Jewish Christian

Jewish Christiansorigins of ChristianityJewish ChristianitySplit of early Christianity and JudaismJewish-ChristianList of events in early ChristianityHebrew ChristiansJewishJewish audienceChristian origins
Early Christianity had its roots in Hellenistic Judaism and the Jewish messianism of the first century and Jewish Christians were the first Christians.wikipedia
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Christianity

ChristianChristiansChristian faith
The split of Christianity and Judaism took place during the first centuries CE.
Christianity began as a Second Temple Judaic sect in the 1st century in the Roman province of Judea.

Early centers of Christianity

JerusalemJerusalem churchAntioch
According to, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ", by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The Jerusalem Church was an early Christian community located in Jerusalem, of which James the Just, the brother of Jesus, and Peter were leaders.
Early Christianity (generally considered the time period from its origin to the First Council of Nicaea in 325) spread from the Eastern Mediterranean throughout the Roman Empire and beyond.

Gnosticism

GnosticGnosticsGnostic Christianity
Hellenistic Judaism spread to Ptolemaic Egypt from the 3rd century BCE, and became a notable religio licita after the Roman conquest of Greece, Anatolia, Syria, Judea, and Egypt, until its decline in the 3rd century parallel to the rise of Gnosticism and Early Christianity.
Contemporary scholarship largely agrees that Gnosticism has Jewish Christian origins, originating in the late first century AD in nonrabbinical Jewish sects and early Christian sects.

Bart D. Ehrman

Bart EhrmanEhrman, Bart D.Ehrman
According to New Testament scholar Bart D. Ehrman, a number of early Christianities existed in the first century CE, from which developed various Christian traditions and denominations, including proto-orthodoxy.
Bart Denton Ehrman (born October 5, 1955) is an American New Testament scholar focusing on textual criticism of the New Testament, the historical Jesus, the origins and development of early Christianity.

Ante-Nicene period

Ante-Nicenepost-Apostolic periodante-Nicene Christian
The term "Jewish Christian" appears in historical texts contrasting Christians of Jewish origin with gentile Christians, both in discussion of the New Testament church and the second and following centuries.
Walter Bauer, drawing upon distinctions between Jewish Christians, Pauline Christians, and other groups such as Gnostics and Marcionites, argued that early Christianity was fragmented, with various competing interpretations.

History of the Catholic Church

History of the Roman Catholic ChurchCatholic ChurchHistory of the Church
According to theologian James D. G. Dunn, four types of early Christianity can be discerned: Jewish Christianity, Hellenistic Christianity, Apocalyptic Christianity, and early Catholicism.
At first, Christians continued to worship alongside Jewish believers, which historians refer to as Jewish Christianity, but within twenty years of Jesus's death, Sunday was being regarded as the primary day of worship.

Jewish religious movements

Jewish denominationsJewish denominationJewish sect
Most historians agree that Jesus or his followers established a new Jewish sect, one that attracted both Jewish and gentile converts.
Prior to the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, Jews of the Roman province of Judaea were divided into several movements, sometimes warring among themselves: Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, Zealots, and ultimately early Christians.

Saint Peter

PeterSt. PeterSt Peter
The Jerusalem Church was an early Christian community located in Jerusalem, of which James the Just, the brother of Jesus, and Peter were leaders.
Saint Peter (שמעון בר יונה; ; ; ; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, Simon, Sham'un al-Safa, Cephas, or Peter the Apostle, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, and the first leader of the early Church.

Jerusalem in Christianity

JerusalemPrimacy of Jerusalem in Christianitygeneral significance of Jerusalem to Christians
The Romans destroyed the Jewish leadership in Jerusalem in year 135 during the Bar Kokhba revolt, but it is traditionally believed the Jerusalem Christians waited out the Jewish–Roman wars in Pella in the Decapolis.
He and his successors were the focus for Jewish Christians until the destruction of the city by Emperor Hadrian in 135.

Epistle of James

JamesBook of JamesLetter of James
While Paul was inspired by the early Christian apostles, his writings elaborate on their teachings, and also give interpretations which are different from other teachings as documented in the canonical gospels, early Acts and the rest of the New Testament, such as the Epistle of James.
The epistle is traditionally attributed to James the brother of Jesus (James the Just), and the audience is generally considered to be Jewish Christians, who were dispersed outside Palestine.

Bar Kokhba revolt

Bar Kochba revoltBar Kokhba's revoltSecond Jewish Revolt
The Romans destroyed the Jewish leadership in Jerusalem in year 135 during the Bar Kokhba revolt, but it is traditionally believed the Jerusalem Christians waited out the Jewish–Roman wars in Pella in the Decapolis.
It was also among the key events to differentiate Christianity as a religion distinct from Judaism.

Acts of the Apostles

ActsBook of ActsActs of Apostles
While Paul was inspired by the early Christian apostles, his writings elaborate on their teachings, and also give interpretations which are different from other teachings as documented in the canonical gospels, early Acts and the rest of the New Testament, such as the Epistle of James. The Book of Acts reports that the early followers continued daily Temple attendance and traditional Jewish home prayer.
On the one hand, Luke portrays the followers of Jesus as a sect of the Jews, and therefore entitled to legal protection as a recognised religion; on the other, Luke seems unclear as to the future God intends for Jews and Christians, celebrating the Jewishness of Jesus and his immediate followers while also stressing how the Jews had rejected God's promised Messiah.

