz composer, lyricist, and pianist Eubie Blake made an early contribution to the genre's etymology

17 related topics with Alpha

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Jordan in New York City, 1946

Louis Jordan

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American saxophonist, multi-instrumentalist, songwriter and bandleader who was popular from the late 1930s to the early 1950s.

American saxophonist, multi-instrumentalist, songwriter and bandleader who was popular from the late 1930s to the early 1950s.

Jordan in New York City, 1946
Louis Jordan's Tympany Five
Jordan in New York, July 1946, shortly after getting second billing to Glen Gray at the Paramount

Jordan began his career in big-band swing jazz in the 1930s, but he became known as one of the leading practitioners, innovators and popularizers of jump blues, a swinging, up-tempo, dance-oriented hybrid of jazz, blues and boogie-woogie.

With his dynamic Tympany Five bands, Jordan mapped out the main parameters of the classic R&B, urban blues and early rock-and-roll genres with a series of highly influential 78-rpm discs released by Decca Records.

The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that the term "pop" refers to music performed by such artists as the Rolling Stones (pictured here in a 2006 performance).

Pop music

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Genre of popular music that originated in its modern form during the mid-1950s in the United States and the United Kingdom.

Genre of popular music that originated in its modern form during the mid-1950s in the United States and the United Kingdom.

The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that the term "pop" refers to music performed by such artists as the Rolling Stones (pictured here in a 2006 performance).
Bing Crosby was one of the first artists to be nicknamed "King of Pop" or "King of Popular Music".
The 1960s British Invasion marked a period when the US charts were inundated with British acts such as the Beatles (pictured 1964).

The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz, rock, and novelty songs.

This change was epitomized in the album FutureSex/LoveSounds, which under the influence of producer Timbaland, mixed the sounds of R&B, dance music, and hip hop.

New Orleans

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Consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U.S. state of Louisiana.

Consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U.S. state of Louisiana.

The New Orleans cityscape in early February 2007
The Revolt took place in what is now Natchez National Historical Park in Natchez, Mississippi.
1724 plan for Saint Louis Parish Church, New Orleans, Louisiana, by Adrien de Pauger
The Battle of New Orleans (1815)
Plan of the city and suburbs of New Orleans: from a survey made in 1815
Mississippi River steamboats at New Orleans, 1853
The starving people of New Orleans under Union occupation during the Civil War, 1862
Esplanade Avenue at Burgundy Street, looking lakewards (north) towards Lake Pontchartrain in 1900
1943 waiting line at wartime Rationing Board office in New Orleans
Richard Nixon in New Orleans, August 1970. Royal at Iberville Streets, heading to Canal Street.
A view of the New Orleans Central Business District, as seen from the Mississippi River. USS New Orleans (LPD-18) in foreground (2007).
Hurricane Katrina at its New Orleans landfall
An aerial view from a United States Navy helicopter showing floodwaters around the Louisiana Superdome (stadium) and surrounding area (2005)
A true-color satellite image taken on NASA's Landsat 7, 2004
Vertical cross-section, showing maximum levee height of 23 ft
Bourbon Street, New Orleans, in 2003, looking towards Canal Street
New Orleans contains many distinctive neighborhoods.
Skyline of the Central Business District of New Orleans
Snow falls on St. Charles Avenue in December 2008.
Hurricanes of Category 3 or greater passing within 100 miles, from 1852 to 2005 (NOAA)
Map of racial distribution in New Orleans, 2010 U.S. census. Each dot is 25 people:
2016 New Orleans Pride
Cathedral-Basilica of St. Louis, King of France
Beth Israel synagogue building on Carondelet Street
A tanker on the Mississippi River in New Orleans
Intracoastal Waterway near New Orleans
The steamboat Natchez operates out of New Orleans.
Aerial view of NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility
French Quarter in 2009
Street artist in the French Quarter (1988)
The New Orleans Museum of Art (NOMA) located in City Park
New Orleans Mardi Gras in the early 1890s
Mounted krewe officers in the Thoth Parade during Mardi Gras
Louis Armstrong, famous New Orleans jazz musician
Frank Ocean is a musician from New Orleans.
Steamship Bienville on-board restaurant menu (April 7, 1861)
Café du Monde, a landmark New Orleans beignet cafe established in 1862
The fleur-de-lis is often a symbol of New Orleans and its sports teams.
A view of Gibson Hall at Tulane University
University of New Orleans
Xavier University of Louisiana, 2019
A New Orleans streetcar traveling down Canal Street
Streetcar network
Ferries connecting New Orleans with Algiers (left) and Gretna (right)

As the only North American city to have allowed slaves to gather in public and play their native music (largely in Congo Square, now located within Louis Armstrong Park), New Orleans gave birth in the early 20th century to an epochal indigenous music: jazz.

