Jean-Martin Charcot

CharcotJean Martin CharcotJean Charcot Jean-Martin CharcotCharcot, Jean MartinDr. Jean-Martin CharcotM. Charcot
Jean-Martin Charcot (29 November 1825 – 16 August 1893) was a French neurologist and professor of anatomical pathology.wikipedia
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Louise Augustine Gleizes

He is best known today for his work on hypnosis and hysteria, in particular his work with his hysteria patient Louise Augustine Gleizes. In particular, he is best remembered for his work with his hysteria patient Louise Augustine Gleizes, who somewhat increased his fame during his lifetime; however, Marie "Blanche" Wittmann, known as the Queen of Hysterics, was his most famous hysteria patient at the time.
Louise Augustine Gleizes (born August 21, 1861), known as Augustine or A, was a very famous woman in the 1800s, due to neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot publicly exhibiting her symptoms as a hysteria patient while she was held at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris.

Neurology

neurologistneurologicalneurologists
Jean-Martin Charcot (29 November 1825 – 16 August 1893) was a French neurologist and professor of anatomical pathology.
The academic discipline began between the 15th and 16th centuries with the work and research of many neurologists such as Thomas Willis, Robert Whytt, Matthew Baillie, Charles Bell, Moritz Heinrich Romberg, Duchenne de Boulogne, William A. Hammond, Jean-Martin Charcot, and John Hughlings Jackson.

Duchenne de Boulogne

Guillaume DuchenneDuchenneGuillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne de Boulogne
Charcot was a part of the French neurological tradition and studied under, and greatly revered, Duchenne de Boulogne.
Neurology did not exist in France before Duchenne and although many medical historians regard Jean-Martin Charcot as the father of the discipline, Charcot owed much to Duchenne, often acknowledging him as "mon maître en neurologie" (my teacher in neurology).

Multiple sclerosis

MSmultiple sclerosis (MS)disseminated sclerosis
He named and was the first to describe multiple sclerosis.
MS was first described in 1868 by Jean-Martin Charcot.

Hypnosis

hypnotismhypnotisthypnotic
He is best known today for his work on hypnosis and hysteria, in particular his work with his hysteria patient Louise Augustine Gleizes.
Jean-Martin Charcot made a similar distinction between stages which he named somnambulism, lethargy, and catalepsy.

Jean-Baptiste Charcot

J.B. CharcotCharcotJean Baptiste Charcot
"He married a rich widow, Madame Durvis, in 1862 and had two children, Jeanne and Jean-Baptiste, who later became a doctor and a famous polar explorer".
His father was the neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–1893).

Pierre Marie

Pierre Marie cerbellar ataxia
The announcement was made simultaneously with Pierre Marie of France (his resident) and Howard Henry Tooth of England. Charcot is just as famous for his influence on those who had studied with him: Sigmund Freud, Joseph Babinski, Pierre Janet, William James, Pierre Marie, Albert Londe, Charles-Joseph Bouchard, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Alfred Binet, Jean Leguirec and Albert Pitres.
After finishing medical school, he served as an interne (1878), working as an assistant to neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–1893) at the Salpêtrière and Bicêtre Hospitals in Paris.

Salpêtrière School of Hypnosis

The Salpêtrière School of HypnosisHysteria SchoolParis School
The Salpêtrière School's position on hypnosis was sharply criticized by Hippolyte Bernheim, another leading neurologist of the time.
The leader of this school, the neurologist Jean Martin Charcot, contributed to the rehabilitation of hypnosis as a scientific subject presenting it as a somatic expression of hysteria.

James Parkinson

ParkinsonWorld Parkinson's DayJames
He also led the disease formerly named paralysis agitans (shaking palsy) to be renamed after James Parkinson.
He is best known for his 1817 work, An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, in which he was the first to describe "paralysis agitans", a condition that would later be renamed Parkinson's disease by Jean-Martin Charcot.

Marie "Blanche" Wittmann

Blanche Wittmann
In particular, he is best remembered for his work with his hysteria patient Louise Augustine Gleizes, who somewhat increased his fame during his lifetime; however, Marie "Blanche" Wittmann, known as the Queen of Hysterics, was his most famous hysteria patient at the time.
Marie "Blanche" Wittmann (1859–1913), known as the Queen of Hysterics, was the most famous hysteria patient of Jean-Martin Charcot at the Salpêtrière Hospital.

Axel Munthe

MuntheAxel Martin Fredrik MuntheAxel Munthe Award in Reproductive Science
Distorted views of Charcot as harsh and tyrannical have arisen from some sources that rely on a fanciful autobiographical novel by Axel Munthe, The Story of San Michele (1929).
Munthe studied medicine in Uppsala, Montpellier and Paris (where he was a student of Charcot), and graduated as M.D. in 1880 at the age of 23.

Pierre Janet

JanetJanetismPierre
Charcot is just as famous for his influence on those who had studied with him: Sigmund Freud, Joseph Babinski, Pierre Janet, William James, Pierre Marie, Albert Londe, Charles-Joseph Bouchard, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Alfred Binet, Jean Leguirec and Albert Pitres.
Janet studied under Jean-Martin Charcot at the Psychological Laboratory in the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris.

