Jedwabne pogrom

Memorial in Jedwabne, Łomża County, Poland
The Jedwabne synagogue accidentally burned down in 1913.
Jedwabne crime scene, compiled from Polish court documents
Jewish children with their schoolteachers, Jedwabne, 1933, including three boys who survived the war by hiding on Antonina Wyrzykowska's farm. Back row, second left: Szmul Wasersztajn (who gave a statement in 1945); third, Mosze Olszewicz; and fourth, Jankiel Kubrzański.
Jan T. Gross, 2019
Jedwabne memorial, 2011
Antonina Wyrzykowska and her husband were beaten by fellow Poles for saving Jews in Jedwabne, and were later recognized as Righteous Among the Nations.
Polish president Aleksander Kwaśniewski apologized for the massacre in 2001.
POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews, Warsaw, 2014
77th anniversary, 2018, Jedwabne monument

Massacre of Polish Jews in the town of Jedwabne, German-occupied Poland, on 10 July 1941, during World War II and the early stages of the Holocaust.

- Jedwabne pogrom

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History of the Jews in Poland

The history of the Jews in Poland dates back at least 1,000 years.

Reception of Jews in Poland, by Jan Matejko, 1889
Early-medieval Polish coins with Hebrew inscriptions
Casimir the Great and the Jews, by Wojciech Gerson, 1874
Casimir IV Jagiellon confirmed and extended Jewish charters in the second half of the 15th century
Sigismund II Augustus followed his father's tolerant policy and also granted autonomy to the Jews.
Number of Jews in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth per voivodeship in 1764
A Polish Jew in an engraving from 1703
Late-Renaissance synagogue, Zamość, Poland, 1610–20
Jacob Frank
Jewish dress in 17th (top) and 18th centuries
Berek Joselewicz (1764–1809)
Jewish merchants in 19th-century Warsaw
Map of Pale of Settlement, showing Jewish population densities
Caricature of Russian Army assailant in 1906 Białystok pogrom
A Bundist demonstration, 1917
Hasidic schoolchildren in Łódź, c. 1910s, during Partitions
Rabbi Baruch Steinberg before Warsaw Great Synagogue (1933), reading roll call of the fallen, organized by Union of Jewish Fighters for Polish Independence
Warsaw Great Synagogue
L. L. Zamenhof, creator of Esperanto
Isaac Bashevis Singer (Polish: Izaak Zynger), achieved international acclaim as a classic Jewish writer and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1978
Shimon Peres, born in Poland as Szymon Perski, served as the ninth President of Israel between 2007 and 2014
Student's book (indeks) of Jewish medical student Marek Szapiro at Warsaw University, with rectangular "ghetto benches" ("odd-numbered-benches") stamp
Demonstration of Polish students demanding implementation of "ghetto benches" at Lwów Polytechnic (1937).
Graves of Jewish-Polish soldiers who died in 1939 September Campaign, Powązki Cemetery
Yiddish election notice for Soviet local government to the People's council of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic in Białystok, occupied Poland.
Jewish-Polish soldier's grave, Monte Cassino, Italy
Map of the Holocaust in Poland under German occupation.
Starving Jewish children, Warsaw Ghetto
Jewish Ghettos in German-occupied Poland and Eastern Europe
Walling-off Świętokrzyska Street (seen from Marszałkowska Street on the "Aryan side")
Announcement of death penalty for Jews captured outside the Ghetto and for Poles helping Jews, November 1941
Janusz Korczak's orphanage
Ghetto fighters memorial in Warsaw built in 1948 by sculptor Nathan Rapoport
Deportation to Treblinka at the Umschlagplatz
The cover page of The Stroop Report with International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg markings.
34 Mordechaj Anielewicz Street, Warsaw, Poland
Freed prisoners of Gęsiówka and the Szare Szeregi fighters after the liberation of the camp in August 1944
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943 saw the destruction of what remained of the Ghetto
Page from a register of several hundred Jewish survivors who returned to Oświęcim after the war; created by a local Jewish Committee in 1945. Most remained for only a brief period.
Chief Rabbi of Poland – Michael Schudrich
Lesko Synagogue, Poland
Reform Beit Warszawa Synagogue
2005 March of the Living
President of the Republic of Poland, Lech Kaczyński, at the groundbreaking ceremony for the Museum of the History of Polish Jews, 26 June 2007
"Shalom in Szeroka Street", the final concert of the 15th Jewish Festival

Examples of Polish attitudes to German atrocities varied widely, from actively risking death in order to save Jewish lives, and passive refusal to inform on them, to indifference, blackmail, and in extreme cases, participation in pogroms such as the Jedwabne pogrom.

