A report on Jewish Christian

Valentin de Boulogne's depiction of Saint Paul Writing His Epistles, c. 1618-1620 (Blaffer Foundation Collection, Houston, Texas)

Jewish Christians (יהודים נוצרים) were the followers of a Jewish religious sect that emerged in Judea during the late Second Temple period (first century AD).

- Jewish Christian
Valentin de Boulogne's depiction of Saint Paul Writing His Epistles, c. 1618-1620 (Blaffer Foundation Collection, Houston, Texas)

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Evangelist Mathäus und der Engel, by Rembrandt, 1661

New Testament

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Second division of the Christian biblical canon.

Second division of the Christian biblical canon.

Evangelist Mathäus und der Engel, by Rembrandt, 1661
Saint Paul Writing His Epistles by Valentin de Boulogne (c. 1618–1620). Most scholars think Paul actually dictated his letters to a secretary.
Papyrus Bodmer VIII, at the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, showing 1 and 2 Peter.
The Codex Regius (L or 019), an 8th-century Greek manuscript of the New Testament with strong affinities to Codex Vaticanus.
The Rossano Gospels, 6th century, a representative of Byzantine text
The Rabbula Gospels, Eusebian Canons.
BL Add. MS 59874 with Ethiopic Gospel of Matthew.
A Byzantine lectionary, Codex Harleianus (l150), 995 AD, text of John 1:18.
Gaudenzio Ferrari's Stories of the Life and Passion of Christ, fresco, 1513, Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Varallo Sesia, Italy. Depicting the life of Jesus

It is believed the books of the New Testament were all or nearly all written by Jewish Christians—that is, Jewish disciples of Christ, who lived in the Roman Empire, and under Roman occupation.

Jesus

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Jesus (c.

Jesus (c.

Counter-clockwise from top-right: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, Latin, and English transcriptions of the name Jesus
A 3rd-century Greek papyrus of the Gospel of Luke
Adoration of the Shepherds by Gerard van Honthorst, 1622
The Circumcision by Giovanni Bellini, ~1500. The work depicts the circumcision of Jesus.
The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple, by William Holman Hunt, 1860
The Baptism of Christ by John the Baptist, by José Ferraz de Almeida Júnior, 1895
Sermon on the Mount, by Carl Bloch, 1877, depicts Jesus' important discourse
The Exhortation to the Apostles, by James Tissot, portrays Jesus talking to his 12 disciples
Jesus and the rich young man by Heinrich Hofmann, 1889
The Return of the Prodigal Son by Pompeo Batoni depicts the Parable of the Prodigal Son. Jesus told many parables during his ministry.
Jesus cleansing a leper, medieval mosaic from the Monreale Cathedral, late 12th to mid-13th centuries
The Transfiguration of Jesus, depicted by Carl Bloch, 19th century
A painting of Jesus' final entry into Jerusalem, by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1897
The Last Supper, depicted by Juan de Juanes, c. 1562
A depiction of the kiss of Judas and arrest of Jesus, by Caravaggio, c. 1602
Ecce homo! Antonio Ciseri's 1871 depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting Jesus to the public
Pietro Perugino's depiction of the Crucifixion as Stabat Mater, 1482
Appearance of Jesus Christ to Maria Magdalena by Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov, 1835
A 3rd century depiction of Jesus as the Good Shepherd
Judea, Galilee and neighboring areas at the time of Jesus
A 1640 edition of the works of Josephus, a 1st-century Roman-Jewish historian who referred to Jesus.
Baptism in the Jordan River, the river where Jesus was baptized
The Resurrection of Christ from a 16th-century manuscript of La Passion de Nostre Seigneur
The ethnicity of Jesus in art has been influenced by cultural settings.
The Trinity is the belief in Christianity that God is one God in three persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus), and God the Holy Spirit.
Jesus is depicted with the Alpha and Omega letters in the catacombs of Rome from the 4th century.
The name Jesus son of Mary written in Islamic calligraphy followed by Peace be upon him
The Druze maqam of Al-masih (Jesus) in As-Suwayda Governorate.
Enthroned Jesus image on a Manichaean temple banner from c. 10th-century Qocho
Jesus healing a paralytic in one of the first known images of Jesus from Dura Europos in the 3rd century
The Shroud of Turin, Italy, is the best-known claimed relic of Jesus and one of the most studied artifacts in human history.
Jesus depicted as the liberator of Black slaves, on the masthead of the Abolitionist paper "The Liberator".

