Jewish mysticism

mysticalmysticismJewish mysticsJewish mysticJewish mysticalJewish mystical traditionmysticHebrew mysticismearly Jewish mysticismJewish
Academic study of Jewish mysticism, especially since Gershom Scholem's Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (1941), distinguishes between different forms of mysticism across different eras of Jewish history.wikipedia
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Gershom Scholem

Gershom SholemGershon ScholemG. Scholem
Academic study of Jewish mysticism, especially since Gershom Scholem's Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (1941), distinguishes between different forms of mysticism across different eras of Jewish history.
He is widely regarded as the founder of the modern, academic study of Kabbalah, becoming the first Professor of Jewish Mysticism at Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Kabbalah

KabbalistickabbalistKabbalists
Of these, Kabbalah, which emerged in 12th-century Europe, is the most well known, but not the only typologic form, or the earliest to emerge. The Kabbalistic form of Jewish mysticism itself divides into three general streams: the Theosophical/Speculative Kabbalah (seeking to understand and describe the divine realm), the Meditative/Ecstatic Kabbalah (seeking to achieve a mystical union with God), and the Practical/Magical Kabbalah (seeking to theurgically alter the divine realms and the World).
Kabbalah (, literally "reception, tradition" or "correspondence") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought in Jewish mysticism.

Merkabah mysticism

MerkabahMerkavahMerkaba
Among previous forms were Merkabah mysticism (c.
Merkabah/Merkavah mysticism (or Chariot mysticism) is a school of early Jewish mysticism, c. 100 BCE – 1000 CE, centered on visions such as those found in the Book of Ezekiel chapter 1, or in the heikhalot ("palaces") literature, concerning stories of ascents to the heavenly palaces and the Throne of God.

Zohar

The ZoharinterpretationBook of Radiance
This issue is crystallised until today by alternative views on the origin of the Zohar, the main text of Kabbalah.
The Zohar (, lit. "Splendor" or "Radiance") is the foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah.

Practical Kabbalah

Jewish magiccabalisticKabbalah
The Kabbalistic form of Jewish mysticism itself divides into three general streams: the Theosophical/Speculative Kabbalah (seeking to understand and describe the divine realm), the Meditative/Ecstatic Kabbalah (seeking to achieve a mystical union with God), and the Practical/Magical Kabbalah (seeking to theurgically alter the divine realms and the World).
Practical Kabbalah ( Kabbalah Ma'asit) in historical Judaism, is a branch of the Jewish mystical tradition that concerns the use of magic.

613 commandments

613 MitzvotMosaic lawcommandments
However, as understood by Jewish Kabbalists, it is censored and forgotten in contemporary times because without the requisite purity and holy motive, it would degenerate into impure and forbidden magic.
Many Jewish philosophical and mystical works (e.g. by Baal ha-Turim, the Maharal of Prague and leaders of Hasidic Judaism) find allusions and inspirational calculations relating to the number of commandments.

Jewish meditation

meditationcontemplatesmeditative
The Kabbalistic form of Jewish mysticism itself divides into three general streams: the Theosophical/Speculative Kabbalah (seeking to understand and describe the divine realm), the Meditative/Ecstatic Kabbalah (seeking to achieve a mystical union with God), and the Practical/Magical Kabbalah (seeking to theurgically alter the divine realms and the World).
Jewish mystics have viewed meditation as leading to Devekut (cleaving to God).

Book of Enoch

1 EnochEnochThe Book of Enoch
The Book of Enoch plays an important role in the history of Jewish mysticism: the scholar Gershom Scholem wrote, "The main subjects of the later Merkabah mysticism already occupy a central position in the older esoteric literature, best represented by the Book of Enoch."

Bahir

Sefer HaBahirSefer ha-BahirSepher Ha-Bahir
It is an early work of esoteric Jewish mysticism which eventually became known as Kabbalah.

Hasid

HasidimChassidHassid
Two of these derived from the Jewish mystical tradition, as it could tend towards piety over legalism.