Institute of National Remembrance

Polish state research institute in charge of education and archives with investigative and lustration powers.

The logo of IPN

[[Image:Empark Mokotów Business Park ul. Postępu 2020.jpg|230px]]

IPN headquarters at 1 Kurtyki Street in Warsaw
Main entrance
Leon Kieres
Janusz Kurtyka
Franciszek Gryciuk
Łukasz Kamiński
Jarosław Szarek
Karol Nawrocki
Archive at the former IPN headquarters at 28 Towarowa Street in Warsaw

He dismissed Krzysztof Persak, co-author of the 2002 two-volume IPN study on the Jedwabne pogrom.

Pogrom

Violent riot incited with the aim of massacring or expelling an ethnic or religious group, particularly Jews.

The Hep-Hep riots in Würzburg, 1819. On the left, two peasant women are assaulting a Jewish man with pitchfork and broom. On the right, a man wearing spectacles, tails and a six-button waistcoat, "perhaps a pharmacist or a schoolteacher," holds a Jewish man by the throat and is about to club him with a truncheon. The houses are being looted. A contemporary engraving by Johann Michael Voltz.
Victims of a pogrom in Kishinev, Bessarabia, 1903
Map of pogroms in Ukraine between 1918 and 1920 per casualties
A massacre of Armenians and Assyrians in the city of Adana, Ottoman Empire, April 1909
Iași pogrom in Romania, June 1941
Jewish woman chased by men and youth armed with clubs during the Lviv pogroms, July 1941
The 1921 Tulsa race massacre, which destroyed the wealthiest black community in the United States, has been described as a pogrom.

Notorious pogroms of World War II included the 1941 Farhud in Iraq, the July 1941 Iași pogrom in Romania – in which over 13,200 Jews were killed – as well as the Jedwabne pogrom in German-occupied Poland.

Jedwabne

Town in northeast Poland, in Łomża County of Podlaskie Voivodeship, with 1,942 inhabitants (2002).

Jedwabne synagogue destroyed in a 1913 accidental fire
Memorial in Jedwabne

It is notable for the Jedwabne pogrom of 10 July 1941, during the World War II German occupation of Poland.

Jan T. Gross

Polish-American sociologist and historian.

Jan T. Gross at the Collège de France, 2019

His 2001 book about the Jedwabne massacre, Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland, caused controversy because it addressed the role of local Poles in the massacre.

Bielsk Podlaski

Town in eastern Poland, within Bielsk County in the Podlaskie Voivodeship.

Castle Hill, the site of the former medieval stronghold
Baroque Roman Catholic Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel
A historical house from 1909. Preserved wooden architecture can still be found in some parts of the town
Grave and memorial of 49 Poles massacred by the Germans on July 15, 1943
Bielsk Podlaski (Town) in Bielsk County
Twin town sign in Bielsk Podlaski
A wooden inn called Słuszna near the marketplace and town hall
Catholic Basilica of Saints Mary and Nicholas
Orthodox church of the Assumption of the Archangel Michael
Orthodox cathedral of the Lord's Resurrection
Former monasterial building complex. Presently, The School of Music
Former monasterial building complex. Presently, The School of Music
Iconographic school in Bielsk Podlaski
House of Culture

A pogrom took place in Bielsk Podlaski from July 5–7, 1941, in a series of pogroms in other towns including the Jedwabne pogrom.

League of Polish Families

Conservative political party in Poland, with many far-right elements in the past.

The performance of League of Polish Families in the September 2001 elections, has been partly attributed to its well publicized and uncompromising attitude towards Jedwabne pogrom.

Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland

Princeton University shield

Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland is a 2000 book by Princeton University historian Jan T. Gross exploring the July 1941 Jedwabne massacre committed against Polish Jews by their non-Jewish neighbors in the village of Jedwabne in Nazi-occupied Poland.

The Holocaust

The genocide of European Jews during World War II.

