A report on Jewish religious movements

The Samaritans on Mount Gerizim
In central Karaite synagogue, Ramla
Torah reading Sephardic custom
A Yemenite Jew in traditional vestments under the tallit gadol, reading from a Torah scroll
Hasidim
Orthodox men during morning Torah reading at the Western Wall
Birkat Hachama of Conservative Jews, Encino, Los Angeles
Reform Jewish service with mixed sitting
IDF soldier, Asael Lubotzky prays with tefillin
Naturei Karta protest, USA
Beta Israel celebrating Sigd, Jerusalem
Igbo Jews, Nigeria, presented with a plaque
Inside Reconstructionist synagogue, Montreal
Purim of Messianic Jews, Saint-Petersburg

Jewish religious movements, sometimes called "denominations", include different groups within Judaism which have developed among Jews from ancient times.

- Jewish religious movements
The Samaritans on Mount Gerizim

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Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box

Judaism

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Abrahamic, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people.

Abrahamic, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people.

Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box
Maccabees by Wojciech Stattler (1842)
A painting of Moses decorates the Dura-Europos synagogue dating from 244 CE
The Western Wall in Jerusalem is a remnant of the wall encircling the Second Temple. The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism.
Kennicott Bible, a 1476 Spanish Tanakh
Aleppo Codex, a Tanakh produced in Tiberias in the 10th century
A man holds up a Sephardi-style torah at the Western Wall, Jerusalem
Statue of Maimonides in Córdoba, Spain
Conservative women rabbis, Israel
El Ghriba synagogue in Djerba, Tunisia
Beta Israeli Kahen at the Western Wall
A Yemenite Jew at morning prayers, wearing a kippah skullcap, prayer shawl and tefillin
An Israeli female soldier prays at the Western Wall
Jewish boys wearing tzitzit and kippot play soccer in Jerusalem
Men wearing tallitot pray at the Western Wall
Two braided Shabbat challahs placed under an embroidered challah cover at the start of the Shabbat meal
Jews in Mumbai break the Yom Kippur fast with roti and samosas
Purim street scene in Jerusalem
Jewish personnel of the US Navy light candles on Hanukkah
A man reads a torah using a yad
The Sarajevo Synagogue in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Great Synagogue (Jerusalem)
Congregation Emanu-El of New York
18th-century circumcision chair Museum of Jewish Art and History
Two boys wearing tallit at a bar mitzvah. The torah is visible in the foreground.
The Bereavement (Yahrtzeit) Hasidic tish, Bnei Brak, Israel
Jewish students with their teacher in Samarkand, Uzbekistan c. 1910.
Magen David Synagogue in Kolkata, India
A Yemeni sofer writing a torah in the 1930s
Judaism is practiced around the world. This is an 1889 siddur published in Hebrew and Marathi for use by the Bene Israel community
The 12th century Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca in Toledo, Spain was converted to a church shortly after anti-Jewish pogroms in 1391
Muslim women in the mellah of Essaouira
The bimah of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo, Egypt

Today, the largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism (Haredi Judaism and Modern Orthodox Judaism), Conservative Judaism, and Reform Judaism.

Visitors in the Orthodox Jewish cemetery in Budapest, circa 1920; the word "Orthodox" (ארטאדאקסען) is painted on the wall, second to the left. Traditionalist Jews in Hungary were the first anywhere to use the term "orthodox" in the formation of an independent Orthodox organization in 1871.

Orthodox Judaism

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Collective term for the traditionalist and theologically conservative branches of contemporary Judaism.

Collective term for the traditionalist and theologically conservative branches of contemporary Judaism.

Visitors in the Orthodox Jewish cemetery in Budapest, circa 1920; the word "Orthodox" (ארטאדאקסען) is painted on the wall, second to the left. Traditionalist Jews in Hungary were the first anywhere to use the term "orthodox" in the formation of an independent Orthodox organization in 1871.
A Jewish man pilloried in the synagogue, a common punishment in the pre-emancipation Jewish community in Europe.
Moses Sofer of Pressburg, considered the father of Orthodoxy in general and ultra-Orthodoxy in particular.
Isaac Bernays in clerical vestments. The ministerial style of dress seen here was ubiquitous among German and Western European (neo)-Orthodox Jews.
David Zvi Hoffmann, the single most prominent Orthodox theoretician who dealt with the critical-historical method.
Young Samson Raphael Hirsch, the ideologue of Orthodox secession in Germany.
Chaim Sofer, the leading halakhic authority of the Hungarian "zealots" during the Orthodox-Neolog schism.
Beth Medrash Govoha (Hebrew:בית מדרש גבוה), in Lakewood, New Jersey, U.S., the world's largest yeshiva outside Israel
Haredi schoolgirls at the Western Wall.
Ultra-Orthodox demonstrators (over 300,000 took part), protesting for the right of Yeshiva students to avoid conscription to the Israeli Army. Jerusalem, 2 March 2014.

