Jean-Jacques Rousseau

RousseauJean Jacques RousseauJ.-J. RousseauJ. J. RousseauRousseauistJ.J. RousseauRosseauJean-Jaques RousseauRousseauianEmile
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (, ; ; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.wikipedia
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The Social Contract

Social ContractContrat SocialThe Social Contract, Or Principles of Political Right
His Discourse on Inequality and The Social Contract are cornerstones in modern political and social thought.
The Social Contract, originally published as On the Social Contract; or, Principles of Political Rights (Du contrat social; ou Principes du droit politique) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is a 1762 book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way to establish a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society, which he had already identified in his Discourse on Inequality (1754).

Confessions (Rousseau)

ConfessionsLes ConfessionsThe Confessions
Rousseau's autobiographical writings—the posthumously published Confessions (composed in 1769), which initiated the modern autobiography, and the unfinished Reveries of a Solitary Walker (composed 1776–1778)—exemplified the late-18th-century "Age of Sensibility", and featured an increased focus on subjectivity and introspection that later characterized modern writing.
The Confessions is an autobiographical book by Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Denis Diderot

DiderotDiderot, DenisDiderot of China
Rousseau befriended fellow philosophy writer Denis Diderot in 1742, and would later write about Diderot's romantic troubles in his Confessions. Beginning with some articles on music in 1749, Rousseau contributed numerous articles to Diderot and D'Alembert's great Encyclopédie, the most famous of which was an article on political economy written in 1755.
In 1742, he befriended Jean-Jacques Rousseau, whom he met while watching games of chess and drinking coffee at the Café de la Régence.

Sentimental novel

sentimentalnovel of sensibilitynovels of sensibility
Rousseau's sentimental novel Julie, or the New Heloise (1761) was important to the development of preromanticism and romanticism in fiction.
Continental examples are Jean-Jacques Rousseau's novel Julie, or the New Heloise, his autobiography The Confessions (1764–70) and Goethe's novel The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774).

Françoise-Louise de Warens

Madame de Warens
In adjoining Savoy he took shelter with a Roman Catholic priest, who introduced him to Françoise-Louise de Warens, age 29.
Françoise-Louise de Warens, born Louise Éléonore de la Tour du Pil, also called Madame de Warens (31 March 1699 – 29 July 1762 ), was the benefactress and mistress of Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Reveries of a Solitary Walker

Les Rêveries du promeneur solitaireReveries of the Solitary WalkerMeditations of a Solitary Walker
Rousseau's autobiographical writings—the posthumously published Confessions (composed in 1769), which initiated the modern autobiography, and the unfinished Reveries of a Solitary Walker (composed 1776–1778)—exemplified the late-18th-century "Age of Sensibility", and featured an increased focus on subjectivity and introspection that later characterized modern writing.
Reveries of a Solitary Walker (French: Les Rêveries du promeneur solitaire) is an unfinished book by Genevan philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, written between 1776 and 1778.

Ménage à trois

menage a troismenage-a-troistriad
The sexual aspect of their relationship (a ménage à trois) confused Rousseau and made him uncomfortable, but he always considered De Warens the greatest love of his life.
In his youth, thirteen years her junior, the French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a protégé of the French noblewoman Françoise-Louise de Warens, who would become his first lover.

Sophie d'Houdetot

Madame d'HoudetotMme. d'HoudetotSophie Lalive de Bellegarde
He also pursued an unconsummated romantic attachment with the 25-year-old Sophie d'Houdetot, which partly inspired his epistolary novel, Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse (also based on memories of his idyllic youthful relationship with Mme de Warens).
She is remembered primarily for the brief but intense love she inspired in Jean-Jacques Rousseau in 1757, but she was also for fifty years in a relationship with the poet and academician Jean François de Saint-Lambert.

Political philosophy

political theorypolitical philosopherpolitical theorist
His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Enlightenment throughout Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution and the development of modern political, economic and educational thought.
A minority (including Jean-Jacques Rousseau) interpreted The Prince as a satire meant to be given to the Medici after their recapture of Florence and their subsequent expulsion of Machiavelli from Florence.

Académie des Sciences, Arts et Belles-Lettres de Dijon

Académie de DijonAcademy of DijonDijon
Rousseau had read about an essay competition sponsored by the Académie de Dijon to be published in the Mercure de France on the theme of whether the development of the arts and sciences had been morally beneficial.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau won the prize by arguing in the negative, in his Discourse on the Arts and Sciences.

Le devin du village

Devin du village
He wrote both the words and music of his opera Le devin du village (The Village Soothsayer), which was performed for King Louis XV in 1752.
Le devin du village ("The Village Soothsayer") is a one-act French opera (intermède) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who also wrote the libretto.

Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm

Melchior GrimmGrimmBaron Grimm
Wounded feelings gave rise to a bitter three-way quarrel between Rousseau and Madame d'Épinay; her lover, the journalist Grimm; and their mutual friend, Diderot, who took their side against Rousseau.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote in his Confessions that Grimm played a cembalo and acted also as reader to the eldest son of Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, the young hereditary prince of Saxe-Gotha.

Christian republic

Calvinist republic
Even his friend Antoine-Jacques Roustan felt impelled to write a polite rebuttal of the chapter on Civil Religion in the Social Contract, which implied that the concept of a Christian republic was paradoxical since Christianity taught submission rather than participation in public affairs.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke considered the idea to be an impossibility and a self-contradiction, but for different reasons.

Discourse on the Arts and Sciences

Discours sur les sciences et les arts
Rousseau's 1750 Discourse on the Arts and Sciences was awarded the first prize and gained him significant fame.
A Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences (1750), also known as Discourse on the Sciences and Arts (French: Discours sur les sciences et les arts) and commonly referred to as The First Discourse, is an essay by Genevan philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau which argued that the arts and sciences corrupt human morality.

Epistolary novel

epistolaryepistolary formepistolary novels
He also pursued an unconsummated romantic attachment with the 25-year-old Sophie d'Houdetot, which partly inspired his epistolary novel, Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse (also based on memories of his idyllic youthful relationship with Mme de Warens).
In France, there was Lettres persanes (1721) by Montesquieu, followed by Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse (1761) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Laclos' Les Liaisons dangereuses (1782), which used the epistolary form to great dramatic effect, because the sequence of events was not always related directly or explicitly.

English literature

EnglishJacobeanCaroline
Rousseau's autobiographical writings—the posthumously published Confessions (composed in 1769), which initiated the modern autobiography, and the unfinished Reveries of a Solitary Walker (composed 1776–1778)—exemplified the late-18th-century "Age of Sensibility", and featured an increased focus on subjectivity and introspection that later characterized modern writing.
Significant foreign influences were the Germans Goethe, Schiller and August Wilhelm Schlegel and French philosopher and writer Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778).

Louise d'Épinay

Madame d'ÉpinayMadame d'EpinayMme. d'Épinay
Sophie was the cousin and houseguest of Rousseau's patroness and landlady Madame d'Épinay, whom he treated rather highhandedly.
d'Épinay', was a French writer, a saloniste and woman of fashion, known on account of her liaisons with Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who gives unflattering reports of her in his Confessions'', as well as her acquaintanceship with Denis Diderot, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Baron d'Holbach and other French men of letters during the Enlightenment.

Autobiography

autobiographicalautobiographiessemi-autobiographical
Rousseau's autobiographical writings—the posthumously published Confessions (composed in 1769), which initiated the modern autobiography, and the unfinished Reveries of a Solitary Walker (composed 1776–1778)—exemplified the late-18th-century "Age of Sensibility", and featured an increased focus on subjectivity and introspection that later characterized modern writing.
Augustine (354–430) applied the title Confessions to his autobiographical work, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau used the same title in the 18th century, initiating the chain of confessional and sometimes racy and highly self-critical, autobiographies of the Romantic era and beyond.

Thérèse Levasseur

Marie-Thérèse Levasseur
Returning to Paris, the penniless Rousseau befriended and became the lover of Thérèse Levasseur, a seamstress who was the sole support of her mother and numerous ne'er-do-well siblings.
Marie-Thérèse Levasseur (21 September 1721 - 12 July 1801; also known as Thérèse Le Vasseur and Thérèse Lavasseur) was the domestic partner of Genevan philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Antoine-Jacques Roustan

Even his friend Antoine-Jacques Roustan felt impelled to write a polite rebuttal of the chapter on Civil Religion in the Social Contract, which implied that the concept of a Christian republic was paradoxical since Christianity taught submission rather than participation in public affairs.
Antoine-Jacques Roustan (23 October 1734 – 15 June 1808) was a Genevan pastor and theologian, who engaged in an extensive correspondence with Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Querelle des Bouffons

guerre des bouffonsles BouffonsWar of the Buffoons
The same year, the visit of a troupe of Italian musicians to Paris, and their performance of Giovanni Battista Pergolesi's La serva padrona, prompted the Querelle des Bouffons, which pitted protagonists of French music against supporters of the Italian style.
In the controversy that followed, critics such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau (in the queen's corner) and Friedrich Melchior Grimm, together with other writers associated with the Encyclopédie, praised Italian opera buffa and attacked French lyric tragedy, a style originated by Jean-Baptiste Lully and promoted among then-living composers such as French composer Jean-Philippe Rameau (in the king's corner).

Baron d'Holbach

d'HolbachHolbachP. Holbach
Rousseau's break with the Encyclopedistes coincided with the composition of his three major works, in all of which he emphasized his fervent belief in a spiritual origin of man's soul and the universe, in contradistinction to the materialism of Diderot, La Mettrie and D'Holbach.
It is thought that the virtuous atheist Wolmar in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse is based on d'Holbach.

Encyclopédie

Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiersEncyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiersEncyclopedie
Beginning with some articles on music in 1749, Rousseau contributed numerous articles to Diderot and D'Alembert's great Encyclopédie, the most famous of which was an article on political economy written in 1755.
Many of the philosophes (intellectuals of the French Enlightenment) contributed to the Encyclopédie, including Diderot himself, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu.

René de Girardin

René Louis de GirardinLouis-René Girardinmarquis de Girardin
In the spring of 1778, the Marquis Girardin invited Rousseau to live in a cottage in his château at Ermenonville.
René Louis de Girardin (February 25, 1735 – 1808), Marquis of Vauvray, was Jean-Jacques Rousseau's last pupil.

Jean-Philippe Rameau

RameauJean Philippe RameauRameau, Jean-Philippe
Rousseau as noted above, was an enthusiastic supporter of the Italians against Jean-Philippe Rameau and others, making an important contribution with his Letter on French Music.
1745 also saw the beginning of the bitter enmity between Rameau and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.