From the Auschwitz Album: Hungarian Jews arriving at Auschwitz II in German-occupied Poland, May 1944. Most were "selected" to go to the gas chambers. Camp prisoners are visible in their striped uniforms.
German-occupied Europe, 1942
The 23 defendants during the Doctors' trial, Nuremberg, 9 December 1946 – 20 August 1947
Antisemitic Christian Social Party placard from the 1920 Austrian legislative election: "Vote Social Christian. German Christians Save Austria!"
Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses: SA troopers urge a boycott outside Israel's Department Store, Berlin, 1 April 1933. All signs read: "Germans! Defend yourselves! Don't buy from Jews!"
The poster (c. 1937) reads: "60,000 RM is what this person with hereditary illness costs the community in his lifetime. Fellow citizen, that is your money too. Read Neues Volk, the monthly magazine of the Office of Racial Policy of the Nazi Party."
Czechoslovakian Jews at Croydon airport, England, 31 March 1939, before deportation
March or April 1938: Jews are forced to scrub the pavement in Vienna, Austria.
Potsdamer Straße 26, Berlin, the day after Kristallnacht, November 1938
Jewish women were stripped, beaten and raped in Lwów, occupied eastern Poland (later Lviv, Ukraine), during the Lviv pogroms, July 1941.
Jews arrive with their belongings at the Auschwitz II extermination camp, summer 1944, thinking they were being resettled.
Jewish women wearing yellow badges in occupied Paris, June 1942
Greek Jews from Saloniki are forced to exercise or dance, July 1942.
SS-Gruppenführer Otto Ohlendorf, commander of Einsatzgruppe D, pleads not guilty during the Einsatzgruppen trial, Nuremberg, 15 September 1947. He was executed in 1951.
Ivanhorod Einsatzgruppen photograph: Einsatzgruppe shooting a woman and child, near Ivangorod, Ukraine, 1942
The "stairs of death" at the Weiner Graben quarry, Mauthausen concentration camp, Austria, 1942
Bodies being pulled out of a train carrying Romanian Jews from the Iași pogrom, July 1941
11 December 1941: Adolf Hitler speaking at the Kroll Opera House to Reichstag members about war in the Pacific.
Am Großen Wannsee 56–58, Berlin
Captain Witold Pilecki
Jews from Carpathian Ruthenia on the selection ramp at Auschwitz II, c. May 1944. Women and children are lined up on one side, men on the other, waiting for the SS to determine who was fit for work. About 20 percent at Auschwitz were selected for work and the rest gassed.
A mass grave at Bergen-Belsen after the camp's liberation, April 1945
Heinrich Himmler inspects a POW camp in Russia, c. 1941.
Romani people being deported from Asperg, Germany, 22 May 1940
Defendants in the dock at the Nuremberg trials, 1945–1946
Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe in Berlin, 2016
Stolpersteine, Berlin-Mitte, 2011

During the Jedwabne pogrom, on 10 July 1941, a group of 40 Polish men, spurred on by German Gestapo agents who arrived in the town a day earlier, killed several hundred Jews; around 300 were burned alive in a barn.

The Holocaust in Poland

Part of the European-wide Holocaust organized by Nazi Germany and took place in German-occupied Poland.

Forced labor work card issued to a Jewish young man in occupied Poland.
Jews from Tarnopol Voivodeship shot face-down in an open pit near Złoczów
Photos from The Black Book of Poland, published in London in 1942 by Polish government-in-exile.
Top: entrance to Auschwitz camp I, with gate sign, Arbeit macht frei. Bottom: the real death factory at nearby Auschwitz II–Birkenau
Liquidation of Kraków Ghetto, March 1943. Families walk to Prokocim railway station for "resettlement". Destination: Auschwitz.
Jews being sent to Chełmno extermination camp, forced to abandon their bundles along the way. Here: loading of victims being sent from Łódź Ghetto, 1942
Auschwitz II–Birkenau prisoners
Treblinka II burning during prisoner uprising, August 2, 1943: barracks and petrol tank set ablaze. Clandestine photo by Franciszek Ząbecki
German ID issued to a worker who was posted to the Malkinia train station near Treblinka
SS Death's-Head unit, Bełżec extermination camp, 1942
Top-secret "Höfle Telegram" confirms at least 101,370 train deportations of Jews to Sobibór extermination camp in 1942
Crematorium ovens, Majdanek
Photograph of Jewish women insurgents captured by the SS during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, from the Stroop Report.
Public hanging of ethnic Poles, Przemyśl, 1943, for helping Jews
Jewish woman chased along Medova Street during 1941 Lviv pogroms carried out by Ukrainian nationalists
1946 meeting of Żegota members on the anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising at the Polish Theatre
Museum of the History of the Polish Jews, Warsaw, April 2013

A group of at least 40 Poles, with an unconfirmed level of German backing, murdered hundreds of Jews in the racially aggravated Jedwabne pogrom.