Orthodox Judaism is not a centralized denomination.

The interior of Congregation Emanu-El of New York, the largest Reform synagogue in the world.

Reform Judaism

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The interior of Congregation Emanu-El of New York, the largest Reform synagogue in the world.
A segment of the 1818 Hamburg prayer book. Stating "accept the uttering of our lips instead of our obligatory sacrifices" and omitting the traditional "O gather our dispersions... Conduct us unto Zion" passage.
A passage from the Reformed Society's prayerbook, which was mostly in English and theologically more radical than Hamburg's.
Rabbi Abraham Geiger, circa 1840.
Rabbi Samuel Holdheim, circa 1850.
Isaac Meyer Wise.
Rabbi David Einhorn.
Rabbi Kaufmann Kohler.
Claude Montefiore.
Contemporary Reform service, with some congregants wearing head coverings and prayer shawls.

Reform Judaism, also known as Liberal Judaism or Progressive Judaism, is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to its ceremonial ones, and belief in a continuous revelation, which is closely intertwined with human reason and not limited to the theophany at Mount Sinai.

Map of Canaan

Jews

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Ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah.

Ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah.

Map of Canaan
Egyptian depiction of the visit of Western Asiatics in colorful garments, labeled as Aamu. The painting is from the tomb of a 12th dynasty official Khnumhotep II at Beni Hasan, and dated to c. 1900 BCE. Their nearest Biblical contemporaries were the earliest of Hebrews, such as Abraham and Joseph.
Depiction of King Jehu, tenth king of the northern Kingdom of Israel, on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, 841–840 BCE. This is "the only portrayal we have in ancient Near Eastern art of an Israelite or Judaean monarch".
Tombstone of the Maharal in the Old Jewish Cemetery, Prague. The tombstones are inscribed in Hebrew.
Bible manuscript in Hebrew, 14th century. Hebrew language and alphabet were the cornerstones of the Jewish national identity in antiquity.
Ashkenazi Jews of late-19th-century Eastern Europe portrayed in Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur (1878), by Maurycy Gottlieb
Sephardi Jewish couple from Sarajevo in traditional clothing. Photo taken in 1900.
Yemenite Jew blows shofar, 1947
New York City is home to 1.1 million Jews, making it the largest Jewish community outside of Israel.
Jewish people in Jerusalem, Israel
In this Rosh Hashana greeting card from the early 1900s, Russian Jews, packs in hand, gaze at the American relatives beckoning them to the United States. Over two million Jews fled the pogroms of the Russian Empire to the safety of the U.S. between 1881 and 1924.
A menorah dominating the main square in Birobidzhan. An estimated 70,000 Jews live in Siberia.
The Jewish Zionist Youth Movement in Tallinn, Estonia on 1 September 1933.
The Roman Emperor Nero sends Vespasian with an army to destroy the Jews, 69 CE.
World War I poster showing a soldier cutting the bonds from a Jewish man, who says, "You have cut my bonds and set me free—now let me help you set others free!"
Jews in Minsk, 1941. Before World War II some 40 percent of the population was Jewish. By the time the Red Army retook the city on 3 July 1944, there were only a few Jewish survivors.
Expulsions of Jews in Europe from 1100 to 1600
Etching of the expulsion of the Jews from Frankfurt in 1614. The text says: "1380 persons old and young were counted at the exit of the gate".
Jews fleeing pogroms, 1882
Praying at the Western Wall
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Jews have significantly influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both historically and in modern times, including in science and technology, philosophy, ethics, literature, politics, business, art, music, comedy, theatre, cinema, architecture, food, medicine, and religion.

The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, the main rabbinical seminary of Conservative Judaism

Conservative Judaism

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The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, the main rabbinical seminary of Conservative Judaism
Morning service in synagogue Adath Israel, Merion Station, Pennsylvania
Memorial service of B'nai Israel Congregation (Rockville, Maryland)
A mixed-gender, egalitarian Conservative service at Robinson's Arch, Western Wall
Women rabbis, Israel
Ziegler School of Rabbinic Studies at American Jewish University
Rabbi Zecharias Frankel
Frankel's speech in the protocol of the Frankfurt conference, mentioning "Positive-Historical Judaism" (second row, 2–4 words from left)
Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau
Alexander Kohut
Solomon Schechter
East Midwood Jewish Center, a United Synagogue affiliate built in 1926, during the early years of the union
The Conservative Congregation Shaarey Zedek, Southfield, Michigan. The synagogue was built in 1962, after the migration to suburbia
Chancellor Louis Finkelstein (left), the dominant leader of JTS from 1940 to 1972.
The Jewish Theological Seminary of America in New York City, the main rabbinical seminary of Conservative Judaism

Conservative Judaism (known as Masorti Judaism outside North America) is a Jewish religious movement that regards the authority of Jewish law and tradition as emanating primarily from the assent of the people and the community through the generations, more than from divine revelation.