Council of Jerusalem

Apostolic DecreeApostolic Councilcouncil
He persuaded the leaders of the Jerusalem Church to allow gentile converts exemption from most Jewish commandments at the Council of Jerusalem, which opened the way for a much larger Christian Church, extending far beyond the Jewish community.
At the time, most followers of Jesus (which historians refer to as Jewish Christians) were Jewish by birth and even converts would have considered the early Christians as a part of Judaism.

Judaizers

JudaizingJudaizerJudaizing Christians
Those that taught that gentile converts to Christianity ought to adopt more Jewish practices to be saved, however, were called "Judaizers".
The Judaizing teachers were a group of Jewish Christians who taught that converts to Christianity must first be circumcised (i.e. become Jewish through the ritual of a proselyte).

Judeo-Christian

Judaeo-ChristianJudeo-Christian traditionJudeo-Christianity
Both Early Christianity and Early Rabbinical Judaism were far less "orthodox" and less theologically homogeneous than they are today; and both were significantly influenced by Hellenistic religion and borrowed allegories and concepts from Classical Hellenistic philosophy and the works of Greek-speaking Jewish authors of the end of the Second Temple period before the two schools of thought eventually firmed up their respective "norms" and doctrines, notably by diverging increasingly on key issues such as the status of "purity laws", the validity of Judeo-Christian messianic beliefs, and, more importantly, the use of Koine Greek and Latin as sacerdotal languages replacing Biblical Hebrew.
Judeo-Christian is a term which is used to group Christianity and Judaism together, either in reference to Christianity's derivation from Judaism, both religions' common use of the Bible, or due to perceived parallels or commonalities and shared values between the two religions.

Judaism

JewishJewsJudaic
The split of Christianity and Judaism took place during the first centuries CE.
Christianity was originally a sect of Second Temple Judaism, but the two religions diverged in the first century.

New Testament

NewThe New TestamentNew Testaments
Other passages in the New Testament gospels reflect a similar observance of traditional Jewish piety such as fasting, reverence for the Torah and observance of Jewish holy days.
The books of the New Testament were all or nearly all written by Jewish Christians—that is, Jewish disciples of Christ, who lived in the Roman Empire, and under Roman occupation.

Historical background of the New Testament

Cultural and historical background of JesusHistorical background of New TestamentJesus was Jewish
Jesus was Jewish, preached to the Jewish people, and called from them his first followers.
Some Christians were still part of the Jewish community up until the time of the Bar Kochba revolt in the 130s, see also Jewish Christians.

Great Church

Catholic ChurchGreat Christian Churchorthodox catholic
From the latter "orthodox" Christianity eventually arose, while mainstream Judaism developed into Rabbinic Judaism.
The term is contrasted with Jewish Christians who came to be more and more clearly separated from the Great Church.

Pauline Christianity

Pauline theologyPaulinePauline Christians
Jewish Christians constituted a separate community from the Pauline Christians but maintained a similar faith, differing only in practice.
Paul's beliefs were strongly rooted in the earliest Jewish Christianity, but deviated from some of this Jewish Christianity in their emphasis on inclusion of the gentiles into God's New Covenant, and his rejection of circumcision as an unnecessary token of upholding the Law.

Adoptionism

AdoptionistAdoptionistsadopted
Jewish Christians like the Ebionites had an Adoptionist Christology and regarded Jesus as the Messiah while rejecting his divinity, while other strands of Christian thought regard Jesus to be a "fully divine figure", a "high Christology".
Adoptionism was also adhered to by the Jewish Christians known as Ebionites, who, according to Epiphanius in the 4th century, believed that Jesus was chosen on account of his sinless devotion to the will of God.

Anti-Judaism

anti-Judaicanti-JewishAnti-Judaism in the pre-Christian Roman Empire
Jewish Christianity fell into decline during the Jewish–Roman wars (66–135) and the growing anti-Judaism perhaps best personified by Marcion of Sinope (c.
Christianity commenced as a sect within Judaism, so-called Jewish Christianity.

Hellenistic Judaism

Hellenistic JewishHellenized JewsHellenistic Jews
Early Christianity had its roots in Hellenistic Judaism and the Jewish messianism of the first century and Jewish Christians were the first Christians.

Post-Resurrection appearances of Jesus

Resurrection appearances of Jesusresurrectionappearance of Jesus
According to the New Testament, some Christians reported that they encountered Jesus after his crucifixion.
The earliest Jewish followers of Jesus (the Jewish Christians) understood him as the Son of Man in the Jewish sense, a human who, through his perfect obedience to God's will, was resurrected and exalted to heaven in readiness to return at any moment as the Son of Man, the supernatural figure seen in Daniel 7:13–14, ushering in and ruling over the Kingdom of God.

Kingship and kingdom of God

Kingdom of GodKingdom of HeavenGod's Kingdom
Jewish messianism has its root in the apocalyptic literature of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century CE, promising a future "anointed" leader or Messiah to resurrect the Israelite "Kingdom of God", in place of the foreign rulers of the time.
Matthew is likely to have instead used the term heaven because the background of his Jewish audience imposed restrictions on the frequent use of the name of God.