Sigmund Freud

FreudFreudianFreudian theory
Charcot is just as famous for his influence on those who had studied with him: Sigmund Freud, Joseph Babinski, Pierre Janet, William James, Pierre Marie, Albert Londe, Charles-Joseph Bouchard, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Alfred Binet, Jean Leguirec and Albert Pitres.
In October 1885, Freud went to Paris on a three-month fellowship to study with Jean-Martin Charcot, a renowned neurologist who was conducting scientific research into hypnosis.

Tourette syndrome

Tourette's syndromeTouretteTourettes
Charcot bestowed the eponym for Tourette syndrome in honor of his student, Georges Gilles de la Tourette.
The condition was named by Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–1893) on behalf of his resident, Georges Albert Édouard Brutus Gilles de la Tourette (1857–1904), a French physician and neurologist, who published an account of nine patients with Tourette's in 1885.

Joseph Babinski

Joseph BabińskiBabinskiJoseph Jules François Félix Babinski
Charcot is just as famous for his influence on those who had studied with him: Sigmund Freud, Joseph Babinski, Pierre Janet, William James, Pierre Marie, Albert Londe, Charles-Joseph Bouchard, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Alfred Binet, Jean Leguirec and Albert Pitres.
He came early to Professor Charcot at Paris' Salpêtrière Hospital and became his favorite student.

Albert Pitres

Charcot is just as famous for his influence on those who had studied with him: Sigmund Freud, Joseph Babinski, Pierre Janet, William James, Pierre Marie, Albert Londe, Charles-Joseph Bouchard, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Alfred Binet, Jean Leguirec and Albert Pitres.
He was born in Bordeaux and received his training in Paris, where he was the student of Jean Martin Charcot (1825-1893) and Louis-Antoine Ranvier (1835-1922).

Neuropathic arthropathy

Charcot jointsCharcot footCharcot arthropathy
He was also the first to describe a disorder known as Charcot joint or Charcot arthropathy, a degeneration of joint surfaces resulting from loss of proprioception.
Neuropathic arthropathy (or neuropathic osteoarthropathy), also known as Charcot joint (often Charcot foot) after the first to describe it, Jean-Martin Charcot, refers to progressive degeneration of a weight bearing joint, a process marked by bony destruction, bone resorption, and eventual deformity due to loss of sensation.

Georges Gilles de la Tourette

Georges Albert Édouard Brutus Gilles de la TouretteGilles de La Tourette
Charcot is just as famous for his influence on those who had studied with him: Sigmund Freud, Joseph Babinski, Pierre Janet, William James, Pierre Marie, Albert Londe, Charles-Joseph Bouchard, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Alfred Binet, Jean Leguirec and Albert Pitres. He also was concerned that the sensationalism hypnosis attracted had robbed it of its scientific interest, and that the quarrel with Bernheim, amplified by Charcot's pupil Georges Gilles de la Tourette, had "damaged" hypnotism.
He later relocated to Paris where he became a student, amanuensis, and house physician of his mentor, the influential contemporary neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot, director of the Salpêtrière Hospital.

The Story of San Michele

Distorted views of Charcot as harsh and tyrannical have arisen from some sources that rely on a fanciful autobiographical novel by Axel Munthe, The Story of San Michele (1929).
He associated with a number of celebrities of his times, including Jean-Martin Charcot, Louis Pasteur, Henry James, and Guy de Maupassant, all of whom figure in the book.

Alfred Binet

BinetBinet, Alfred
Charcot is just as famous for his influence on those who had studied with him: Sigmund Freud, Joseph Babinski, Pierre Janet, William James, Pierre Marie, Albert Londe, Charles-Joseph Bouchard, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Alfred Binet, Jean Leguirec and Albert Pitres.
In 1883, years of unaccompanied study ended when Binet was introduced to Charles Féré, who introduced him to Jean-Martin Charcot, the director of a clinic called La Salpêtrière, Paris.

Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease

Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseaseCharcot-Marie-ToothPeroneal muscular atrophy
Also known as "the founder of modern neurology", his name has been associated with at least 15 medical eponyms, including Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease and Charcot disease.
The disease is named after those who classically described it: Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–1893), his pupil Pierre Marie (1853–1940), and Howard Henry Tooth (1856–1925) ("The peroneal type of progressive muscular atrophy", dissertation, London, 1886).

Charcot–Wilbrand syndrome

Charcot-Wilbrand syndrome
The name of this condition dates back to the case study work of Jean-Martin Charcot and Hermann Wilbrand, and was first described by Otto Potzl as “mind blindness with disturbance of optic imagination”.

Henry Meige

Henri Meige
When these claims were developed by neurologist Henry Meige, and others, in conjunction with the myth of the Wandering Jew, this was used as support by the apostles of French anti-Semitism, notably the journalist Edouard Drumont.
He studied medicine in Paris under Jean Charcot (1825–1893), earning his doctorate in 1893.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

ALSLou Gehrig's diseasemotor neurone disease
In 1869, the connection between the symptoms and the underlying neurological problems was first described by Jean-Martin Charcot, who in 1874 began using the term amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Albert Londe

Charcot is just as famous for his influence on those who had studied with him: Sigmund Freud, Joseph Babinski, Pierre Janet, William James, Pierre Marie, Albert Londe, Charles-Joseph Bouchard, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Alfred Binet, Jean Leguirec and Albert Pitres.
In 1878 neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot hired Londe as a medical photographer at the Salpêtrière.