A report on Jewish prayer

Morning Prayer, 2005.
Jews praying in Jerusalem (HaKotel HaMaaravi), 2010.
Rabbi Yisrael Meir HaCohen Kagan—the "Chofetz Chaim"—at prayer towards the end of his life.
An Israeli soldier lays tefillin at the Western Wall (Kotel) prior to prayer.
Members of the Israel Defense Forces' Givati Brigade pray the Evening Service (Ma'ariv) at the Western Wall, October 2010.
IDF soldier, Asael lubotzky prays with tefillin.
Minyan Ma'ariv prayer in a Jaffa Tel Aviv flea-market shop
Jewish women praying by the Western Wall, early 1900s
Women praying in the Western Wall tunnel at the closest physical point to the Holy of Holies

Prayer recitation that forms part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism.

- Jewish prayer
Morning Prayer, 2005.

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Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur, by Maurycy Gottlieb (1878)

Yom Kippur

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Holiest day of the year in Judaism.

Holiest day of the year in Judaism.

Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur, by Maurycy Gottlieb (1878)
On the eve of Yom Kippur by Jakub Weinles
Cliffs of Mount Azazel
Ayalon Highway in Tel Aviv, empty of cars on Yom Kippur 2004
Sandy Koufax
Gabe Carimi

Jews traditionally observe this holy day with a day-long fast, confession, and intensive prayer, often spending most of the day in synagogue services.

Illustration from Brockhaus and Efron Jewish Encyclopedia (1906—1913)

Amidah

14 links

Central prayer of the Jewish liturgy.

Central prayer of the Jewish liturgy.

Illustration from Brockhaus and Efron Jewish Encyclopedia (1906—1913)
Morning Prayer, 2005.
A mixed-gender egalitarian Conservative service at Robinson's Arch, Western Wall

Observant Jews recite the Amidah at each of three daily prayer services in a typical weekday: morning (Shacharit), afternoon (Mincha), and evening (Ma'ariv).

The oldest Siddur in the world. From the 9th century

Siddur

9 links

Jewish prayer book containing a set order of daily prayers.

Jewish prayer book containing a set order of daily prayers.

The oldest Siddur in the world. From the 9th century
Nusach Ashkenaz Siddur from Irkutsk, Russia, printed in 1918
A siddur created on the occasion of a wedding in 1971, Oświęcim. Collection of the Auschwitz Jewish Center
Variety of popular Siddurim.
1803 Sephardic prayer book, in the Jewish Museum of Switzerland’s collection.
Kol Haneshamah: Shabbat Vehagim

The earliest parts of Jewish prayer books are the Shema Yisrael ("Hear O Israel") (Deuteronomy 6:4 et seq) and the Priestly Blessing (Numbers 6:24-26), which are in the Torah.

Shacharit prayer, 1930s

Shacharit

9 links

Shacharit prayer, 1930s
Shacharit on Tel Aviv beach
Jankiel Kruhier: Shacharit B'chol − Weekday Shacharit (1897)

Shacharit (שַחֲרִית šaḥăriṯ), or Shacharis in Ashkenazi Hebrew, is the morning tefillah (prayer) of Judaism, one of the three daily prayers.

Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box

Judaism

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Abrahamic, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people.

Abrahamic, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people.

Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box
Maccabees by Wojciech Stattler (1842)
A painting of Moses decorates the Dura-Europos synagogue dating from 244 CE
The Western Wall in Jerusalem is a remnant of the wall encircling the Second Temple. The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism.
Kennicott Bible, a 1476 Spanish Tanakh
Aleppo Codex, a Tanakh produced in Tiberias in the 10th century
A man holds up a Sephardi-style torah at the Western Wall, Jerusalem
Statue of Maimonides in Córdoba, Spain
Conservative women rabbis, Israel
El Ghriba synagogue in Djerba, Tunisia
Beta Israeli Kahen at the Western Wall
A Yemenite Jew at morning prayers, wearing a kippah skullcap, prayer shawl and tefillin
An Israeli female soldier prays at the Western Wall
Jewish boys wearing tzitzit and kippot play soccer in Jerusalem
Men wearing tallitot pray at the Western Wall
Two braided Shabbat challahs placed under an embroidered challah cover at the start of the Shabbat meal
Jews in Mumbai break the Yom Kippur fast with roti and samosas
Purim street scene in Jerusalem
Jewish personnel of the US Navy light candles on Hanukkah
A man reads a torah using a yad
The Sarajevo Synagogue in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Great Synagogue (Jerusalem)
Congregation Emanu-El of New York
18th-century circumcision chair Museum of Jewish Art and History
Two boys wearing tallit at a bar mitzvah. The torah is visible in the foreground.
The Bereavement (Yahrtzeit) Hasidic tish, Bnei Brak, Israel
Jewish students with their teacher in Samarkand, Uzbekistan c. 1910.
Magen David Synagogue in Kolkata, India
A Yemeni sofer writing a torah in the 1930s
Judaism is practiced around the world. This is an 1889 siddur published in Hebrew and Marathi for use by the Bene Israel community
The 12th century Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca in Toledo, Spain was converted to a church shortly after anti-Jewish pogroms in 1391
Muslim women in the mellah of Essaouira
The bimah of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo, Egypt

