Jews

JewishJewJewish peopleJewryJewish communityHebrewJewish descentIsraelJewish ancestryJewish population
Jews ( ISO 259-2, Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah.wikipedia
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Judaism

JewishJewsJudaic
Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the ethnic religion of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. The Jewish people and Judaism have experienced various persecutions throughout Jewish history.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the ethnic religion of the Jewish people, comprising the collective religious, cultural and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people.

Jewish diaspora

diasporaExilediaspora Jews
Since the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, most Jews have lived in diaspora.
The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת; Yiddish: Golus) refers to the dispersion of Israelites or Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.

Jewish history

Jewishhistory of Judaismhistory
The Jewish people and Judaism have experienced various persecutions throughout Jewish history.
Jewish history is the history of the Jews, and their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures.

Jewish population by country

Jewish populationJewish community in the worldJews by country
Within the world's Jewish population there are distinct ethnic divisions, most of which are primarily the result of geographic branching from an originating Israelite population, and subsequent independent evolutions.
, the world's Core Jewish Population, those identifying as Jews above all else, was 14.6 million.

The Holocaust

HolocaustShoahNazi Holocaust
Due to many factors, including the impact of the Holocaust on European Jewry, the Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, and widespread emigration from other Jewish communities around the world, ancient and distinct Jewish languages of several communities, including Judæo-Georgian, Judæo-Arabic, Judæo-Berber, Krymchak, Judæo-Malayalam and many others, have largely fallen out of use.
Between 1941 and 1945, across German-occupied Europe, Nazi Germany and its collaborators systematically murdered some six million Jews, around two-thirds of Europe's Jewish population.

Middle East

Middle Easternthe Middle EastMiddle-East
Genetic studies on Jews show that most Jews worldwide bear a common genetic heritage which originates in the Middle East, and that they share certain genetic traits with other Gentile peoples of the Fertile Crescent.
Arabs constitute the majority ethnic group in the region, followed by Turks, Persians, Kurds, Azeris, Copts, Jews, Assyrians, Iraqi Turkmen, and Greek Cypriots.

Jewish ethics

Jewish valuesethicsJewish ethical
Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have significantly influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both historically and in modern times, including philosophy, ethics, literature, politics, business, fine arts and architecture, music, theatre and cinema, medicine, and science and technology, as well as religion; Jews authored the Bible, founded Early Christianity and had a profound influence on Islam.
Jewish ethics is the moral philosophy of the Jewish religion or the Jewish people.

Jewish political movements

Jewish nationalismpolitical movementJewish political movement
Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have significantly influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both historically and in modern times, including philosophy, ethics, literature, politics, business, fine arts and architecture, music, theatre and cinema, medicine, and science and technology, as well as religion; Jews authored the Bible, founded Early Christianity and had a profound influence on Islam.
Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside the Jewish community.

Jewish culture

Secular Jewish cultureJewish artJewish
Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have significantly influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both historically and in modern times, including philosophy, ethics, literature, politics, business, fine arts and architecture, music, theatre and cinema, medicine, and science and technology, as well as religion; Jews authored the Bible, founded Early Christianity and had a profound influence on Islam.
Jewish culture is the culture of the Jewish people from the formation of the Jewish nation in ancient Israel through life in the diaspora and the modern state of Israel.

Jewish music

JewishHebrew musicJewish folk music
Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have significantly influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both historically and in modern times, including philosophy, ethics, literature, politics, business, fine arts and architecture, music, theatre and cinema, medicine, and science and technology, as well as religion; Jews authored the Bible, founded Early Christianity and had a profound influence on Islam.
Jewish music is the music and melodies of the Jewish people.

Jewish identity

identityJewish rootsJewish identification
Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, and halakhic conversions.
Jewish identity is the objective or subjective state of perceiving oneself as a Jew and as relating to being Jewish.

Jewish religious movements

Jewish denominationsJewish denominationJewish sect
Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have significantly influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both historically and in modern times, including philosophy, ethics, literature, politics, business, fine arts and architecture, music, theatre and cinema, medicine, and science and technology, as well as religion; Jews authored the Bible, founded Early Christianity and had a profound influence on Islam.
Jewish religious movements, sometimes called "denominations" or "branches", include different groups which have developed among Jews from ancient times.

