Jean-Jacques Rousseau

RousseauJean Jacques RousseauJ.-J. RousseauJ. J. RousseauRousseauistJ.J. RousseauRosseauJean-Jaques RousseauRousseauianEmile
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (, ; ; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.wikipedia
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Romanticism

RomanticRomantic movementRomantic era
Rousseau's sentimental novel Julie, or the New Heloise (1761) was important to the development of preromanticism and romanticism in fiction.
American Romantic Gothic literature made an early appearance with Washington Irving's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow (1820) and Rip Van Winkle (1819), followed from 1823 onwards by the Leatherstocking Tales of James Fenimore Cooper, with their emphasis on heroic simplicity and their fervent landscape descriptions of an already-exotic mythicized frontier peopled by "noble savages", similar to the philosophical theory of Rousseau, exemplified by Uncas, from The Last of the Mohicans.

D'Holbach's Coterie

d'Holbach's salon
Adam Smith, Turgot, Marischal Keith, Horace Walpole, and Mme de Boufflers advised Hume not to make his quarrel with Rousseau public; however, many members of D'Holbach's Coterie—particularly, d'Alembert—urged him to reveal his version of the events.
D'Holbach's Coterie (la coterie holbachique was the phrase coined by Jean-Jacques Rousseau) was a group of radical French Enlightenment thinkers who met regularly at the salon of the atheist philosophe Baron d'Holbach in the years approximately 1750–1780.

Jacob Vernes

Former friends such as Jacob Vernes of Geneva could not accept his views, and wrote violent rebuttals.
Jacob Vernes (31 May 1728 – 22 October 1791) was a Genevan theologian and Protestant pastor in Geneva, famous for his correspondence with Voltaire and Rousseau.

Letters on the Elements of Botany

Lettres sur la botanique
At this time also, he wrote his Letters on the Elements of Botany.
Letters on the Elements of Botany (Lettres Elementaires Sur La Botanique) is a work comprising a series of letters written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau on the subject of botany.

James Boswell

BoswellBoswell, JamesBoswellian
For more than two years (1762–1765) Rousseau lived at Môtiers, spending his time in reading and writing and meeting visitors such as James Boswell (December 1764).
During this time he met Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Voltaire with a recommendation letter of Constant d'Hermenches, and made a pilgrimage to Rome, where his portrait was painted by George Willison.

Considerations on the Government of Poland

In 1772, Rousseau was invited to present recommendations for a new constitution for the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, resulting in the Considerations on the Government of Poland, which was to be his last major political work.
Considerations on the Government of Poland — also simply The Government of Poland or, in the original French, Considérations sur le gouvernement de Pologne — is an essay by Swiss philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau concerning the design of a new constitution for the people of Poland (or more exactly, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth).

Noble savage

noblesavagenoble savages
This has led some critics to attribute to Rousseau the invention of the idea of the noble savage, which Arthur Lovejoy conclusively showed misrepresents Rousseau's thought.
Contrary to what is sometimes believed, Jean-Jacques Rousseau never used the phrase noble savage (French bon sauvage).

David Hume

HumeHumeanHume, David
A sympathetic observer, David Hume "professed no surprise when he learned that Rousseau's books were banned in Geneva and elsewhere".
Hume was well received in Paris, and while there he met with Isaac de Pinto In 1766, Hume left Paris to accompany Jean-Jacques Rousseau to England.

Amour de soi

self-love
In Rousseau's philosophy, society's negative influence on men centers on its transformation of amour de soi, a positive self-love, into amour-propre, or pride.
Amour de soi (French, "self-love") is a concept in the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau that refers to the kind of self-love that humans share with brute animals and predates the appearance of society.

Numbered musical notation

jianpunumberedcipher musical notation
In 1742, Rousseau moved to Paris in order to present the Académie des Sciences with a new system of numbered musical notation he believed would make his fortune.
A similar invention was presented by Jean-Jacques Rousseau in his work presented to the French Academy of Sciences in 1742.

Direct democracy

direct democraticdirectdirect legislation
The "sovereign" is the rule of law, ideally decided on by direct democracy in an assembly.
The theory and practice of direct democracy and participation as its common characteristic was the core of work of many theorists, philosophers and politicians, among whom the most important are Jean Jacques Rousseau, John Stuart Mill, G.D.H. Cole.

History of Geneva

GenevaAlliance treaty between Geneva, Berne and FribourgCalvin's new strict Church order
Rousseau was born in Geneva, which was at the time a city-state and a Protestant associate of the Swiss Confederacy.
Jean Jacques Rousseau fell out with him and other philosophes such as Denis Diderot and Voltaire over this, advocating stricter morals and siding with the radicals, although not going so far as to advocate democracy.