After Jesus' life, his followers, as described in the first chapters of the Acts of the Apostles, were all Jews either by birth or conversion, for which the biblical term "proselyte" is used, and referred to by historians as Jewish Christians.

Jesus Washing Peter's Feet, painting by Ford Madox Brown (1852–1856), Tate Britain, London

Christianity in the 1st century

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Thus also known as the Apostolic Age.

Thus also known as the Apostolic Age.

Jesus Washing Peter's Feet, painting by Ford Madox Brown (1852–1856), Tate Britain, London
The Crucifixion, by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, c. 1745–1750, Saint Louis Art Museum
The Cenacle on Mount Zion, claimed to be the location of the Last Supper and Pentecost. Bargil Pixner claims the original Church of the Apostles is located under the current structure.
James the Just, whose judgment was adopted in the apostolic decree of
Saint Paul, by El Greco
Mediterranean Basin geography relevant to Paul's life, stretching from Jerusalem in the lower right to Rome in the upper left.
An artistic representation of St. Clement I, an Apostolic Father.
A coin issued by Nerva reads
fisci Judaici calumnia sublata,
"abolition of malicious prosecution in connection with the Jewish tax"

Paul the Apostle, a Pharisee Jew who had persecuted the early Jewish Christians, converted 33–36 and started to proselytize among the Gentiles.

Funerary stele of Licinia Amias on marble, in the National Roman Museum. One of the earliest Christian inscriptions found, it comes from the early 3rd century Vatican necropolis area in Rome. It contains the text ΙΧΘΥϹ ΖΩΝΤΩΝ ("fish of the living"), a predecessor of the Ichthys symbol.

History of Christianity

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The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christian countries, and the Christians with their various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.

The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christian countries, and the Christians with their various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.

Funerary stele of Licinia Amias on marble, in the National Roman Museum. One of the earliest Christian inscriptions found, it comes from the early 3rd century Vatican necropolis area in Rome. It contains the text ΙΧΘΥϹ ΖΩΝΤΩΝ ("fish of the living"), a predecessor of the Ichthys symbol.
The eastern Mediterranean region in the time of Paul the Apostle
Christ Jesus, the Good Shepherd, 3rd century
St. Lawrence (martyred 258) before Emperor Valerianus by Fra Angelico
A folio from Papyrus 46, an early-3rd-century collection of Pauline epistles
Virgin and Child. Wall painting from the early Roman catacombs, 4th century.
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Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine (centre) and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325) holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
Imagined portrait of Arius; detail of a Cretan School icon, c. 1591, depicting the First Council of Nicaea.
The ceiling mosaic of the Arian Baptistery, built in Ravenna by the Ostrogothic King Theodoric the Great.
An Eastern Roman mosaic showing a basilica with towers, mounted with Christian crosses, 5th century, Louvre
The Church of the East during the Middle Ages
Coptic icon of St. Anthony the Great, father of Christian monasticism and early anchorite. The Coptic inscription reads ‘Ⲡⲓⲛⲓϣϯ Ⲁⲃⲃⲁ Ⲁⲛⲧⲱⲛⲓ’ ("the Great Father Anthony").
A mosaic of Justinian I in the Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy
Roderick is venerated as one of the Martyrs of Córdoba
Raid on the Monastery of Zobe and the death of hegumenos Michael and his 36 brothers, depicted in the Menologion of Basil II.
"Hospitality of Abraham", icon by Andrei Rublev; the three angels represent the Godhead according to Trinitarian Christians.
Western Europe, the Holy Roman Empire, Kievan Rus', and the Byzantine Empire in the Middle Ages (year 1000)
The spread of Cistercians from their original sites in Western-Central Europe during the Middle Ages
Henry IV, the Holy Roman Emperor at the gate of Canossa Castle in 1077, during the Investiture controversy.
The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Crusader states with their strongholds in the Holy Land at their height, between the First and the Second Crusade (1135)
St. Cyril and St. Methodius monument on Mt. Radhošť
Christianization of Kievan Rus', the first unified federation of Slavic tribes
Christianization of Moravia under the rule of Rastislav
Jan Hus defending his theses at the Council of Constance (1415), painting by the Czech artist Václav Brožík
Michelangelo's Pietà (1498–99) in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
American Discovery Viewed by Native Americans (Thomas Hart Benton, 1922). European discovery and colonization had disastrous effects on the Indigenous peoples of the Americas and their societies.
The Council in Santa Maria Maggiore church; Museo Diocesiano Tridentino, Trento
Galileo before the Holy Office, a 19th-century painting by Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury
Philipp Spener, the founder of Pietism
Churches of the Moscow Kremlin, as seen from the Balchug
Demolition of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow on the orders of Joseph Stalin, 5 December 1931, consistent with the doctrine of state atheism in the USSR
Pope Pius XI
Laying on of hands during a service in a neo-charismatic church in Ghana

