Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst

Jeffery AmherstLord AmherstJeffrey AmherstJeffrey Amherst, 1st Baron AmherstAmherstGeneral AmherstLord Jeffery AmherstLord Jeffrey AmherstElizabeth, Lady AmherstJeffery, Baron Amherst
Field Marshal Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, (29 January 1717 – 3 August 1797) served as an officer in the British Army and as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces.wikipedia
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Pontiac's War

Pontiac's RebellionPontiac’s WarAmerican Indian
Amherst's legacy is controversial due to his expressed desire to exterminate the race of indigenous people during Pontiac's War, and his advocacy of biological warfare in the form of gifting blankets infected with smallpox as a weapon, notably including at the Siege of Fort Pitt.
The war began in May 1763 when American Indians were offended by the policies of British General Jeffrey Amherst and attacked a number of British forts and settlements.

Amherst, Nova Scotia

AmherstTownship of AmherstAmherst, NS
The town of Amherst, Nova Scotia is also considering renaming in light of recent movements by liberals to reconsider the naming of "towns, streets and monuments that celebrate past war heroes whom, seen through today's ethical lens are not people who behaved in ways that we respect today," as is the town of Amherstburg, Ontario.
According to Dr. Graham P. Hennessey, "The Micmac name was Nemcheboogwek meaning 'going up rising ground', in reference to the higher land to the east of the Tantramar Marshes. The Acadians who settled here as early as 1672 called the village Les Planches. The village was later renamed Amherst by Colonel Joseph Morse in honour of Lord Amherst, the commander-in-chief of the British Army in North America during the Seven Years' War."

Native Americans in the United States

Native AmericanNative AmericansAmerican Indian
Amherst's legacy is controversial due to his expressed desire to exterminate the race of indigenous people during Pontiac's War, and his advocacy of biological warfare in the form of gifting blankets infected with smallpox as a weapon, notably including at the Siege of Fort Pitt.
The most well-known example occurred in 1763, when Sir Jeffery Amherst, Commander-in-Chief of the Forces of the British Army, wrote praising the use of smallpox-infected blankets to "extirpate" the Indian race.

John Amherst

His brothers included Admiral John Amherst and Lieutenant General William Amherst.
He was the fourth son of lawyer Jeffrey Amherst and Elizabeth Kerrill, of Riverhead, Kent, and his older brothers included Field Marshal Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, and Lieutenant-General William Amherst.

Amherstburg

Amherstburg, OntarioAnderdon TownshipAmherstberg
The town of Amherst, Nova Scotia is also considering renaming in light of recent movements by liberals to reconsider the naming of "towns, streets and monuments that celebrate past war heroes whom, seen through today's ethical lens are not people who behaved in ways that we respect today," as is the town of Amherstburg, Ontario.
The town is named after Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, commander of the British forces and first British Governor General of the Province of Quebec (1760).

William Amherst (British Army officer)

William AmherstColonel William AmherstLieutenant Colonel William Amherst
His brothers included Admiral John Amherst and Lieutenant General William Amherst.
He was the son of Jeffery Amherst and Elizabeth Kerril and the brother of Field Marshal Lord Amherst and Admiral John Amherst.

Field marshal (United Kingdom)

Field MarshalBritish Field MarshalList of field marshals of the British Army
Field Marshal Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, (29 January 1717 – 3 August 1797) served as an officer in the British Army and as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces.

Battle of Ticonderoga (1759)

Battle of TiconderogaFort CarillonTiconderoga
Amherst then led an army against French troops on Lake Champlain, where he captured Fort Ticonderoga in July 1759, while another army under William Johnson took Niagara also in July 1759 and James Wolfe besieged and eventually captured Quebec with a third army in September 1759.
A British military force of more than 11,000 men under the command of General Sir Jeffery Amherst moved artillery to high ground overlooking the fort, which was defended by a garrison of 400 Frenchmen under the command of Brigadier General François-Charles de Bourlamaque.

Siege of Louisbourg (1758)

Siege of LouisbourgLouisbourgLouisburg
Amherst gained fame during the Seven Years' War, particularly in the North American campaign known in the United States as the French and Indian War when he led the British attack on Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island in June 1758.
Pitt assigned the task of capturing the fortress to Major General Jeffery Amherst.

Commander-in-Chief of the Forces

Commander-in-ChiefCommander-in-Chief of the British ArmyCommander in Chief
Field Marshal Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, (29 January 1717 – 3 August 1797) served as an officer in the British Army and as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces.
With the appointment of General Lord Jeffrey Amherst in 1793, the Commander-in-Chief was given authority over matters of discipline, over supplies, training and promotions in the British Army.

Battle of Fort Niagara

Fort Niagaracapture of Fort Niagaracaptured Fort Niagara
Amherst then led an army against French troops on Lake Champlain, where he captured Fort Ticonderoga in July 1759, while another army under William Johnson took Niagara also in July 1759 and James Wolfe besieged and eventually captured Quebec with a third army in September 1759.
British General Jeffery Amherst made plans for the 1759 military campaigns of the Seven Years' War that included an expedition to capture Fort Niagara, a major French military and supply point between the French province of Canada and their forts in the Ohio Valley.