Jean le Rond d'Alembert

d'AlembertD’AlembertJean d'Alembert
Adam Smith, Turgot, Marischal Keith, Horace Walpole, and Mme de Boufflers advised Hume not to make his quarrel with Rousseau public; however, many members of D'Holbach's Coterie—particularly, d'Alembert—urged him to reveal his version of the events. Beginning with some articles on music in 1749, Rousseau contributed numerous articles to Diderot and D'Alembert's great Encyclopédie, the most famous of which was an article on political economy written in 1755.
Under pressure from Jacob Vernes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and others, d'Alembert eventually made the excuse that he considered anyone who did not accept the Church of Rome to be a Socinianist, and that was all he meant, and he abstained from further work on the encyclopaedia following his response to the critique.

Ermenonville

Ermenonville Castle
In the spring of 1778, the Marquis Girardin invited Rousseau to live in a cottage in his château at Ermenonville.
Ermenonville is notable for its park named for Jean-Jacques Rousseau by René Louis de Girardin.

Panthéon

PantheonPanthéon, ParisPanthéon de Paris
He was interred as a national hero in the Panthéon in Paris, in 1794, 16 years after his death.
The ashes of Voltaire were placed in the Panthéon in a lavish ceremony on 21 July 1791, followed by the remains of several martyred revolutionaries, including Jean-Paul Marat, and of the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Isaac Rousseau

Isaac
Jean-Jacques Rousseau's father, Isaac, was not in the city at this time, but Jean-Jacques's grandfather supported Fatio and was penalized for it.
They had two sons, François Rousseau and the writer and philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, though Suzanne died only nine days after Jean-Jacques's birth.

Plutarch

Lucius Mestrius PlutarchusLucius Mestrius Plutarchus,Plut.
Of these, his favorite was Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, which he would read to his father while he made watches.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau quotes from Plutarch in the 1762 Emile, or On Education, a treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship.

Edmund Burke

BurkeBurkeanBurkian
When Rousseau subsequently became celebrated as a theorist of education and child-rearing, his abandonment of his children was used by his critics, including Voltaire and Edmund Burke, as the basis for ad hominem attacks.
Burke called for external forces to reverse the Revolution and included an attack on the late French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau as being the subject of a personality cult that had developed in revolutionary France.

St. Peter's Island

St. PetersinselIle de Saint-PierreSankt-Petersinsel
Since he wanted to remain in Switzerland, Rousseau decided to accept an offer to move to a tiny island, the Ile de St.-Pierre, having a solitary house.
Before his expulsion, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, spent two months on the island in 1765 calling it the "happiest time of his life".

General will

general will" theories of democracypopular willthe general will
This is because submission to the authority of the general will of the people as a whole guarantees individuals against being subordinated to the wills of others and also ensures that they obey themselves because they are, collectively, the authors of the law.
The term was made famous by 18th-century French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Jacobin

Jacobin ClubJacobinsClub des Jacobins
During the period of the French Revolution, Rousseau was the most popular of the philosophers among members of the Jacobin Club.
As commented in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's 1762 book The Social Contract, "Citizenship is the expression of a sublime reciprocity between individual and General will."

Amour-propre

amour propreher own self-importance-and-consequence
In Rousseau's philosophy, society's negative influence on men centers on its transformation of amour de soi, a positive self-love, into amour-propre, or pride.
By definition it can mean loving thyself whereas in philosophy it is a debated theory of Jean-Jacques Rousseau that esteem must be found by the approval of others first.

Social contract

social contract theorycontractarianismcontractarian
Rousseau posits that the original, deeply flawed Social Contract (i.e., that of Hobbes), which led to the modern state, was made at the suggestion of the rich and powerful, who tricked the general population into surrendering their liberties to them and instituted inequality as a fundamental feature of human society.
The term takes its name from The Social Contract (French: Du contrat social ou Principes du droit politique), a 1762 book by Jean-Jacques Rousseau that discussed this concept.

Voltaire

François-Marie ArouetVoltairianFrançois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)
When Rousseau subsequently became celebrated as a theorist of education and child-rearing, his abandonment of his children was used by his critics, including Voltaire and Edmund Burke, as the basis for ad hominem attacks.
Napoleon commented that till he was sixteen he "would have fought for Rousseau against the friends of Voltaire, today it is the opposite ... The more I read Voltaire the more I love him. He is a man always reasonable, never a charlatan, never a fanatic."

Dialogues: Rousseau, Judge of Jean-Jacques

Also in 1772, Rousseau began writing his Dialogues: Rousseau, Judge of Jean-Jacques, which was another attempt to reply to his critics.
Rousseau, Judge of Jean-Jacques (French: Rousseau juge de Jean-Jacques) is a book written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau.