Jean-Baptiste Colbert

ColbertJean Baptiste ColbertJ. B. ColbertJean ColbertFinance Minister Colbertgreat Colbertle grand ColbertMinister Colbert
Jean-Baptiste Colbert (29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683) was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1661 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.wikipedia
550 Related Articles

French East India Company

FrenchCompagnie des Indes OrientalesCompagnie des Indes
Colbert worked to develop the domestic economy by raising tariffs and by encouraging major public works projects, and to ensure that the French East India Company had access to foreign markets, so that they could always obtain coffee, cotton, dyewoods, fur, pepper and sugar.
Planned by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, it was chartered by King Louis XIV for the purpose of trading in the Eastern Hemisphere.

Beauvais Manufactory

BeauvaisBeauvais tapestryBeauvais tapestry works
He also founded royal tapestry works at Gobelins and supported those at Beauvais.
It was the second in importance, after the Gobelins Manufactory, of French tapestry workshops that were established under the general direction of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the finance minister of Louis XIV.

Louis XIV of France

Louis XIVKing Louis XIVKing Louis XIV of France
Jean-Baptiste Colbert (29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683) was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1661 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.
The Sun King surrounded himself with a dazzling constellation of political, military, and cultural figures such as Mazarin, Colbert, Louvois, the Grand Condé, Turenne, Vauban, Boulle, Molière, Racine, Boileau, La Fontaine, Lully, Charpentier, Marais, Le Brun, Rigaud, Bossuet, Le Vau, Mansart, Charles, Claude Perrault, and Le Nôtre.

Code Noir

Black Code
As there was slavery in the colonies, Colbert also drafted the Code Noir which was to be promulgated two years after his death.
The Code Noir was one of the many laws inspired by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, who began to prepare the first (1685) version.

Bâtiments du Roi

King's BuildingsDirecteur général of buildingsDirector of Buildings
In January 1664 Colbert became the Superintendent of buildings; in 1665 he became Controller-General of Finances; in 1669, he became Secretary of State of the Navy; he also gained appointments as minister of commerce, of the colonies and of the palace.
In 1664, Jean-Baptiste Colbert was entitled surintendant et ordonnateur général des bâtiments, arts, tapisseries et manufactures de France ("superintendent and director-general of building, art, tapestries and factories of France").

Slavery

slaveslavesenslaved
As there was slavery in the colonies, Colbert also drafted the Code Noir which was to be promulgated two years after his death.
The French-enacted Code Noir ("Black Code"), prepared by Jean-Baptiste Colbert and ratified by Louis XIV, had established rules on slave treatment and permissible freedoms.

Canal du Midi

Pierre Paul Riquet (1604–1680) planned and constructed the Canal du Midi under Colbert's patronage.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert authorized the start of work by royal edict in October, 1666, with the aim of developing the wheat trade, under the supervision of Pierre-Paul Riquet, and construction lasted from 1666 to 1681, during the reign of Louis XIV.

Nicolas Fouquet

FouquetNicholas FouquetSuperintendent Fouquet
The paper also contained an attack upon the Superintendent Fouquet.
Fouquet's fortune now surpassed even Mazarin's, but the latter was too deeply implicated in similar operations to interfere, and was obliged to leave the day of reckoning to his agent and successor Jean-Baptiste Colbert.

Gobelins Manufactory

GobelinsManufacture des GobelinsGobelin tapestry
He also founded royal tapestry works at Gobelins and supported those at Beauvais.
In 1662, the works in the Faubourg Saint Marcel, with the adjoining grounds, were purchased by Jean-Baptiste Colbert on behalf of Louis XIV and made into a general upholstery factory, in which designs both in tapestry and in all kinds of furniture were executed under the superintendence of the court painter, Charles Le Brun, who served as director and chief designer from 1663-1690.

Louvre

Musée du LouvreLouvre MuseumThe Louvre
In 1673 Colbert presided over the first exhibition of the works of living painters; and he enriched the Louvre with hundreds of pictures and statues.
He was commended to Louis XIV of France, the "Sun King", by Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619–1683) as being "the most skilled craftsman in his profession".

