Jet (gemstone)

jetJet (lignite)black jetWhitby JetBlack ambergagatesgemstone jetjet stonejet, a mineraloidjet-black
Jet is a type of lignite, a precursor to coal, and is a gemstone.wikipedia
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Gemstone

gemgemsgemstones
Jet is a type of lignite, a precursor to coal, and is a gemstone.
However, certain rocks (such as lapis lazuli and opal) and occasionally organic materials that are not minerals (such as amber, jet, and pearl) are also used for jewelry and are therefore often considered to be gemstones as well.

Coal

coal seamcoal industrycoal-fired
Jet is a type of lignite, a precursor to coal, and is a gemstone. Anthracite (hard coal) is superficially similar to fine jet, and has been used to imitate it.

Whitby

Whitby, North YorkshireWhitby, YorkshireWhitby, England
The jet found at Whitby, in England, is of early Jurassic (Toarcian) age, approximately 182 million years old. There is no evidence for Roman jet working in Whitby itself, rather it was transferred to Eboracum (modern York) where considerable evidence for jet production has been found.
Jet and alum were mined locally, and Whitby Jet, which was mined by the Romans and Victorians, became fashionable during the 19th century.

Mineraloid

mineral-like substance
Unlike many gemstones, jet is not a mineral, but is rather a mineraloid.
Jet is derived from decaying wood under extreme pressure.

Jet black

jet-black
The adjective "jet-black", meaning as dark a black as possible, derives from this material.
Jet black or jet-black is a shade of black referring to the geological material jet.

Lignite

brown coallignite coallignitic
Jet is a type of lignite, a precursor to coal, and is a gemstone.
Jet is a hardened, gem-like form of lignite used in various types of jewelry.

Venus figurines of Petersfels

Venuses of Petersfels
Jet has been used in Britain since the Neolithic period, but the earliest known object is a 10,000 BC model of a botfly larva, from Baden-Württemberg, Germany, found among the Venuses of Petersfels.
The Venus figurines of Petersfels are several small female statuettes from the Upper Paleolithic era, carved from jet lignite.

Araucaria araucana

monkey puzzle treemonkey puzzlearaucaria
Whitby Jet is the fossilized wood from species similar to the extant Chile pine or Monkey Puzzle tree (Araucaria araucana).
The gemstone Whitby jet is fossilized wood from tree species similar to Araucaria araucaria.

Gagae

Gagai
The English noun "jet" derives from the French word for the same material, jaiet (modern French jais), ultimately referring to the ancient town of Gagae.
It is described as a modern jet stone, which fits perfectly with ancient descriptions.

Cut steel jewellery

cut steel
In some jewellery designs of the period jet was combined with cut steel.
Cut steel was combined with precious and semi precious materials such as jet and pearls.

Mourning

official mourningmournmourning clothes
Jet as a gemstone was fashionable during the reign of Queen Victoria, during which the Queen wore Whitby jet as part of her mourning dress, mourning the death of Prince Albert.
There was mourning jewellery, often made of jet.

Oltu stone

Oltustone
Oltu stone (Oltu taşı) is a kind of jet found in the region around Oltu town within Erzurum Province, eastern Turkey.

Amber

Burmese amberamber fossilresinite
Jet has also been known as black amber, as it may induce an electric charge like that of amber when rubbed.
However, so-called black amber is really only a kind of jet.

Eboracum

YorkEburacumRoman York
There is no evidence for Roman jet working in Whitby itself, rather it was transferred to Eboracum (modern York) where considerable evidence for jet production has been found.
In the Roman period, Eboracum was the major manufacturing centre for Whitby Jet.

Mohs scale of mineral hardness

Mohs hardnessMohs scalehardness
Jet has a Mohs hardness ranging between 2.5 and 4 and a specific gravity of 1.30 to 1.34.

Anthracite

anthracite coalculmhard coal
Anthracite (hard coal) is superficially similar to fine jet, and has been used to imitate it.
Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation.

Electric charge

chargeelectrical chargecharged
Jet has also been known as black amber, as it may induce an electric charge like that of amber when rubbed.
In late 1100s, the substance jet, a compacted form of coal, was noted to have an amber effect, and in the middle of the 1500s, Girolamo Fracastoro, discovered that diamond also showed this effect.

Mineral

mineralsmineral depositsaccessory mineral
Unlike many gemstones, jet is not a mineral, but is rather a mineraloid.

Jais, Amethi

JaisJais CampusJaisi Sadaat
The English noun "jet" derives from the French word for the same material, jaiet (modern French jais), ultimately referring to the ancient town of Gagae.

Pyrite

iron pyritepyritesfool's gold
Jet is either black or dark brown, but may contain pyrite inclusions, which are of brassy colour and metallic lustre.

Inclusion (mineral)

inclusioninclusionsincluded
Jet is either black or dark brown, but may contain pyrite inclusions, which are of brassy colour and metallic lustre.

Lustre (mineralogy)

lusterlustrevitreous
Jet is either black or dark brown, but may contain pyrite inclusions, which are of brassy colour and metallic lustre.

Araucariaceae

araucarianAraucarialesaraucarias
Jet is a product of high-pressure decomposition of wood from millions of years ago, commonly the wood of trees of the family Araucariaceae.

Jurassic

Jurassic PeriodLate JurassicJurassic era
The jet found at Whitby, in England, is of early Jurassic (Toarcian) age, approximately 182 million years old.