Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

LamarckLam.Jean-Baptiste de LamarckJean Baptiste LamarckLamarckianLamJean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de LamarckLamarkChevalier de LamarckInherent progressive tendency
Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck, was a French naturalist.wikipedia
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History of evolutionary thought

evolutionary theoryevolutionevolutionary thought
Lamarck's contribution to evolutionary theory consisted of the first truly cohesive theory of biological evolution, in which an alchemical complexifying force drove organisms up a ladder of complexity, and a second environmental force adapted them to local environments through use and disuse of characteristics, differentiating them from other organisms.
In the early 19th century Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829) proposed his theory of the transmutation of species, the first fully formed theory of evolution.

Evolution

evolvedtheory of evolutionevolutionary
He was a soldier, biologist, and academic, and an early proponent of the idea that biological evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws.
The first full-fledged evolutionary scheme was Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's "transmutation" theory of 1809, which envisaged spontaneous generation continually producing simple forms of life that developed greater complexity in parallel lineages with an inherent progressive tendency, and postulated that on a local level, these lineages adapted to the environment by inheriting changes caused by their use or disuse in parents.

Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon

BuffonComte de BuffonLeclerc de Buffon
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, one of the top French scientists of the day, mentored Lamarck, and helped him gain membership to the French Academy of Sciences in 1779 and a commission as a royal botanist in 1781, in which he traveled to foreign botanical gardens and museums.
His works influenced the next two generations of naturalists, including Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and Georges Cuvier.

Biology

biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
In an 1802 publication, he became one of the first to use the term "biology" in its modern sense. In 1802 Lamarck published Hydrogéologie, and became one of the first to use the term biology in its modern sense.
Although he was opposed to evolution, Buffon is a key figure in the history of evolutionary thought; his work influenced the evolutionary theories of both Lamarck and Darwin.

Transmutation of species

transmutationtransformismtransmutationism
Lamarck began as an essentialist who believed species were unchanging; however, after working on the molluscs of the Paris Basin, he grew convinced that transmutation or change in the nature of a species occurred over time.
The French Transformisme was a term used by Jean Baptiste Lamarck in 1809 for his theory, and other 19th century proponents of pre-Darwinian evolutionary ideas included Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Robert Grant, and Robert Chambers, the anonymous author of the book Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation.

National Museum of Natural History, France

Muséum national d'histoire naturelleNational Museum of Natural HistoryMuseum National d'Histoire Naturelle
When the French National Assembly founded the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle in 1793, Lamarck became a professor of zoology.
Some of its early professors included eminent comparative anatomist Georges Cuvier and evolutionary pioneers Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck and Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire.

History of biology

biologyhistorybasis of life
In 1802 Lamarck published Hydrogéologie, and became one of the first to use the term biology in its modern sense.
The term biology in its modern sense appears to have been introduced independently by Thomas Beddoes (in 1799), Karl Friedrich Burdach (in 1800), Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus (Biologie oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur, 1802) and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (Hydrogéologie, 1802).

Orthogenesis

orthogeneticprogressive evolutionevolutionary progress
Lamarck referred to a tendency for organisms to become more complex, moving "up" a ladder of progress.
Prominent historical figures who have championed some form of evolutionary progress include Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, and Henri Bergson.

Georges Cuvier

CuvierG. CuvierGeorge Cuvier
He also came into conflict with the widely respected palaeontologist Georges Cuvier, who was not a supporter of evolution.
Cuvier is also remembered for strongly opposing theories of evolution, which at the time (before Darwin's theory) were mainly proposed by Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire.

Lamarckism

Lamarckianinheritance of acquired characteristicsneo-Lamarckism
The modern era generally remembers Lamarck for a theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics, called Lamarckism (inaccurately named after him), soft inheritance, or use/disuse theory, which he described in his 1809 Philosophie Zoologique.
It is inaccurately named after the French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829), who incorporated the action of soft inheritance into his evolutionary theories as a supplement to his concept of orthogenesis, a drive towards complexity.

Adaptation

adaptedadaptationsadaptive
The second component of Lamarck's theory of evolution was the adaptation of organisms to their environment.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck proposed a tendency for organisms to become more complex, moving up a ladder of progress, plus "the influence of circumstances," usually expressed as use and disuse.

André Thouin

Andre ThouinThouin
Lamarck's first son, André, was born on 22 April 1781, and he made his colleague André Thouin the child's godfather.
He was a good friend of U.S. President Thomas Jefferson, and the godfather of Jean Baptiste Lamarck's son Andre.