Jewish history

Jewishhistory of Judaismhistory
Academic study of Jewish mysticism, especially since Gershom Scholem's Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (1941), distinguishes between different forms of mysticism across different eras of Jewish history.
Hasidic Judaism is a branch of Orthodox Judaism that promotes spirituality and joy through the popularisation and internalisation of Jewish mysticism as the fundamental aspects of the Jewish faith.

Ashkenazi Hasidim

Chassidei AshkenazHasidei Ashkenazpietist
100 BC – 1000 AD), and Ashkenazi Hasidim (early 13th century AD) around the time of Kabbalistic emergence.
Some posit that its theology fits into the general canon of Jewish mysticism.

Safed

SafadTzfatTsfat
Since the 16th century, Safed has been considered one of Judaism's Four Holy Cities, along with Jerusalem, Hebron and Tiberias; since that time the city has remained a centre of Kabbalah and Jewish mysticism.

Pardes (legend)

Four who entered the Pardespardesfour scholars that entered paradise
Another version of the legend is also found in the mystical literature (Zohar I, 26b and Tikunei HaZohar 40), which adds to the story:

Isaac Luria

ArizalLurianicLurianic Kabbalah
Isaac (ben Solomon) Luria Ashkenazi (1534 – July 25, 1572) ( Yitzhak Ben Sh'lomo Lurya Ashkenazi), commonly known in Jewish religious circles as "Ha'ARI" (meaning "The Lion"), "Ha'ARI Hakadosh" [the holy ARI] or "ARIZaL" [the ARI, Of Blessed Memory (Zikhrono Livrakha)], was a foremost rabbi and Jewish mystic in the community of Safed in the Galilee region of Ottoman Syria.

Judah Loew ben Bezalel

MaharalMaharal of PragueJudah Loew
Within the world of Torah and Talmudic scholarship, Loew is known for his works on Jewish philosophy and Jewish mysticism and his work Gur Aryeh al HaTorah, a supercommentary on Rashi's Torah commentary.

Baal Shem Tov

Israel ben EliezerBa'al Shem TovBesht
Israel ben Eliezer (born circa 1698, died 21 May 1760), known as the Baal Shem Tov or as the BeShT, was a Jewish mystic and healer from Poland, who is regarded as the founder of Hasidic Judaism.

Pardes Rimonim

Pardes
Pardes Rimonim (meaning "Pardes-Orchard of Pomegranates", sometimes known as the Pardes) is a primary text of Kabbalah, composed in 1548 by the Jewish mystic Moses ben Jacob Cordovero in Safed, Galilee.

Christian mysticism

Christian mysticmysticmysticism
205 – 270 AD) provided the non-Christian, neo-Platonic basis for much Christian, Jewish and Islamic mysticism.

Hasidic philosophy

Hasidic thoughtChassidusChassidism
Hasidic philosophy or Hasidism, alternatively transliterated as Hasidut or Chassidus, consists of the teachings of the Hasidic movement, which are the teachings of the Hasidic rebbes, often in the form of commentary on the Torah (the Five books of Moses) and Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism).

Tzadik

tzaddiktzaddikimZaddik
Since the late 17th century, in Hasidic Judaism, the institution of the mystical tzadik as a divine channel assumed central importance, combining popularization of (hands-on) Jewish mysticism with social movement for the first time.

Tanya

beinoniLikutei Amarim (Tanya)Sefer HaTanya
In it, Schneur Zalman brings the new interpretations of Jewish mysticism by the Baal Shem Tov, founder of Hasidism, into philosophical articulation and definition.

Musar literature

musarMussarethical
This development was inspired in part by a particular strain within Jewish mysticism (Lurianic Kabbalah) which suggested that every Jew would necessarily play a role in the mending of the world required for redemption.

Abraham Joshua Heschel

Abraham HeschelRabbi Abraham Joshua HeschelSylvia Straus
Heschel, a professor of Jewish mysticism at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, authored a number of widely read books on Jewish philosophy and was active in the civil rights movement.