Siege of Fort Pitt

a smallpox blanket to keep us warmbesieged by the Delawaresbesieging Fort Pitt
Amherst's legacy is controversial due to his expressed desire to exterminate the race of indigenous people during Pontiac's War, and his advocacy of biological warfare in the form of gifting blankets infected with smallpox as a weapon, notably including at the Siege of Fort Pitt.
For Commander-in-Chief, North America Jeffery Amherst, who before the war had dismissed the possibility that the Indians would offer any effective resistance to British rule, the military situation over the summer had become increasingly grim.

Commander-in-Chief, North America

Commander-in-Chiefcommander-in-chief for North AmericaCommander-in-Chief in North America
In the wake of this action, he was appointed commander-in-chief of the British army in North America and colonel-in-chief of the 60th (Royal American) Regiment in September 1758. Amherst was summoned home, ostensibly so that he could be consulted on future military plans in North America, and was replaced pro tem as Commander-in-Chief, North America by Thomas Gage.

List of governors-general of Canada

Governor General of CanadaList of Governors General of CanadaGovernor General of British North America
He was also the first British Governor General in the territories that eventually became Canada.

Sevenoaks

Sevenoaks, KentSevenoaks Urban DistrictKippington
1750), a Kentish lawyer, and Elizabeth Amherst (née Kerrill), Jeffery Amherst was born in Sevenoaks, England, on 29 January 1717.

Sir William Johnson, 1st Baronet

Sir William JohnsonWilliam JohnsonGeneral William Johnson
Amherst then led an army against French troops on Lake Champlain, where he captured Fort Ticonderoga in July 1759, while another army under William Johnson took Niagara also in July 1759 and James Wolfe besieged and eventually captured Quebec with a third army in September 1759.
Johnson accompanied General Jeffery Amherst in the final North American campaign of the Seven Years' War, the capture of Montreal in 1760.

James Wolfe

General WolfeWolfeGeneral James Wolfe
Amherst then led an army against French troops on Lake Champlain, where he captured Fort Ticonderoga in July 1759, while another army under William Johnson took Niagara also in July 1759 and James Wolfe besieged and eventually captured Quebec with a third army in September 1759.
On 23 January 1758, James Wolfe was appointed as a Brigadier General, and sent with Major General Jeffrey Amherst in the fleet of Admiral Boscawen to lay siege to Fortress of Louisbourg in New France (located in present-day Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia).

Pierre de Rigaud, marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnial

Pierre François de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-CavagnalMarquis de VaudreuilVaudreuil
He infuriated the French commanders by refusing them the honours of war; the Chevalier de Lévis burned the colours rather than surrendering them, to highlight his differences with Vaudreuil for later political advantage back in France.
He was forced to surrender Montreal on 8 September 1760 to Maj. Gen. Jeffrey Amherst.

Thomas Gage

General Thomas GageGeneral GageGage
Amherst was summoned home, ostensibly so that he could be consulted on future military plans in North America, and was replaced pro tem as Commander-in-Chief, North America by Thomas Gage.
Gage also made some important political connections, forming relationships with important figures like Lord Barrington, the future Secretary at War, and Jeffery Amherst, a man roughly his age who rose to great heights in the French and Indian War.

François Gaston de Lévis

Chevalier de LévisChevalier de LevisFrancis de Gaston, Chevalier de Levis
He infuriated the French commanders by refusing them the honours of war; the Chevalier de Lévis burned the colours rather than surrendering them, to highlight his differences with Vaudreuil for later political advantage back in France.
With the arrival of a British squadron which then destroyed his support ships on the Saint Lawrence, Lévis was obliged to retreat to Montreal, where Vaudreuil eventually surrendered New France to Amherst's army, which had advanced down the Saint Lawrence River that summer, in early September.

French and Indian War

French & Indian WarFrench and IndianSeven Years' War
Amherst gained fame during the Seven Years' War, particularly in the North American campaign known in the United States as the French and Indian War when he led the British attack on Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island in June 1758.
Abercrombie was recalled and replaced by Jeffery Amherst, victor at Louisbourg.

Île aux Noix

Ile aux NoixÎle-aux-NoixIle-aux-Noix
From July 1760, Amherst led an army down the Saint Lawrence River from Fort Oswego, joined with Brigadier Murray from Quebec and Brigadier Haviland from Ile-aux-Noix in a three-way pincer, and captured Montreal, ending French rule in North America on 8 September.
The last French governor-general of New France, Pierre François de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal, surrendered to British Major General Jeffrey Amherst on September 8, 1760.

East Yorkshire Regiment

15th Regiment of Foot15th FootThe East Yorkshire Regiment
He was made colonel of the 15th Regiment of Foot on 12 June 1756.

William Haviland

Brigadier HavilandHaviland
From July 1760, Amherst led an army down the Saint Lawrence River from Fort Oswego, joined with Brigadier Murray from Quebec and Brigadier Haviland from Ile-aux-Noix in a three-way pincer, and captured Montreal, ending French rule in North America on 8 September.
In 1759 he served under Jeffery Amherst in his capture of Carillon, and was rewarded with promotion to brigadier general and command of the 1760 expedition from Ticonderoga to Montreal, upon which he joined Amherst and Murray there at the capitulation of Canada in September 1760.

Pontiac (Ottawa leader)

PontiacChief PontiacPontiac (person)
The uprising of many Native American tribes in the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes region, commonly referred to as Pontiac's War after one of its most notable leaders, began in early 1763.
In addition, although by treaty the British said they would not build any forts in Ohio Country, General Jeffery Amherst, the architect of British Indian policy, ordered one built on the south short of Sandusky Bay in 1761.