Jerusalem

QudsJerusalem, Israelal-QudsYerushalayimHoly CityJerusalem MunicipalityYerushaláyimCaer SeoncityCity of Jerusalem
Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.wikipedia
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History of Jerusalem

Jerusalemancient JerusalemByzantine period
During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times.
During its long history, Jerusalem has been attacked 52 times, captured and recaptured 44 times, besieged 23 times, and destroyed twice.

Israel

🇮🇱IsraeliState of Israel
Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally.
Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition.

State of Palestine

PalestinePalestinianPalestinian state
Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally.
Palestine, officially the State of Palestine, is a de jure sovereign state in Western Asia claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.

Armenian Quarter

ArmenianArmenian Quarter of Jerusalem
Today those walls define the Old City, which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Quarters.
The Armenian Quarter (حارة الأرمن, Harat al-Arman; הרובע הארמני, Ha-Rova ha-Armeni; Հայոց թաղ, Hayots t'agh) is one of the four quarters of the walled Old City of Jerusalem.

Islam

MuslimMuslimsIslamic
It is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
The cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam.

City of David

Jerusalemancient Jerusalembiblical Jerusalem of the kings of Judah
The part of Jerusalem called the City of David was settled in the 4th millennium BCE.
Although it is located within the Jerusalem Municipality, it is considered a settlement, having been built on land in the West Bank that was occupied by and annexed to Israel following the 1967 Six-Day War and 1980 Jerusalem Law.

Judaean Mountains

JudeanJudean HillsJudaean hills
Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Judaean Mountains, or Judaean Hills ( Harei Yehuda, جبال الخليل Jibal Al Khalil), is a mountain range in Israel and the West Bank where Jerusalem and several other biblical cities are located.

Kingdom of Judah

Judahking of JudahJudahite
During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE (Iron Age II), and in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.
Jerusalem, the kingdom's capital, likely did not emerge as a significant administrative center until the end of the 8th century; before this the archaeological evidence suggests its population was too small to sustain a viable kingdom.

David

King DavidDavid and GoliathDavidic
According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, and his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple.
David conquers Jerusalem, taking the Ark of the Covenant into the city, and establishing the kingdom founded by Saul.

Jerusalem in Christianity

JerusalemJerusalem as an allegory for the Churchgeneral significance of Jerusalem to Christians
The holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there.
Jerusalem's role in first-century Christianity, during the ministry of Jesus and the Apostolic Age, as recorded in the New Testament, gives it great importance.

Christian Quarter

Christian
Today those walls define the Old City, which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Quarters.
The Christian Quarter (حارة النصارى, Ḥārat al-Naṣārā; הרובע הנוצרי, Ha-Rova ha-Notsri) is one of the four quarters of the walled Old City of Jerusalem, the other three being the Jewish Quarter, the Muslim Quarter and the Armenian Quarter.

Jerusalem in Judaism

Jerusalemholiest site in Judaismimportance
These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people.
Jerusalem has long been embedded into Jewish religious consciousness and Jews have always studied and personalized the struggle by King David to capture Jerusalem and his desire to build the Holy Temple there, as described in the Book of Samuel and the Book of Psalms.

Jebusite

JebusCanaanite tribefirst inhabitants
According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, and his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Jebusites ( ISO 259-3 Ybusi) were a Canaanite tribe who inhabited Jerusalem prior to the conquest initiated by Joshua (11:3 and 12:10) and completed by King David (2 Samuel 5:6-10).

Capital city

Capitaladministrative centerDistrict seat
Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally.
Some of these cities are or were also religious centres, e.g. Constantinople (more than one religion), Rome (the Roman Catholic Church), Jerusalem (more than one religion), Ancient Babylon, Moscow (the Russian Orthodox Church), Belgrade (the Serbian Orthodox Church), Paris, and Peking.

Religious significance of Jerusalem

center of the earthcontentiousHoly City
As a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 km2, the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
The city of Jerusalem is sacred to a number of religious traditions, including the Abrahamic religions Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, which consider it a holy city.

Status of Jerusalem

disputedthe united capital of IsraelJerusalem
Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
The status of Jerusalem is disputed in both international law and diplomatic practice, with both the Israelis and Palestinians claiming Jerusalem as their capital city.

Church of the Holy Sepulchre

Holy SepulchretombTomb of Christ
As a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 km2, the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْقِيَامَة Kanīsatu al-Qiyāmah; Ναὸς τῆς Ἀναστάσεως Naos tes Anastaseos; Սուրբ Հարության տաճար Surb Harut'yan tač̣ar; Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri; כנסיית הקבר, Knesiyat ha-Kever; also called the Church of the Resurrection or Church of the Anastasis by Orthodox Christians) is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.

East Jerusalem

Easteastern JerusalemJerusalem
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and later annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and later annexed by Jordan.
East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem (القدس الشرقية al-Quds al-Sharqit; מזרח ירושלים) is the sector of Jerusalem that was occupied by Jordan during the Arab–Israeli War, as opposed to the western sector of the city, West Jerusalem, which was occupied by Israel.

Israeli–Palestinian conflict

Israel-Palestine conflictIsraeli-Palestinian conflictconflict
Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
The key issues are: mutual recognition, borders, security, water rights, control of Jerusalem, Israeli settlements, Palestinian freedom of movement, and Palestinian right of return.

West Jerusalem

WestWestern
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and later annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and later annexed by Jordan.
West Jerusalem or Western Jerusalem refers to the section of Jerusalem that remained under Israeli control after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, whose ceasefire lines delimited the boundary with the rest of the city, which was then under Jordanian control.

Christianity

ChristianChristiansChristian faith
It is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
In the 7th century Muslims conquered Syria (including Jerusalem), North Africa and Spain, converting some of the Christian population to Islam, and placing the rest under a separate legal status.

Solomon

King SolomonSalomonSolomonic magic
According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, and his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple.
Solomon was born in Jerusalem, the second born child of David and his wife Bathsheba, widow of Uriah the Hittite.

Abdi-Heba

Abdu-Heba
Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba (1330s BCE).
Abdi-Heba (Abdi-Kheba, Abdi-Hepat, or Abdi-Hebat) was a local chieftain of Jerusalem during the Amarna period (mid-1330s BC).

Battle for Jerusalem

Siege of JerusalemArab siege of JerusalemJerusalem
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and later annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and later annexed by Jordan.
The Jewish and Arab populations of Mandatory Palestine and later the Israeli and Jordanian armies fought for control of Jerusalem.

Mediterranean Sea

MediterraneanMediterranean coastMediterranean islands
Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The caliph al-Mustansir had allowed Amalfian merchants to reside in Jerusalem about 1060 in place of the Latin hospice.