The earliest followers of Jesus were apocalyptic Jewish Christians.

The Cenacle on Mount Zion, claimed to be the location of the Last Supper and Pentecost. Bargil Pixner claims the original Church of the Apostles is located under the current structure.

Early centers of Christianity

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Early Christianity (up to the First Council of Nicaea in 325) spread from the Levant, across the Roman Empire, and beyond.

Early Christianity (up to the First Council of Nicaea in 325) spread from the Levant, across the Roman Empire, and beyond.

The Cenacle on Mount Zion, claimed to be the location of the Last Supper and Pentecost. Bargil Pixner claims the original Church of the Apostles is located under the current structure.
A diagram of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre based on a German documentary. The church is claimed to be at the site of Calvary and the Tomb of Jesus.
The Church of St Peter near Antakya, Turkey, said to be the spot where Saint Peter first preached the Gospel in Roman Antioch.
Map of Western Anatolia showing the "Seven Churches of Asia" and the Greek island of Patmos.
Remains of the ancient Roman aqueduct in Caesarea Maritima.
St Paul's Pillar in Paphos
The Chapel of Saint Paul, said to be Bab Kisan where St. Paul escaped from Old Damascus
St. Peter's Basilica, believed to be the burial site of St. Peter, seen from the River Tiber
A scene showing Christ Pantocrator from a Roman mosaic in the church of Santa Pudenziana in Rome, c. 410 AD
Amphithéâtre des Trois-Gaules, in Lyon. The pole in the arena is a memorial to the people killed during the persecution.
St Paul's Islands near St. Paul's Bay, traditionally identified as the place where St Paul was shipwrecked
According to tradition, the Indo-Parthian king Gondophares was proselytized by St Thomas, who continued on to southern India, and possibly as far as Malaysia or China.

The first followers of Christianity were Jews or proselytes, commonly referred to as Jewish Christians and God-fearers.

An Eastern Christian icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.

Christianity

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Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.

Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.

