Jena

Jena, GermanyCity of JenaFriedrich Schiller University of JenaGöschwitzIenaJena, East GermanyJena, Kreisfreie StadtJena-Forstthe city
Jena is a German university city and the second largest city in Thuringia.wikipedia
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Thuringia

ThüringenFree State of ThuringiaThuringen
Jena is a German university city and the second largest city in Thuringia.
Erfurt is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Jena, Gera, and Weimar.

Weimar

Weimar, GermanyCounty of WeimarOberweimar
Together with the nearby cities of Erfurt and Weimar, it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia with approximately 500,000 inhabitants, while the city itself has a population of about 110,000.
It is located in Central Germany between Erfurt in the west and Jena in the east, approximately 80 km southwest of Leipzig, 170 km north of Nuremberg and 170 km west of Dresden.

University of Jena

JenaJena UniversityFriedrich Schiller University of Jena
Jena is a centre of education and research; the Friedrich Schiller University was founded in 1558 and had 18,000 students in 2017 and the Ernst-Abbe-Fachhochschule Jena counts another 5,000 students.
The University of Jena, officially the Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena (Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, abbreviated FSU, shortened form Uni Jena) is a public research university located in Jena, Thuringia, Germany.

Carl Zeiss AG

ZeissCarl ZeissZeiss Ikon
For most of the 20th century, Jena was a world centre of the optical industry around companies like Carl Zeiss, Schott and Jenoptik (since 1990). Famous pioneers of industry were Carl Zeiss and Ernst Abbe (with their Carl Zeiss AG) as well as Otto Schott (Schott AG).
Carl Zeiss AG, branded as ZEISS, is a German manufacturer of optical systems and optoelectronics, founded in Jena, Germany in 1846 by optician Carl Zeiss.

Erfurt

Erfurt, GermanyKühnhausenBindersleben
Together with the nearby cities of Erfurt and Weimar, it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia with approximately 500,000 inhabitants, while the city itself has a population of about 110,000. The Saal Railway (Saalbahn, opened in 1874) was the connection from Halle and Leipzig along the Saale valley to Nuremberg and the Weimar–Gera railway (opened 1876) connected Jena with Frankfurt and Erfurt in the west as well as Dresden and Gera in the east.
Together with a string of neighbouring cities Gotha, Weimar, Jena and others, Erfurt forms the central metropolitan corridor of Thuringia called Thüringer Städtekette (German "Thuringian city chain") with over 500,000 inhabitants.

JenTower

Jen-TowerJen Tower
As one of only a few medium-sized cities in Germany, it has some high-rise buildings in the city centre, like the Jen Tower.
The JenTower is a skyscraper in Jena, Germany.

Jenoptik

Carl ZeissJenoptik AGKombinat VEB Zeiss Jena
For most of the 20th century, Jena was a world centre of the optical industry around companies like Carl Zeiss, Schott and Jenoptik (since 1990).
The Jenoptik Group headquarters are in Jena, Thuringia.

Schott AG

SchottSchott GlassSchott Solar
For most of the 20th century, Jena was a world centre of the optical industry around companies like Carl Zeiss, Schott and Jenoptik (since 1990). Famous pioneers of industry were Carl Zeiss and Ernst Abbe (with their Carl Zeiss AG) as well as Otto Schott (Schott AG).
In 1884, Otto Schott, Ernst Abbe, Carl Zeiss and his son Roderich Zeiss founded the Glastechnische Laboratorium Schott & Genossen in Jena, initially producing optical glasses for microscopes and telescopes.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

HegelG. W. F. HegelG.W.F. Hegel
Notable persons of this period in Jena were Friedrich Schiller, Alexander von Humboldt, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Novalis and August Wilhelm Schlegel. Around 1790, the university became the largest and most famous one among the German states and made Jena the centre of idealist philosophy (with professors like Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Friedrich Schiller and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling) and of the early Romanticism (with poets like Novalis, the brothers August and Friedrich Schlegel, and Ludwig Tieck).
In 1801, Hegel came to Jena with the encouragement of his old friend Schelling, who held the position of Extraordinary Professor at the University there.

Saale

Saale RiverRiver SaaleSaxon Saale
Jena lies in a hilly landscape in the east of Thuringia, within the wide valley of the Saale river.
From Saalfeld the Saale enters the limestone hill region north of the Thuringian Forest, and sweeps beneath the barren, conical hills enclosing the university town of Jena.

Johann Wilhelm, Duke of Saxe-Jena

Johann WilhelmJohn William IIIJohn William of Saxe-Jena
In 1692, after two dukes (Bernhard II and Johann Wilhelm), the dukes of Saxe-Jena died out and the duchy became part of Saxe-Eisenach and, in 1741, of the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar, to which it belonged until 1809.
Johann Wilhelm, Duke of Saxe-Jena (Jena, 28 March 1675 – Jena, 4 November 1690), was a duke of Saxe-Jena.

