A report on Jews

Map of Canaan
Egyptian depiction of the visit of Western Asiatics in colorful garments, labeled as Aamu. The painting is from the tomb of a 12th dynasty official Khnumhotep II at Beni Hasan, and dated to c. 1900 BCE. Their nearest Biblical contemporaries were the earliest of Hebrews, such as Abraham and Joseph.
Depiction of King Jehu, tenth king of the northern Kingdom of Israel, on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, 841–840 BCE. This is "the only portrayal we have in ancient Near Eastern art of an Israelite or Judaean monarch".
Tombstone of the Maharal in the Old Jewish Cemetery, Prague. The tombstones are inscribed in Hebrew.
Bible manuscript in Hebrew, 14th century. Hebrew language and alphabet were the cornerstones of the Jewish national identity in antiquity.
Ashkenazi Jews of late-19th-century Eastern Europe portrayed in Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur (1878), by Maurycy Gottlieb
Sephardi Jewish couple from Sarajevo in traditional clothing. Photo taken in 1900.
Yemenite Jew blows shofar, 1947
New York City is home to 1.1 million Jews, making it the largest Jewish community outside of Israel.
Jewish people in Jerusalem, Israel
In this Rosh Hashana greeting card from the early 1900s, Russian Jews, packs in hand, gaze at the American relatives beckoning them to the United States. Over two million Jews fled the pogroms of the Russian Empire to the safety of the U.S. between 1881 and 1924.
A menorah dominating the main square in Birobidzhan. An estimated 70,000 Jews live in Siberia.
The Jewish Zionist Youth Movement in Tallinn, Estonia on 1 September 1933.
The Roman Emperor Nero sends Vespasian with an army to destroy the Jews, 69 CE.
World War I poster showing a soldier cutting the bonds from a Jewish man, who says, "You have cut my bonds and set me free—now let me help you set others free!"
Jews in Minsk, 1941. Before World War II some 40 percent of the population was Jewish. By the time the Red Army retook the city on 3 July 1944, there were only a few Jewish survivors.
Expulsions of Jews in Europe from 1100 to 1600
Etching of the expulsion of the Jews from Frankfurt in 1614. The text says: "1380 persons old and young were counted at the exit of the gate".
Jews fleeing pogroms, 1882
Praying at the Western Wall
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Ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah.

- Jews
Map of Canaan

181 related topics with Alpha

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Israel

36 links

Country in Western Asia.

Country in Western Asia.

The Merneptah Stele (13th century BCE). The majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel," the first instance of the name in the record.
The Large Stone Structure, an archaeological site in Jerusalem
Map of Israel and Judah in the 9th century BCE
Portion of the Temple Scroll, one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, written during the Second Temple period
Kfar Bar'am, an ancient Jewish village, abandoned some time between the 7th–13th centuries CE.
The 13th-century Ramban Synagogue in Jerusalem
Jews at the Western Wall in the 1870s
The First Zionist Congress (1897) in Basel, Switzerland
UN Map, "Palestine plan of partition with economic union"
Territory held by Israel: The Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt in 1982.
Israel's 1980 law declared that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel."
Shimon Peres (left) with Yitzhak Rabin (center) and King Hussein of Jordan (right), prior to signing the Israel–Jordan peace treaty in 1994.
The site of the 2001 Tel Aviv Dolphinarium discotheque massacre, in which 21 Israelis were killed.
Köppen climate classification map of Israel and the Golan Heights
Population pyramid of Israel
Immigration to Israel in the years 1948–2015. The two peaks were in 1949 and 1990.
Road sign in Hebrew, Arabic, and English
The Dome of the Rock and the Western Wall, Jerusalem.
Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center at Bar-Ilan University
Mount Scopus Campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Knesset chamber, home to the Israeli parliament
Political system of state of Israel
Supreme Court of Israel, Givat Ram, Jerusalem
Map of Israel showing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights
Israeli West Bank barrier separating Israel and the West Bank
Area C of the West Bank, controlled by Israel under Oslo Accords, in blue and red, in December 2011
Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat at the signing ceremony of the Oslo Accords with then US President Bill Clinton
Squad commanders exercise at Eliakim training base in 2012
Iron Dome is the world's first operational anti-artillery rocket defense system.
Change in per capita GDP of Israel since 1950. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
The Diamond Exchange District in Ramat Gan
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange. Its building is optimized for computer trading, with systems located in an underground bunker to keep the exchange active during emergencies.
Matam high-tech park in Haifa
The world's largest solar parabolic dish at the Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy Center.
Ben Gurion International Airport
Ein Bokek resort on the shore of the Dead Sea
Shmuel Yosef Agnon, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature
Israel Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Zubin Mehta
Shrine of the Book, repository of the Dead Sea Scrolls in Jerusalem
A meal including falafel, hummus, French fries and Israeli salad
Teddy Stadium of Jerusalem
Boris Gelfand, chess Grandmaster