An Eastern Christian icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
Various depictions of Jesus
Crucifixion, representing the death of Jesus on the Cross, painting by Diego Velázquez, c. 1632.
The Law and the Gospel by Lucas Cranach the Elder (1529); Moses and Elijah point the sinner to Jesus for salvation.
The Trinity is the belief that God is one God in three persons: the Father, the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit.
Midnight Mass at a Catholic parish church in Woodside, New York City, U.S.
Show on the life of Jesus at Igreja da Cidade in São José dos Campos, affiliated to the Brazilian Baptist Convention.
An early circular ichthys symbol, created by combining the Greek letters ΙΧΘΥΣ into a wheel, Ephesus, Asia Minor.
The Bible is the sacred book in Christianity.
St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, the largest church in the world and a symbol of the Catholic Church.
The 7th-century Khor Virap monastery in the shadow of Mount Ararat; Armenia was the first state to adopt Christianity as the state religion, in AD 301.
The Monastery of St. Matthew, located atop Mount Alfaf in northern Iraq, is recognized as one of the oldest Christian monasteries in existence.
Kadisha Valley, Lebanon, home to some of the earliest Christian monasteries in the world.
Christendom by A.D. 600 after its spread to Africa and Europe from the Middle East.
An example of Byzantine pictorial art, the Deësis mosaic at the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.
Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, where he preached the First Crusade. Illustration by Jean Colombe from a copy of the Passages d'outremer, c. 1490.
Martin Luther initiated the Reformation with his Ninety-five Theses in 1517.
Michelangelo's 1498–99 Pietà in St. Peter's Basilica; the Catholic Church was among the patronages of the Renaissance.
A depiction of Madonna and Child in a 19th-century Kakure Kirishitan Japanese woodcut.
A Christian procession in Brazil, the country with the largest Catholic population in the world.
Trinity Sunday in Russia; the Russian Orthodox Church has experienced a great revival since the fall of communism.
The global distribution of Christians: Countries colored a darker shade have a higher proportion of Christians.
Pope Francis, the current leader of the Catholic Church.
St. George's Cathedral in Istanbul: It has been the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople whose leader is regarded as the primus inter pares in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Holy Trinity Cathedral in Addis Ababa, the seat of the Ethiopian Orthodox.
A 6th-century Nestorian church, St. John the Arab, in the Assyrian village of Geramon in Hakkari, southeastern Turkey.
Saint Mary Church; an ancient Assyrian church located in the city of Urmia, Iran.
A 19th-century drawing of Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery receiving the Aaronic priesthood from John the Baptist. Latter Day Saints believe that the Priesthood ceased to exist after the death of the apostles and therefore needed to be restored.
Unitarian Church of Transylvania in Cluj-Napoca.
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A copy of the Summa Theologica by Thomas Aquinas, a famous Christian apologetic work.
Christians fleeing their homes in the Ottoman Empire, circa 1922. Many Christians were persecuted and/or killed during the Armenian genocide, Greek genocide, and Assyrian genocide.
Countries with 50% or more Christians are colored purple; countries with 10% to 50% Christians are colored pink
Nations with Christianity as their state religion are in blue
Distribution of Catholics
Distribution of Protestants
Distribution of Eastern Orthodox
Distribution of Oriental Orthodox
Distribution of other Christians
Links between interdenominational movements and other developments within Protestantism
Historical chart of the main Protestant branches
The Cenacle on Mount Zion in Jerusalem, claimed to be the location of the Last Supper and Pentecost.
A folio from Papyrus 46, an early-3rd-century collection of Pauline epistles

It soon attracted gentile God-fearers, which led to a departure from Jewish customs, and, after the Fall of Jerusalem, AD 70 which ended the Temple-based Judaism, Christianity slowly separated from Judaism.

Neo-Byzantine icon of James

James, brother of Jesus

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James the Just, or a variation of James, brother of the Lord (Iacobus from יעקב, Ya'akov and, Iákōbos, can also be Anglicized as "Jacob"), was "a brother of Jesus", according to the New Testament.

James the Just, or a variation of James, brother of the Lord (Iacobus from יעקב, Ya'akov and, Iákōbos, can also be Anglicized as "Jacob"), was "a brother of Jesus", according to the New Testament.

Neo-Byzantine icon of James
James the Just, 16th-century Russian icon.
Martyrdom of James the Just in Menologion of Basil II, a manuscript dating from late 10th or early 11th century.

The Pauline epistles and the later chapters of the Acts of the Apostles portray James as an important figure in the Jewish Christian community of Jerusalem.

Saint Peter (c. 1610–1612) by Peter Paul Rubens, depicting Peter, vested in the pallium, and holding the Keys of Heaven.