Jewish medicine

healing in JudaismHebrew medicinemedicine
Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have significantly influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both historically and in modern times, including philosophy, ethics, literature, politics, business, fine arts and architecture, music, theatre and cinema, medicine, and science and technology, as well as religion; Jews authored the Bible, founded Early Christianity and had a profound influence on Islam.
Jewish medicine is medical practice of the Jewish people, including writing in the languages of both Hebrew and Arabic.

Israeli Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independenceestablishment of the State of IsraelIsrael's declaration of independence
It defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in particular, which is based on the Declaration of Independence.
The possibility of a Jewish homeland in Palestine had been a goal of Zionist organizations since the late 19th century.

Ioudaios

IoudaioiIoudaionIoudaismos
These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, which, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea".
Ioudaios (pl. Ἰουδαῖοι Ioudaioi) is an Ancient Greek ethnonym used in classical and biblical literature which commonly translates to "Jew" or "Judean".

Ethnoreligious group

ethno-religiousethnoreligiousethnocultural
Jews ( ISO 259-2, Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah.
Both Jews and Sikhs were determined to be considered ethnoreligious groups under the Anti-Discrimination (Amendment) Act 1994 (see above).

Hebrews

HebrewHebrew peopleancient Hebrews
Jews ( ISO 259-2, Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah.
By the time of the Roman Empire, Greek Hebraios could refer to the Jews in general, as Strong's Hebrew Dictionary puts it, "any of the Jewish Nation", and at other times more specifically to the Jews living in Judea.

Hebrew language

HebrewHebrew grammarHeb.
The Greek term was a loan from Aramaic, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי, originally the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah.
Modern Hebrew is the official language of the State of Israel, while premodern Hebrew is used for prayer or study in Jewish communities around the world today.

Judea (Roman province)

JudeaJudaeaIudaea Province
After the Bar Kokhba revolt (132–135), the Roman Emperor Hadrian changed the name of the province to Syria Palaestina and the name of the city of Jerusalem to Aelia Capitolina, which certain scholars conclude was an attempt to disconnect the Jewish people from their homeland.

Ethnic religion

Traditional religionNative religionethnic
Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the ethnic religion of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance.
Some ethnic religions include Judaism of the Jews, Druidism of the Welsh, Hellenism of the Greeks, Druze religion of the Druze, Alawism of Alawites, Alevism of the Alevites, Mandaeism of the Mandaeans, Yazidism of the Yazidis, Chinese folk religion of the Han Chinese, Sikhism of the Punjabis, Shinto of the Japanese and A ƭat Roog of the Serer of Senegal, The Gambia, and Mauritania.

Haskalah

MaskilimmaskilHaskala
Since the anti-religious Haskalah movement of the late 18th and 19th centuries, halakhic interpretations of Jewish identity have been challenged.
The Haskalah, often termed Jewish Enlightenment (literally, "wisdom", "erudition") was an intellectual movement among the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe, with certain influence on those in Western Europe and the Muslim world.

Western culture

WesternWestern civilizationWest
Jews have also played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.
The most important Hellenistic centre of learning was Ptolemaic Egypt, which attracted Greek, Egyptian, Jewish, Persian, Phoenician and even Indian scholars.

Religion

religiousreligionsreligious beliefs
Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the ethnic religion of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance.
The Jewish people were scattered after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE.

Early Christianity

early Christianearly Churchearly Christians
Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have significantly influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both historically and in modern times, including philosophy, ethics, literature, politics, business, fine arts and architecture, music, theatre and cinema, medicine, and science and technology, as well as religion; Jews authored the Bible, founded Early Christianity and had a profound influence on Islam.
The first Christians were all Jews, either by birth or conversion ("proselytes" in Biblical terminology), who constituted a Second Temple Jewish sect with an apocalyptic eschatology.

Judea

JudaeaJudeanJudah
These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, which, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea".
The southern parts of Judea, if they be measured lengthways, are bounded by a village adjoining to the confines of Arabia; the Jews that dwell there call it Jordan.