Charles Darwin

DarwinDarwinianCharles Robert Darwin
Lamarck's theory of evolution only achieved fame after the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859), which spurred critics of Darwin's new theory to fall back on Lamarckian evolution as a more well-established alternative.
One day, Grant praised Lamarck's evolutionary ideas.

Bazentin

Bazentin le PetitBazentin-le-GrandBazentin-le-Petit
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was born in Bazentin, Picardy, northern France, as the 11th child in an impoverished aristocratic family.
* Birthplace of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, 1 August 1744

On the Origin of Species

The Origin of SpeciesOrigin of SpeciesOn the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
Lamarck's theory of evolution only achieved fame after the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859), which spurred critics of Darwin's new theory to fall back on Lamarckian evolution as a more well-established alternative.
Charles Darwin's grandfather Erasmus Darwin outlined a hypothesis of transmutation of species in the 1790s, and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck published a more developed theory in 1809.

August Weismann

WeismannAugust Friedrich Leopold WeismannAugust Weismans
The inheritance of acquired characteristics (also called the theory of adaptation or soft inheritance) was rejected by August Weismann in the 1880s when he developed a theory of inheritance in which germ plasm (the sex cells, later redefined as DNA), remained separate and distinct from the soma (the rest of the body); thus, nothing which happens to the soma may be passed on with the germ plasm.
This idea, if true, rules out the inheritance of acquired characteristics as proposed by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.

Invertebrate

invertebratesmacroinvertebratemacroinvertebrates
In 1801, he published Système des animaux sans vertèbres, a major work on the classification of invertebrates, a term he coined.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, who was appointed to the position of "Curator of Insecta and Vermes" at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in 1793, both coined the term "invertebrate" to describe such animals and divided the original two groups into ten, by splitting Arachnida and Crustacea from the Linnean Insecta, and Mollusca, Annelida, Cirripedia, Radiata, Coelenterata and Infusoria from the Linnean Vermes.

Azolla

Azollaceaemosquito fernaquatic ferns
The International Plant Names Index gives 58 records, including a number of well-known genera such as the mosquito fern (Azolla).
Azolla filiculoides Lam.

Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance

epigenetic inheritancetransgenerationaltransgenerational epigenetic
Scientists have debated whether advances in the field of transgenerational epigenetics mean that Lamarck was to an extent correct, or not.
In his 1809 book, Philosophie Zoologique, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck recognized that each species experiences a unique set of challenges due to its form and environment.

Germ plasm

germ plasm theorygerm-plasm
The inheritance of acquired characteristics (also called the theory of adaptation or soft inheritance) was rejected by August Weismann in the 1880s when he developed a theory of inheritance in which germ plasm (the sex cells, later redefined as DNA), remained separate and distinct from the soma (the rest of the body); thus, nothing which happens to the soma may be passed on with the germ plasm.
This idea, if true, rules out the inheritance of acquired characteristics as proposed by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and implied by Charles Darwin's pangenesis theory of inheritance.

Philosophie zoologique

Philosophie zoologique, ou Exposition des considérations relatives à l'histoire naturelle des animaux...
The modern era generally remembers Lamarck for a theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics, called Lamarckism (inaccurately named after him), soft inheritance, or use/disuse theory, which he described in his 1809 Philosophie Zoologique.
Philosophie zoologique ("Zoological Philosophy, or Exposition with Regard to the Natural History of Animals") is an 1809 book by the French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, in which he outlines his pre-Darwinian theory of evolution, part of which is now known as Lamarckism.

Species

specificspecific epithetspecific name
Lamarck began as an essentialist who believed species were unchanging; however, after working on the molluscs of the Paris Basin, he grew convinced that transmutation or change in the nature of a species occurred over time.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, in his 1809 Zoological Philosophy, described the transmutation of species, proposing that a species could change over time, in a radical departure from Aristotelian thinking.

Apis mellifera lamarckii

A. m. lamarckiiEgyptian honeybee
The honeybee subspecies Apis mellifera lamarckii is named after Lamarck, as well as the bluefire jellyfish (Cyaneia lamarckii).
Lamarck's honey bee or the Egyptian honey bee, Apis mellifera lamarckii, is a subspecies of honey bee native to the Nile valley of Egypt and Sudan, named after Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.

Arachnid

Arachnidaarachnidsarachnoid
He categorized echinoderms, arachnids, crustaceans, and annelids, which he separated from the old taxon for worms known as Vermes.

Annelid

Annelidaannelidsannelid worms
He categorized echinoderms, arachnids, crustaceans, and annelids, which he separated from the old taxon for worms known as Vermes.