Saint Peter

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Saint Peter (c. 1610–1612) by Peter Paul Rubens, depicting Peter, vested in the pallium, and holding the Keys of Heaven.
The Calling of Saints Peter and Andrew, 1603/1606, Caravaggio
Ruins of ancient Capernaum on north side of the Sea of Galilee
Jesus calling Simon Peter and Andrew by Duccio di Buoninsegna, 1308–1311
Apostle Peter striking the High Priests' servant Malchus with a sword in the Garden of Gethsemane, by Giuseppe Cesari c. 1597
Apostle Peter Released from Prison, Jacopo di Cione, 1370–1371 (Philadelphia Museum of Art)
St. Peter Preaching the Gospel in the Catacombs by Jan Styka
The tears of Saint Peter, by El Greco, late 16th century
The Denial of Saint Peter, by Caravaggio, c. 1610
Church of the Primacy of St. Peter on the Sea of Galilee
The Liberation of St. Peter from prison by an angel, by Giovanni Lanfranco, 1620–21
Saint Peter in Tears by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617–1682)
The Apostles Peter and Paul, detail of cupola fresco by Correggio (1520–1524)
Saint Peter portrayed as a Pope in the Nuremberg Chronicle
Domine quo vadis? (1602) by Annibale Carracci
The Crucifixion of Saint Peter (1601) by Caravaggio
Looking down into the confessio near the tomb of Apostle Peter, St. Peter's Basilica, Rome
St. Peter's Basilica, believed to be the burial site of St. Peter, seen from the River Tiber
Peter's vision of a sheet with animals, Domenico Fetti, 1619
Statue of St. Peter in St. Peter's Square at the Vatican
Statue of St. Peter in the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran by Pierre-Étienne Monnot
Christ Handing the Keys to St Peter, by Pietro Perugino (1481–82)
Saint Peter by Dirck van Baburen (c. 1615–1620)
Icon of Saint Peter, c 1500
Saint Peter and the angel, early 1640s, by Antonio de Bellis
Saint Peter by Vasco Fernandes, 1506
St Peter by Francesco del Cossa, 1473
The key as symbol of St. Peter
Miraculous catch of fish, by Aelbrecht Bouts
Saint Peter sinking on water by Eero Järnefelt (1892)
Medieval mosaic of Saint Peter in the Chora Church, Istanbul
Icon of Saint Peter and Paul
St. Peter, holding a key and a book, depicted in a medieval Welsh manuscript, 1390–1400
Saint Peter Attempting to Walk on Water, by François Boucher, 1766
The Release of St. Peter by Bernardo Strozzi, 1635
Jesus gives Peter the keys to Heaven by Pieter Paul Rubens, 1614
Peter Enthroned, by Arnolfo di Cambio (13th-century statue in St Peter's Basilica, Rome)
The Miraculous Draught of Fishes, by Raphael, 1515
An apparition of the Apostle Peter to Saint Peter Nolasco, by Francisco Zurbarán, 1629
Alessandro Turchi, Saint Agatha Attended by Saint Peter and an Angel in Prison, 1640–1645
Fresco by Pietro Perugino in the Sistine Chapel, 1480–1482
St, Peter in the coat of arms of Lieto
Peter the Apostle, detail of the mosaic in the Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna, 6th century

Saint Peter (died between AD 64 and 68 on Vatican Hill), also known as Peter the Apostle, Peter the Rock, Simon Peter, Simeon, Simon or Cephas, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, and one of the first leaders of the early Church.

Judaea (Roman province)

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Roman province which incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.

Roman province which incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.

Pompey in the Temple of Jerusalem, by Jean Fouquet
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Old Roman era gate, Bab al-'Amud in Jerusalem's Old City (today part of Damascus Gate)
Roman stepped road in the Shephelah hill country of Judea (adjacent to Highway 375)

The crucifixion of Jesus took place circa 30–33 CE, and his earliest followers had formed an apocalyptic messianic sect which later developed into Christianity.

Page from the Gospel of Judas

Gnosticism

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Collection of religious ideas and systems which coalesced in the late 1st century AD among Jewish and early Christian sects.

Collection of religious ideas and systems which coalesced in the late 1st century AD among Jewish and early Christian sects.

Page from the Gospel of Judas
Mandaean Beth Manda (Mashkhanna) in Nasiriyah, southern Iraq in 2016; place of worship for the only surviving Gnostic religion from antiquity.
A lion-faced deity found on a Gnostic gem in Bernard de Montfaucon's L'antiquité expliquée et représentée en figures may be a depiction of Yaldabaoth, the Demiurge; however, cf. Mithraic Zervan Akarana
Mandaeans in prayer during baptism.
Manicheanism priests writing at their desks, with panel inscription in Sogdian. Manuscript from Khocho, Tarim Basin.
In Sufism, Iblis rules the material world in a manner that resembles the Gnostic Demiurge.

Contemporary scholarship largely agrees that Gnosticism has Jewish Christian origins, originating in the late first century AD in nonrabbinical Jewish sects and early Christian sects.