The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively.

Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box

Judaism

33 links

Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box
Maccabees by Wojciech Stattler (1842)
A painting of Moses decorates the Dura-Europos synagogue dating from 244 CE
The Western Wall in Jerusalem is a remnant of the wall encircling the Second Temple. The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism.
Kennicott Bible, a 1476 Spanish Tanakh
Aleppo Codex, a Tanakh produced in Tiberias in the 10th century
A man holds up a Sephardi-style torah at the Western Wall, Jerusalem
Statue of Maimonides in Córdoba, Spain
Conservative women rabbis, Israel
El Ghriba synagogue in Djerba, Tunisia
Beta Israeli Kahen at the Western Wall
A Yemenite Jew at morning prayers, wearing a kippah skullcap, prayer shawl and tefillin
An Israeli female soldier prays at the Western Wall
Jewish boys wearing tzitzit and kippot play soccer in Jerusalem
Men wearing tallitot pray at the Western Wall
Two braided Shabbat challahs placed under an embroidered challah cover at the start of the Shabbat meal
Jews in Mumbai break the Yom Kippur fast with roti and samosas
Purim street scene in Jerusalem
Jewish personnel of the US Navy light candles on Hanukkah
A man reads a torah using a yad
The Sarajevo Synagogue in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Great Synagogue (Jerusalem)
Congregation Emanu-El of New York
18th-century circumcision chair Museum of Jewish Art and History
Two boys wearing tallit at a bar mitzvah. The torah is visible in the foreground.
The Bereavement (Yahrtzeit) Hasidic tish, Bnei Brak, Israel
Jewish students with their teacher in Samarkand, Uzbekistan c. 1910.
Magen David Synagogue in Kolkata, India
A Yemeni sofer writing a torah in the 1930s
Judaism is practiced around the world. This is an 1889 siddur published in Hebrew and Marathi for use by the Bene Israel community
The 12th century Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca in Toledo, Spain was converted to a church shortly after anti-Jewish pogroms in 1391
Muslim women in the mellah of Essaouira
The bimah of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo, Egypt

Judaism is an Abrahamic, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people.

The Merneptah Stele, widely believed to comprise the earliest known appearance of the name Israel

Israelites

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The Israelites were a confederation of Semitic-speaking tribes in the ancient Near East who, during the Iron Age, inhabited a part of Canaan.

The Israelites were a confederation of Semitic-speaking tribes in the ancient Near East who, during the Iron Age, inhabited a part of Canaan.