Haredi Jewish men during a Torah reading.

Haredi Judaism

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Haredi Judaism (יהדות חֲרֵדִית , ; also spelled Charedi in English; plural Haredim or Charedim) consists of groups within Orthodox Judaism that are characterized by their strict adherence to halakha (Jewish law) and traditions, in opposition to modern values and practices.

Haredi Judaism (יהדות חֲרֵדִית , ; also spelled Charedi in English; plural Haredim or Charedim) consists of groups within Orthodox Judaism that are characterized by their strict adherence to halakha (Jewish law) and traditions, in opposition to modern values and practices.

Haredi Jewish men during a Torah reading.
Young Haredi Jews in Jerusalem, 2005
Hasidic boys in Łódź, 1910
Haredi Jews from Galicia at the in Vienna's second district, Leopoldstadt, 1915
Haredi Jewish women and girls in Mea Shearim, Jerusalem, 2013
Styles of Haredi dress
Typical Haredi dress for men and women
Gender-separate beach in Israel. To accommodate Haredi and other Orthodox Jews, many coastal resorts in Israel have a designated area for sex-separate bathing.
The Bais Yaakov graduating class of 1934 in Łódź, Poland
Tziporah Heller, a weekly columnist for Hamodia
photograph of the Warsaw Ghetto
Members of Neturei Karta protest against Israel (Washington, 2005)
Haredi demonstration against the conscription of yeshiva pupils
Hasidim walk to the synagogue, Rehovot, Israel.
Haredi Rabbis and students writing a Torah scroll (Haredi settlement of Beitar Illit, Gush Etzion)
Hasidic family on the street in Borough Park, Brooklyn
Students of Telshe yeshiva, 1936

Haredi Jews regard themselves as the most religiously authentic group of Jews, although other movements of Judaism disagree.

Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795

Conversion to Judaism

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Process by which non-Jews adopt the Jewish religion and become members of the Jewish ethnoreligious community.

Process by which non-Jews adopt the Jewish religion and become members of the Jewish ethnoreligious community.

Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795
A portion of the Pentateuch in Hebrew, British Library Oriental MS. 1,497 containing Numbers 6:3-10, dated 12th century. Lines of the Pentateuch alternate with the Targum ascribed to Onkelos (a convert to Judaism)

The procedure and requirements for conversion depend on the sponsoring denomination.

Hebrew language

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Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.

Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.

The word HEBREW written in modern Hebrew language (top) and in Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (bottom)
The Shebna Inscription, from the tomb of a royal steward found in Siloam, dates to the 7th century BCE.
Hebrew script used in writing a Torah scroll. Note ornamental "crowns" on tops of certain letters.
Rashi script
A silver matchbox holder with inscription in Hebrew
Aleppo Codex: 10th century Hebrew Bible with Masoretic pointing (Joshua 1:1).
Kochangadi Synagogue in Kochi, India dated to 1344.
Eliezer Ben-Yehuda
Hebrew, Arabic and English multilingual signs on an Israeli highway
Dual language Hebrew and English keyboard
Academy of the Hebrew Language
Hebrew alphabet

Hebrew survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy, rabbinic literature, intra-Jewish commerce and Jewish poetic literature.

The Karaite synagogue in the Old City (Jerusalem)

Karaite Judaism

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The Karaite synagogue in the Old City (Jerusalem)
Karaim synagogue in Trakai.
Russian Prime Minister order about the differences in the rights of the Karaites and the Jews.
Eupatorian Kenassas of Crimean Karaites.
A karaite Ṣiṣit with blue threads
Karaite synagogue in Ashdod
Karaite synagogue Congregation B’nai Israel (Daly City, California)

Karaite Judaism or Karaism (, sometimes spelt Karaitism (יהדות קראית Yahadut Qara'it); also spelt Qaraite Judaism, Qaraism or Qaraitism) is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the written Torah alone as its supreme authority in halakha (Jewish religious law) and theology.

Messiah in Judaism

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Savior and liberator figure in Jewish eschatology, who is believed to be the future redeemer of the Jewish people.

Savior and liberator figure in Jewish eschatology, who is believed to be the future redeemer of the Jewish people.

Jewish messianism gave birth to Christianity, which started as a Second Temple period messianic Jewish sect.