Jean Astruc

Jean Astruc (Sauve, France, 19 March 1684 – Paris, 5 May 1766) was a professor of medicine at Montpellier and Paris, who wrote the first great treatise on syphilis and venereal diseases, and also, with a small anonymously published book, played a fundamental part in the origins of critical textual analysis of works of scripture.wikipedia
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Documentary hypothesis

redactordeuteronomistic historian(s)were imposed long after
Astruc was the first to try to demonstrate, by using the techniques of textual analysis that were commonplace in studying the secular classics, the theory that Genesis was composed based on several sources or manuscript traditions, an approach now called the documentary hypothesis.
In 1780 Johann Eichhorn, building on the work of the French doctor and exegete Jean Astruc's "Conjectures" and others, formulated the "older documentary hypothesis": the idea that Genesis was composed by combining two identifiable sources, the Jehovist ("J"; also called the Yahwist) and the Elohist ("E").

Biblical criticism

biblical scholarsbiblical scholarshipcritical scholars
In Astruc's own times the writers of the Encyclopédie were working under great pressure and in secret, the Catholic Church not offering a tolerant atmosphere for biblical criticism.
Jean Astruc (1684–1766), a French physician, believed these critics were wrong about Mosaic authorship.

Astruc

The son of a Protestant minister who had converted to Catholicism (although the House of Astruc was of medieval Jewish origin), Astruc was educated at Montpellier, one of the great schools of medicine in early modern Europe.
Jean Astruc (1684–1766), French medical professor

Preformationism

preformationpreformationistpre-existence
Preformationism
Jean Astruc, noting that parents of both sexes seemed to influence the characteristics of their offspring, suggested that the animalcule came from the sperm and was then shaped as it passed into the egg.

Sauve

Jean Astruc (Sauve, France, 19 March 1684 – Paris, 5 May 1766) was a professor of medicine at Montpellier and Paris, who wrote the first great treatise on syphilis and venereal diseases, and also, with a small anonymously published book, played a fundamental part in the origins of critical textual analysis of works of scripture.

France

🇫🇷FrenchFRA
Jean Astruc (Sauve, France, 19 March 1684 – Paris, 5 May 1766) was a professor of medicine at Montpellier and Paris, who wrote the first great treatise on syphilis and venereal diseases, and also, with a small anonymously published book, played a fundamental part in the origins of critical textual analysis of works of scripture.

The Chainsmokers

Paris, FranceParisCity of Paris
Jean Astruc (Sauve, France, 19 March 1684 – Paris, 5 May 1766) was a professor of medicine at Montpellier and Paris, who wrote the first great treatise on syphilis and venereal diseases, and also, with a small anonymously published book, played a fundamental part in the origins of critical textual analysis of works of scripture.

Montpellier

MontpelierMontpellier, FranceMontpellier, Hérault
The son of a Protestant minister who had converted to Catholicism (although the House of Astruc was of medieval Jewish origin), Astruc was educated at Montpellier, one of the great schools of medicine in early modern Europe. Jean Astruc (Sauve, France, 19 March 1684 – Paris, 5 May 1766) was a professor of medicine at Montpellier and Paris, who wrote the first great treatise on syphilis and venereal diseases, and also, with a small anonymously published book, played a fundamental part in the origins of critical textual analysis of works of scripture.

Syphilis

syphilitictertiary syphilissyphilology
Jean Astruc (Sauve, France, 19 March 1684 – Paris, 5 May 1766) was a professor of medicine at Montpellier and Paris, who wrote the first great treatise on syphilis and venereal diseases, and also, with a small anonymously published book, played a fundamental part in the origins of critical textual analysis of works of scripture.

Sexually transmitted infection

venereal diseasesexually transmitted diseasesexually transmitted diseases
Jean Astruc (Sauve, France, 19 March 1684 – Paris, 5 May 1766) was a professor of medicine at Montpellier and Paris, who wrote the first great treatise on syphilis and venereal diseases, and also, with a small anonymously published book, played a fundamental part in the origins of critical textual analysis of works of scripture.

Book of Genesis

GenesisGen.Gen
Astruc was the first to try to demonstrate, by using the techniques of textual analysis that were commonplace in studying the secular classics, the theory that Genesis was composed based on several sources or manuscript traditions, an approach now called the documentary hypothesis.

Protestantism

ProtestantProtestantsEvangelical
The son of a Protestant minister who had converted to Catholicism (although the House of Astruc was of medieval Jewish origin), Astruc was educated at Montpellier, one of the great schools of medicine in early modern Europe.

Jews

JewishJewJewish people
The son of a Protestant minister who had converted to Catholicism (although the House of Astruc was of medieval Jewish origin), Astruc was educated at Montpellier, one of the great schools of medicine in early modern Europe.

Thomas Willis

Dr. Thomas WillisDr Thomas WillisSir Thomas Willis
His dissertation and first publication, submitted when he was only 19, is on decomposition, and contains many references to recent research on the lungs by Thomas Willis and Robert Boyle.

Robert Boyle

BoyleBoyle, Robert[Robert] Boyle
His dissertation and first publication, submitted when he was only 19, is on decomposition, and contains many references to recent research on the lungs by Thomas Willis and Robert Boyle.

University of Paris

SorbonneParisthe Sorbonne
After teaching medicine at Montpellier he became a member of the medical faculty at the University of Paris.

Brussels

Brussels-Capital RegionBrussels, BelgiumBruxelles
The title cautiously gives the place of publication as Brussels, safely beyond the reach of French authorities.

Counter-Reformation

counter reformationcounterreformationCatholic Reformation
The safeguard was required since Astruc's Languedoc homeland was in the frame of the Counter-Reformation, and the Protestant "Camisards" being deported or sent to the galleys was still a very recent memory.

Camisard

Camisard Rebellioncamisardswar of the Camisards
The safeguard was required since Astruc's Languedoc homeland was in the frame of the Counter-Reformation, and the Protestant "Camisards" being deported or sent to the galleys was still a very recent memory.

Encyclopédie

Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiersEncyclopédistesDiderot's Encyclopedia
In Astruc's own times the writers of the Encyclopédie were working under great pressure and in secret, the Catholic Church not offering a tolerant atmosphere for biblical criticism.

Catholic Church

CatholicRoman CatholicRoman Catholicism
In Astruc's own times the writers of the Encyclopédie were working under great pressure and in secret, the Catholic Church not offering a tolerant atmosphere for biblical criticism. The son of a Protestant minister who had converted to Catholicism (although the House of Astruc was of medieval Jewish origin), Astruc was educated at Montpellier, one of the great schools of medicine in early modern Europe.

Mosaic authorship

MosesAccording to traditionascribed to Moses
That was somewhat ironic, for Astruc saw himself as fundamentally a supporter of orthodoxy; his unorthodoxy lay not in denying Mosaic authorship of Genesis but in his defence of it. In the previous century scholars such as Thomas Hobbes and Baruch Spinoza had drawn up long lists of inconsistencies and contradictions and anachronisms in the Torah and used them to argue that Moses could not have been the author of the entire five books.

Thomas Hobbes

HobbesHobbesianHobbes, Thomas
That was somewhat ironic, for Astruc saw himself as fundamentally a supporter of orthodoxy; his unorthodoxy lay not in denying Mosaic authorship of Genesis but in his defence of it. In the previous century scholars such as Thomas Hobbes and Baruch Spinoza had drawn up long lists of inconsistencies and contradictions and anachronisms in the Torah and used them to argue that Moses could not have been the author of the entire five books.