The Merneptah Stele, widely believed to comprise the earliest known appearance of the name Israel
Mid-20th century mosaic of the 12 Tribes of Israel, from the Etz Yosef synagogue wall in Givat Mordechai, 
Jerusalem
Map of the Holy Land, Pietro Vesconte, 1321, showing the allotments of the tribes of Israel. Described by Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld as "the first non-Ptolemaic map of a definite country"
Map of the twelve tribes of Israel (before the move of Dan to the north), based on the Book of Joshua
Model of the Tabernacle constructed under the auspices of Moses, in Timna Park, Israel
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The Mount Ebal structure, seen by many archeologists as an early Israelite cultic site
Series of depictions of the historical Israelites between the 13th and 7th century BCE
Part of the gift-bearing Israelite delegation of King Jehu, Black Obelisk, 841-840 BCE.
"To Hezekiah, son of Ahaz, king of Judah" - royal seal found at the Ophel excavations in Jerusalem
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The Jews and the Samaritans are descendants of the ancient Israelites.

Statue of the Sephardic philosopher Maimonides, in Córdoba, Spain

Sephardi Jews

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Sepharadi Jews (יהדות ספרד, ; Djudíos Sefardíes), also known as Sephardic Jews or Sepharadim, and sometimes referred to by modern scholars as Hispanic Jews,

Sepharadi Jews (יהדות ספרד, ; Djudíos Sefardíes), also known as Sephardic Jews or Sepharadim, and sometimes referred to by modern scholars as Hispanic Jews,

Statue of the Sephardic philosopher Maimonides, in Córdoba, Spain
Jewish Festival in Tetuan, Alfred Dehodencq, 1865, Paris Museum of Jewish Art and History
Sephardi Jewish couple from Sarajevo in traditional clothing (1900)
A 1902 Issue of La Epoca, a Ladino newspaper from Salonica (Thessaloniki)
19th-century Moroccan Sephardic wedding dress.
First Cemetery of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue, Shearith Israel (1656–1833) in Manhattan, New York City
Emma Lazarus, American poet. Born into a large New York Sephardi family.
Sephardi family from Misiones Province, Argentina, circa 1900.
The Expulsion of the Jews from Spain (in the year 1492) by Emilio Sala Francés
Dedication at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem written in Hebrew, English, Yiddish, and Judeo-Spanish
13th-century depiction of a Jew and Muslim playing chess in Al-Andalus
Observing the Havdalah ritual, 14th-century Spain
A representation of the 1506 Jewish Massacre in Lisbon.
Interior of the Portuguese synagogue in Amsterdam, c. 1680
Execution of Mariana de Carabajal in Mexico City, daughter of Francisca Nuñez de Carabajal, in 1601 by the Santo Oficio.
A young woman weeps during the deportation of Jews of Ioannina (Greece) on 25 March 1944.

These descendants of Spanish and Portuguese Jews forced or coerced to convert to Catholicism remained, as conversos, in Iberia or moved to the Iberian colonial possessions across various Latin American countries during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Jewish ethnic divisions map

Jewish ethnic divisions

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Jewish ethnic divisions refer to many distinctive communities within the world's ethnically Jewish population.

Jewish ethnic divisions refer to many distinctive communities within the world's ethnically Jewish population.

Jewish ethnic divisions map
Painting of a Jewish man from the Ottoman Empire, 1779
Jewish women in Algeria, 1851
The Suleiman ben Pinchas Cohen family of Yemen, circa 1944
Maltese Jews in Valletta, 19th century
Sephardi Jewish family descendants of Spanish expellees in Bosnia, 19th century
An Eastern Ashkenazic family living in the Shtetl of Romanivka, circa 1905
Yemenite Jews in Sa'dah, smoking Nargile.
Ethiopian Jewish women at Jerusalem's Western Wall, 2006
Bukharan Jewish teacher and students in Samarkand, modern-day Uzbekistan, circa 1910
Berber Jews from the Atlas Mountains of Morocco, circa 1900
Chinese Jews from the city of Kaifeng, China, circa 1900
Kurdish Jews in Rawanduz, Iraqi Kurdistan, 1905
Juhur Imuni (Mountain Jews) girls of the Caucasus, 1913
Bnei Menashe Jews from Northern India, celebrating Purim, in Karmiel, Israel.
An Malabar Jewish family in Cochin, India, circa 1900
Chief Karaite rabbi, Moshe Fairouz (left) and vice chairman, Eli Eltahan. Jerusalem, Israel.