Bernhard II, Duke of Saxe-Jena

BernhardBernhard IIBernard
In 1692, after two dukes (Bernhard II and Johann Wilhelm), the dukes of Saxe-Jena died out and the duchy became part of Saxe-Eisenach and, in 1741, of the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar, to which it belonged until 1809.
Bernhard II, Duke of Saxe-Jena (Weimar, 14 October 1638 – Jena, 3 May 1678), was duke of Saxe-Jena.

Weimar–Gera railway

Holzland RailwayWeimar–GeraWeimar–Gera line
The Saal Railway (Saalbahn, opened in 1874) was the connection from Halle and Leipzig along the Saale valley to Nuremberg and the Weimar–Gera railway (opened 1876) connected Jena with Frankfurt and Erfurt in the west as well as Dresden and Gera in the east.
The Weimar–Gera railway is a line in the German state of Thuringia, connecting the city of Weimar via Jena, Stadtroda and Hermsdorf to Gera.

Naumburg

Naumburg (Saale)Naumburg an der SaaleNaumburg, Germany
Nevertheless, there were also some more important Saale crossings like the nearby cities of Naumburg to the north and Saalfeld to the south, so that the relevance of Jena was more local during the Middle Ages.
Naumburg lies in the south of Saxony-Anhalt at the confluence of the Unstrut and the Saale near the border with Thuringia, approximately 60 km southwest of Leipzig, 50 km south-southwest of Halle, and 40 km north-northeast of Jena.

List of cities and towns in Germany

cityList of cities in GermanyGerman cities
Jena is a German university city and the second largest city in Thuringia.

Jenapharm

On the other hand, the GDR government founded a new pharmaceutical factory in 1950, Jenapharm, which is part of Bayer today.
Jenapharm is a pharmaceutical company from Jena, Germany.

Vormärz

pre-March erabeliefGerman democratic movement
Between 1790 and 1850, Jena was a focal point of the German Vormärz as well as of the student liberal and unification movement and German Romanticism.
Having founded one of the first national Urburschenschaften circa 1815, the students of Jena openly demonstrated at the Wartburg Festival, demanding a national pan-German state founded on a liberal constitution.

Friedrich Schiller

SchillerFriedrich von SchillerJohann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller
Notable persons of this period in Jena were Friedrich Schiller, Alexander von Humboldt, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Novalis and August Wilhelm Schlegel. Around 1790, the university became the largest and most famous one among the German states and made Jena the centre of idealist philosophy (with professors like Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Friedrich Schiller and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling) and of the early Romanticism (with poets like Novalis, the brothers August and Friedrich Schlegel, and Ludwig Tieck).
In 1789, he was appointed professor of History and Philosophy in Jena, where he wrote only historical works.

House of Wettin

WettinWettin dynastyWettins
As the political circumstances in Thuringia changed in the middle of the 14th century, the weakened Lords of Lobdeburg sold Jena to the aspiring Wettins in 1331.
It was established by his three sons on 19 March 1548 as the Höhere Landesschule at Jena.

Urburschenschaft

Burschenschaft
Two years later, the Urburschenschaft fraternity was founded in the city.
It was founded in 1815 in Jena, Thuringia, in Germany.

Carl Zeiss

ZeissCarlCarl Zeiß
Famous pioneers of industry were Carl Zeiss and Ernst Abbe (with their Carl Zeiss AG) as well as Otto Schott (Schott AG).
Carl moved to Jena at Easter of 1834 to pursue an apprenticeship under the "Hofmechanikus," court appointed precision machinist, and private docent at the University of Jena, Friedrich Körner (1778–1847).

Friedrich Schlegel

Karl Wilhelm Friedrich SchlegelFriedrich von SchlegelSchlegel
Around 1790, the university became the largest and most famous one among the German states and made Jena the centre of idealist philosophy (with professors like Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Friedrich Schiller and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling) and of the early Romanticism (with poets like Novalis, the brothers August and Friedrich Schlegel, and Ludwig Tieck).
In 1796 he moved to Jena, where his brother August Wilhelm lived, and here he collaborated with Novalis, Ludwig Tieck, Fichte, and Caroline Schelling, who married August Wilhelm.

Seven Wonders of Jena

The list of the so-called "Seven Wonders of Jena" was composed by students of the university at this time, supposedly as a test of local knowledge in order to confirm that a person who claimed to have studied in Jena was actually familiar with the city.
The Seven Wonders of Jena (Latin: septem miracula Jenae) are seven attractions associated historically with the Thuringian university town Jena.

Naturschutzgebiet Leutratal und Cospoth

LeutratalLeutratal und Cospoth
One of the best places to see them is Leutratal, to the south of the town.
NSG Leutratal und Cospoth (often referred to simply as Leutratal) is an important nature reserve in Germany, southwest of the town of Jena.

Ernst Haeckel

HaeckelErnst Heinrich HaeckelHaeckel, Ernst
During the later 19th century, the famous biologist Ernst Haeckel was professor at the university.
In 1907 he had a museum built in Jena to teach the public about evolution.