Siddur and Jewish liturgy

Kiddush cup, Shabbat candles and challah cover

Shabbat

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Judaism's day of rest on the seventh day of the week—i.e., Saturday.

Judaism's day of rest on the seventh day of the week—i.e., Saturday.

Kiddush cup, Shabbat candles and challah cover
Kiddush cup, Shabbat candles and challah cover
A silver matchbox holder for Shabbat from North Macedonia
A challah cover with Hebrew inscription
Jewish woman reciting blessing over Shabbat candles
Two homemade whole-wheat challot covered by traditional embroidered Shabbat challah cover
Observing the closing havdalah ritual in 14th-century Spain
Teddy bear lamp in the collection of the Jewish Museum of Switzerland. The cap can be twisted, which covers the lightbulb with a dark shell and dims the light in a way arguably acceptable on the sabbath.

Jewish liturgy treats Shabbat as a "bride" and "queen" (see Shekhinah); some sources described it as a "king".

Minyan Ma'ariv prayer in a Jaffa Tel Aviv flea-market shop

Minyan

8 links

In Judaism, a minyan (מניין \ מִנְיָן mīnyān, lit. (noun) count, number; pl.

In Judaism, a minyan (מניין \ מִנְיָן mīnyān, lit. (noun) count, number; pl.

Minyan Ma'ariv prayer in a Jaffa Tel Aviv flea-market shop
An exhibit at the Diaspora Museum, Tel Aviv shows a group of Jews waiting for the tenth man
A minyan held at the Western Wall in Israel.

The most common activity requiring a minyan is public prayer.

Herod's Temple as imagined in the Holyland Model of Jerusalem. It is currently situated adjacent to the Shrine of the Book exhibit at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem.

Temple in Jerusalem

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Two ancient Israelite and Jewish places of worship on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem have been called the Temple in Jerusalem, or the Holy Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, Modern: Bēt HaMīqdaš, Tiberian: Bēṯ HamMīqdāš; بيت المقدس Bait al-Maqdis).

Two ancient Israelite and Jewish places of worship on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem have been called the Temple in Jerusalem, or the Holy Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, Modern: Bēt HaMīqdaš, Tiberian: Bēṯ HamMīqdāš; بيت المقدس Bait al-Maqdis).

Herod's Temple as imagined in the Holyland Model of Jerusalem. It is currently situated adjacent to the Shrine of the Book exhibit at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem.
The Trumpeting Place inscription, a stone (2.43×1 m) with Hebrew writing "To the Trumpeting Place" uncovered during archaeological excavations by Benjamin Mazar at the southern foot of the Temple Mount is believed to be a part of the complex of the Second Temple.
Remnants of the 1st-century Stairs of Ascent in front of the Double Gate, discovered by archaeologist Benjamin Mazar.
Diagram of the Temple (top of diagram is north)
Model of Second Temple made by Michael Osnis from Kedumim.
Ezekiel's Temple as imagined by Charles Chipiez in the 19th century.
Model of the First Temple, included in a Bible manual for teachers (1922)
An imaginary view of the Temple as a huge fortress in the foreground, 1721
The Foundation Stone in the floor of the Dome of the Rock shrine in Jerusalem. The round hole at upper left penetrates to a small cave, known as the Well of Souls, below. The cage-like structure just beyond the hole covers the stairway entrance to the cave (south is towards the top of the image).
The bottom of the Foundation Stone, photo taken from the Well of Souls
Arch of Titus relief showing the Menorah from the Temple as spoils of the Romans

The Temple is mentioned extensively in Orthodox services.

Mussaf

7 links

Mussaf (also spelled Musaf or Musof) is an additional service that is recited on Shabbat, Yom Tov, Chol Hamoed, and Rosh Chodesh.

Boy reads Torah according to Sephardic custom

Torah reading

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Jewish religious tradition that involves the public reading of a set of passages from a Torah scroll.

Jewish religious tradition that involves the public reading of a set of passages from a Torah scroll.

Boy reads Torah according to Sephardic custom
1657 depiction of Hagbaha (right)

The first segment (of seven) of each weekly parashah from the Torah is read during the morning services on Mondays and Thursdays.