Although considered a self-identifying ethnicity, there are distinct ethnic subdivisions among Jews, most of which are primarily the result of geographic branching from an originating Israelite population, mixing with local communities, and subsequent independent evolutions.

The Westerners street in Jerusalem, Israel; coined after the Maghrebi Jews

Mizrahi Jews

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The Westerners street in Jerusalem, Israel; coined after the Maghrebi Jews
Children in a Jewish school in Baghdad, 1959
Jewish Departure and Expulsion Memorial from Arab Lands and Iran on the Sherover Promenade, Jerusalem

Mizrahi Jews (יהודי המִזְרָח), also known as Mizrahim (מִזְרָחִים) or Mizrachi (מִזְרָחִי) and alternatively referred to as Oriental Jews or Edot HaMizrach (עֲדוֹת-הַמִּזְרָח, ), are a grouping of Jewish communities comprising those who remained in the Land of Israel and those who existed in diaspora throughout and around the Middle East and North Africa

From the Auschwitz Album: Hungarian Jews arriving at Auschwitz II in German-occupied Poland, May 1944. Most were "selected" to go to the gas chambers. Camp prisoners are visible in their striped uniforms.

The Holocaust

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The genocide of European Jews during World War II.

The genocide of European Jews during World War II.

From the Auschwitz Album: Hungarian Jews arriving at Auschwitz II in German-occupied Poland, May 1944. Most were "selected" to go to the gas chambers. Camp prisoners are visible in their striped uniforms.
German-occupied Europe, 1942
The 23 defendants during the Doctors' trial, Nuremberg, 9 December 1946 – 20 August 1947
Antisemitic Christian Social Party placard from the 1920 Austrian legislative election: "Vote Social Christian. German Christians Save Austria!"
Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses: SA troopers urge a boycott outside Israel's Department Store, Berlin, 1 April 1933. All signs read: "Germans! Defend yourselves! Don't buy from Jews!"
The poster (c. 1937) reads: "60,000 RM is what this person with hereditary illness costs the community in his lifetime. Fellow citizen, that is your money too. Read Neues Volk, the monthly magazine of the Office of Racial Policy of the Nazi Party."
Czechoslovakian Jews at Croydon airport, England, 31 March 1939, before deportation
March or April 1938: Jews are forced to scrub the pavement in Vienna, Austria.
Potsdamer Straße 26, Berlin, the day after Kristallnacht, November 1938
Jewish women were stripped, beaten and raped in Lwów, occupied eastern Poland (later Lviv, Ukraine), during the Lviv pogroms, July 1941.
Jews arrive with their belongings at the Auschwitz II extermination camp, summer 1944, thinking they were being resettled.
Jewish women wearing yellow badges in occupied Paris, June 1942
Greek Jews from Saloniki are forced to exercise or dance, July 1942.
SS-Gruppenführer Otto Ohlendorf, commander of Einsatzgruppe D, pleads not guilty during the Einsatzgruppen trial, Nuremberg, 15 September 1947. He was executed in 1951.
Ivanhorod Einsatzgruppen photograph: Einsatzgruppe shooting a woman and child, near Ivangorod, Ukraine, 1942
The "stairs of death" at the Weiner Graben quarry, Mauthausen concentration camp, Austria, 1942
Bodies being pulled out of a train carrying Romanian Jews from the Iași pogrom, July 1941
11 December 1941: Adolf Hitler speaking at the Kroll Opera House to Reichstag members about war in the Pacific.
Am Großen Wannsee 56–58, Berlin
Captain Witold Pilecki
Jews from Carpathian Ruthenia on the selection ramp at Auschwitz II, c. May 1944. Women and children are lined up on one side, men on the other, waiting for the SS to determine who was fit for work. About 20 percent at Auschwitz were selected for work and the rest gassed.
A mass grave at Bergen-Belsen after the camp's liberation, April 1945
Heinrich Himmler inspects a POW camp in Russia, c. 1941.
Romani people being deported from Asperg, Germany, 22 May 1940
Defendants in the dock at the Nuremberg trials, 1945–1946
Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe in Berlin, 2016
Stolpersteine, Berlin-Mitte, 2011