Much later in its musical development, New Orleans was home to a distinctive brand of rhythm and blues that contributed greatly to the growth of rock and roll.

Basie at the piano, 1955, in a photographic portrait by James J. Kriegsmann

Count Basie

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Basie at the piano, 1955, in a photographic portrait by James J. Kriegsmann
Basie and band, with vocalist Ethel Waters, from the film Stage Door Canteen (1943)
Basie in Rhythm and Blues Revue (1955)
Count Basie (left) in concert (Cologne 1975)
Count Basie Theatre in Red Bank, New Jersey

William James "Count" Basie (August 21, 1904 – April 26, 1984) was an African-American jazz pianist, organist, bandleader, and composer.

The jukebox era had begun, and Basie shared the exposure along with early rock'n'roll and rhythm and blues artists.

Johnson in Chicago, 1941

Lonnie Johnson (musician)

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Johnson in Chicago, 1941
Johnson in 1960

Alonzo "Lonnie" Johnson (February 8, 1899 – June 16, 1970) was an American blues and jazz singer, guitarist, violinist and songwriter.

After World War II, Johnson made the transition to rhythm and blues, recording for King in Cincinnati and having a hit in 1948 with "Tomorrow Night" written by Sam Coslow and Will Grosz.

Tres cubano

Guajeo

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Typical Cuban ostinato melody, most often consisting of arpeggiated chords in syncopated patterns.

Typical Cuban ostinato melody, most often consisting of arpeggiated chords in syncopated patterns.

Tres cubano
Changüí offbeat guajeo written in cut-time[[File:Changui guajeo cut-time.mid]]
Generic son-based guajeo written in cut-time[[File:Generic 3-2 guajeo.mid]]
3-2 Piano guajeo: clave motif[[File:3-2 guajeo.mid]])
2-3 piano guajeo: clave motif[[File:2-3 guajeo.mid]]
3-2 guajeo: offbeat/onbeat motif[[File:B guajeo.mid]]
2-3 guajeo: onbeat/offbeat motif[[File:Two three guajeo.mid]]
2-3 clave (top) with ponchando figure (bottom).
Ponchando figure originally used in "Rareza de Melitón" (1942) by Arcano y Sus Maravillas[[File:Ponchando cut-time.mid]]
2-3 piano guajeo in octaves.
"Tanga" (Mario Bauzá) in the style of Machito and his Afro‐Cubans (recorded 1949).
A section of "Sabor" by João Donato, as arranged by Mark Levine, and performed by Cal Tjader.
2-3 piano guajeo with jazz voicings.
Generic chachachá piano guajeo (c. late 1940s)
NY-style 2-3 mozambique piano guajeo by Rebeca Mauleón.
"Con el bate de aluminio" (1979).
2-3 trumpet and trombone moñas, "Bilongo" (c. 1969) Top: trumpet; bottom: trombone.
2-3 trumpet and trombone moñas, "Guatacando" (1968). 1. trumpets; 2. trombones.
Piano excerpt from the rumba boogie "Mardi Gras in New Orleans" (1949) by Professor Longhair. 2-3 clave is written above for rhythmic reference.
"Passi ya boloko" by Franco (c. mid-1950s). From top: lead guitar; rhythm guitar; bass guitar.
Seben section of a soukous song. From top: solo guitar; mi-solo guitar; accompaniment guitar.
Top: clave. Bottom highlife guitar part[[File:Highlife guitar.mid]]
Top: 2-3 clave. Bottom: afrobeat guitar part[[File:Afro-beat.mid]]

The Cuban influence was exceptionally strong in the Crescent City during the late 1940s and early 1950s, when rhythm & blues (R&B) was first forming.

Afrobeat is a combination of traditional Yoruba music, highlife, jazz, and funk, popularised in Africa in the 1970s.

Composer Sebastián Iradier

Tresillo (rhythm)

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Rhythmic pattern used in Latin American music.

Rhythmic pattern used in Latin American music.

Composer Sebastián Iradier
Jelly Roll Morton
Dave Bartholomew in 1977

For the more than quarter-century in which the cakewalk, ragtime and proto-jazz were forming and developing, the habanera was a consistent part of African American popular music.

In the late 1940s, R&B music borrowed tresillo directly from Cuban music.