French Academy of Sciences

Académie des SciencesAcadémie Royale des SciencesAcademy of Sciences
The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.

Bibliothèque nationale de France

data.bnf.frBibliothèque NationaleGallica
Colbert's grandson sold the manuscript collection in 1732 to the Bibliothèque Royale.
The library grew rapidly during the reigns of Louis XIII and Louis XIV, due in great part to the interest of the Minister of Finance, Colbert, an indefatigable collectors of books.

Cardinal Mazarin

MazarinJules MazarinCardinal Jules Mazarin
While Cardinal Mazarin was in exile, Louis' trust in Colbert grew.
The great rival of Fouquet was Jean-Baptiste Colbert, who was also recommended to Louis XIV and brought into the government by Mazarin.

France

FrenchFRAFrench Republic
Colbert's father and grandfather were merchants in his birthplace of Reims, France.
Louis XIV's prime minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert founded in 1648 the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture to protect these artists, and in 1666 he created the still-active French Academy in Rome to have direct relations with Italian artists.

Paris Opera

Paris OpéraOpéra National de ParisAcadémie Royale de Musique
In 1666 he proposed to the minister Colbert that "the king decree 'the establishment of an Academy of Poetry and Music' whose goal would be to synthesize the French language and French music into an entirely new lyric form."

French Academy in Rome

Académie de France à RomeFrench AcademyAcadémie de France
The Academy was founded at the Palazzo Capranica in 1666 by Louis XIV under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Charles Le Brun and Gian Lorenzo Bernini.

Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres

Académie des InscriptionsAcadémie des Inscriptions et Belles LettresAcademy of Inscriptions
The organizer was King Louis XIV's finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert.

Gian Lorenzo Bernini

BerniniGianlorenzo BerniniGiovanni Lorenzo Bernini
Wishing to increase the prestige of the image of France and the French royal family, Colbert played an active role in bringing the great Italian architect-sculptor, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, to Paris (June–October 1665), in order to design the new East Facade of the Louvre.
It is often stated in the scholarship on Bernini that his Louvre designs were turned down because Louis and his financial advisor Jean-Baptiste Colbert considered them too Italianate or too Baroque in style.

Paris Observatory

Observatoire de ParisMeudon ObservatoryParis
The Paris observatory was proposed in 1665-1666 by the French Academy of Sciences, a group that had just been organized by Minister of Finance Jean-Baptiste Colbert.

Académie royale d'architecture

Royal Academy of ArchitectureAcadémie d'architectureAcademy of Architecture
The Académie Royale d'Architecture was founded on December 30, 1671, by Louis XIV, king of France under the impulsion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert.

Reims

RheimsReims, FranceDurocortorum
Colbert's father and grandfather were merchants in his birthplace of Reims, France.

Edict

edictsdictatedirective
Colbert issued more than 150 edicts to regulate the guilds.

Claude Perrault

PerraultClaude
Aside from his influential architecture, he became well known for his translation of the ten books of Vitruvius, the only surviving Roman work on architecture, into French, written at the instigation of Colbert, and published, with Perrault's annotations, in 1673.

Christiaan Huygens

HuygensChristian HuygensChristiaan Huyghens
He gave many pensions to men of letters, among whom we find Molière, Corneille, Racine, Boileau, P D Huet (1630–1721) and Antoine Varillas (1626–1696); and even foreigners, as Huygens, Carlo Roberto Dati the Dellacruscan.
In Paris Huygens had an important patron and correspondent in Jean-Baptiste Colbert.

Molière

MoliereJean-Baptiste PoquelinJean-Baptiste Poquelin Molière
He gave many pensions to men of letters, among whom we find Molière, Corneille, Racine, Boileau, P D Huet (1630–1721) and Antoine Varillas (1626–1696); and even foreigners, as Huygens, Carlo Roberto Dati the Dellacruscan.
These entertainments led Jean-Baptiste Colbert to demand the arrest of Fouquet for wasting public money, and he was condemned to life imprisonment.