Between 1941 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its collaborators systematically murdered some six million Jews across German-occupied Europe; around two-thirds of Europe's Jewish population.

Hebrew language

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Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.

Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.

The word HEBREW written in modern Hebrew language (top) and in Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (bottom)
The Shebna Inscription, from the tomb of a royal steward found in Siloam, dates to the 7th century BCE.
Hebrew script used in writing a Torah scroll. Note ornamental "crowns" on tops of certain letters.
Rashi script
A silver matchbox holder with inscription in Hebrew
Aleppo Codex: 10th century Hebrew Bible with Masoretic pointing (Joshua 1:1).
Kochangadi Synagogue in Kochi, India dated to 1344.
Eliezer Ben-Yehuda
Hebrew, Arabic and English multilingual signs on an Israeli highway
Dual language Hebrew and English keyboard
Academy of the Hebrew Language
Hebrew alphabet

Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the Israelites and their longest-surviving descendants: the Judeans and Samaritans.

The Flight of the Prisoners (1896) by James Tissot; the exile of the Jews from Canaan to Babylon

Babylonian captivity

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Period in Jewish history during which a large number of Judeans from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylon, the capital city of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, following their defeat in the Jewish–Babylonian War and the destruction of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem.

Period in Jewish history during which a large number of Judeans from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylon, the capital city of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, following their defeat in the Jewish–Babylonian War and the destruction of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem.

The Flight of the Prisoners (1896) by James Tissot; the exile of the Jews from Canaan to Babylon
Clay tablet. The Akkadian cuneiform inscription lists certain rations and mentions the name of Jeconiah (Jehoiachin), King of Judah, and the Babylonian captivity. From Babylon, Iraq. Reign of Nebuchadnezzar II, circa 580 BCE. Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin
Illustration from the Nuremberg Chronicle of the destruction of Jerusalem under the Babylonian rule
Depiction of Jews mourning the exile in Babylon

All of these events are considered significant to the developed history and culture of the Jewish people, and ultimately had a far-reaching impact on the development of Judaism.

Map of the region in the 9th century BCE, with Judah in yellow and Israel in blue

Kingdom of Judah

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Israelite kingdom of the Southern Levant during the Iron Age.

Israelite kingdom of the Southern Levant during the Iron Age.

Map of the region in the 9th century BCE, with Judah in yellow and Israel in blue
Judah at its largest extent, under Uzziah, per 2 Kings 14 and 2 Chronicles 26.
Map of the region in the 9th century BCE, with Judah in yellow and Israel in blue
"To Hezekiah, son of Ahaz, king of Judah" - royal seal found at the Ophel excavations in Jerusalem
Broad Wall, built during the reign of king Hezekiah (late-8th century BCE)
Siloam inscription found in the Siloam tunnel, Jerusalem
The Assyrian Lachish reliefs, depicting the capture of Lachish (c. 701 BCE). Assyrian soldiers carry off booty from the city, and Judean prisoners are taken into exile with their goods and animals.
The Flight of the Prisoners (1896) by James Tissot; the exile of the Jews from Jerusalem to Babylon
Tel Dan Stele, with the words "House of David" highlighted (9th century BCE)
Stepped Stone Structure seen from the Large Stone Structure
Storage jars handles marked with LMLK seals, Hecht Museum

Jews are named after Judah and are primarily descended from it.