Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet

The largest component territory of the Chinese Soviet Republic, an unrecognized state established in November 1931 by Mao Zedong and Zhu De during the Chinese civil war.

- Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet

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Chinese Soviet Republic

East Asian proto-state within the territory of China's Jiangxi (Kiangsi) province and the predecessor to the People's Republic of China.

East Asian proto-state within the territory of China's Jiangxi (Kiangsi) province and the predecessor to the People's Republic of China.

Map of the various Soviets comprising the Chinese Soviet Republic and the route of the Long March
A one yuan banknote with Lenin's image in the centre
Map of the various Soviets comprising the Chinese Soviet Republic and the route of the Long March

Its largest and base territory was the Jiangxi-Fujian Soviet.

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in 1933

Fifth encirclement campaign against the Jiangxi Soviet

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in 1933
location of Jiangxi Soviet

The fifth encirclement campaign against Kiangsi (Jiangxi) Soviet was a series of battles fought during the Chinese Civil War from 25 September 1933, to October 1934 between Chiang Kai-shek's Chinese Nationalists (Kuomintang) and the Chinese Communists.

Mao in 1959

Mao Zedong

Chinese communist revolutionary who was the founder of the People's Republic of China (PRC), which he led as the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party from the establishment of the PRC in 1949 until his death in 1976.

Chinese communist revolutionary who was the founder of the People's Republic of China (PRC), which he led as the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party from the establishment of the PRC in 1949 until his death in 1976.

Mao in 1959
Mao Zedong's childhood home in Shaoshan, in 2010, by which time it had become a tourist destination
Mao in 1913
Students in Beijing rallying during the May Fourth Movement
Location of the first Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in July 1921, in Xintiandi, former French Concession, Shanghai
Mao Zedong around the time of his work at Guangzhou's PMTI in 1925
Third Plenum of the KMT Central Executive Committee in March 1927. Mao is third from the right in the second row.
Flag of the HistoryChinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army
Mao in 1927
Chinese Communist revolutionaries in the 1920s
Mao in Yan'an
Military parade on the occasion of the founding of a Chinese Soviet Republic in 1931
An overview map of the Long March
Zhang Guotao (left) and Mao Zedong in Yan'an, 1937
In an effort to defeat the Japanese, Mao (left) agreed to collaborate with Chiang (right).
Mao in 1938, writing On Protracted War
Mao with Kang Sheng in Yan'an, 1945
PLA troops, supported by captured M5 Stuart light tanks, attacking the Nationalist lines in 1948
Mao Zedong declares the founding of the modern People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949
Mao with his fourth wife, Jiang Qing, called "Madame Mao", 1946
Mao at Joseph Stalin's 70th birthday celebration in Moscow, December 1949
Mao and Zhou Enlai meeting with Dalai Lama (right) and Panchen Lama (left) to celebrate Tibetan New Year, Beijing, 1955
Photo of Mao Zedong sitting, published in "Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung", ca. 1955
Mao with Nikita Khrushchev, Ho Chi Minh and Soong Ching-ling during a state dinner in Beijing, 1959
Early in the Great Leap Forward, commune members were encouraged to eat their fill in communal canteens, but many canteens shut down as they ran out of food and fuel.
Mao with Henry Kissinger and Zhou Enlai, Beijing, 1972
U.S. President Gerald Ford watches as Henry Kissinger shakes hands with Mao during their visit to China, December 2, 1975
A public appearance of Chairman Mao and Lin Biao among Red Guards, in Beijing, during the Cultural Revolution (November 1966)
A large portrait of Mao at Tiananmen
Mao Zedong Square at Saoshan
Statue of young Mao in Changsha, the capital of Hunan
In 1978, the classroom of a kindergarten in Shanghai putting up portraits of then- Chairman Hua Guofeng and former Chairman Mao Zedong
Mao greets U.S. President Richard Nixon during his visit to China in 1972.
Statue of Mao in Lijiang
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Mao with Jiang Qing and daughter Li Na in the 1940s
Mao Zedong with his nephew Mao Yuanxin, and daughters Li Min (second from left) and Li Na
Mao and Zhang Yufeng in 1964
Mao's calligraphy: a bronze plaque of a poem by Li Bai. (Chinese: 白帝城毛澤東手書李白詩銅匾 )

During the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang (KMT) and the CCP, Mao helped to found the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, led the Jiangxi Soviet's radical land policies, and ultimately became head of the CCP during the Long March.

Overview map of the route of the Long March
Light red areas show Communist enclaves. Areas marked by a blue "X" were overrun by Kuomintang forces during the Fourth Encirclement Campaign, forcing the Fourth Red Army (north) and the Second Red Army (south) to retreat to more western enclaves (dotted lines). The dashed line is the route of the First Red Army from Jiangxi. The withdrawal of all three Red Armies ends in the northeast enclave of Shaanxi.

Long March

Military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the National Army of the Chinese Nationalist Party (CNP/KMT).

Military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the National Army of the Chinese Nationalist Party (CNP/KMT).

Overview map of the route of the Long March
Light red areas show Communist enclaves. Areas marked by a blue "X" were overrun by Kuomintang forces during the Fourth Encirclement Campaign, forcing the Fourth Red Army (north) and the Second Red Army (south) to retreat to more western enclaves (dotted lines). The dashed line is the route of the First Red Army from Jiangxi. The withdrawal of all three Red Armies ends in the northeast enclave of Shaanxi.
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek encircled the Communists in Jiangxi in 1934.
Map drawn by the Red Army Command before the Battle of Xiangjiang
The Luding Bridge
Tiger Leaping Gorge in the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain massif of western Yunnan province
A Communist leader addressing Long March survivors

1931: Unofficial founding of the Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet by Mao Zedong and Zhu De.

First encirclement campaign against the Jiangxi Soviet

The first encirclement campaign against Jiangxi Soviet was a series of battles launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government intended to annihilate the Chinese Red Army, and destroy the Chinese Soviet Republic.

Second encirclement campaign against the Jiangxi Soviet

The second encirclement campaign against Jiangxi Soviet was a series of battles launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government in the hope of encircling and destroying the Jiangxi Soviet after the previous campaign had failed.

Third encirclement campaign against the Jiangxi Soviet

The third encirclement campaign against Jiangxi Soviet was the third campaign launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government in the hope of destroying the Red Army in Jiangxi.

Flag of the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (中國工農紅軍).

History of the People's Liberation Army

The history of the Chinese People's Liberation Army began in 1927 with the start of the Chinese Civil War and spans to the present, having developed from a peasant guerrilla force into the largest armed force in the world.

The history of the Chinese People's Liberation Army began in 1927 with the start of the Chinese Civil War and spans to the present, having developed from a peasant guerrilla force into the largest armed force in the world.

Flag of the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (中國工農紅軍).

Kuomintang campaigns against the Jiangxi Soviet:

Xiao Ke in 1955

Xiao Ke

General of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, former vice chairman of the CPPCC, as well as principal of the University of Military and Politics.

General of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, former vice chairman of the CPPCC, as well as principal of the University of Military and Politics.

Xiao Ke in 1955
Xiao Ke, left, with Nie Rongzhen and Yang Chengwu near the front lines during the Chinese Civil War in 1947.

In August 1934, he led the Sixth Army Group out west of the Jiangxi Soviet as pathfinders for what was to become the Long March.

Xiang Ying

War-time Chinese communist leader reaching the rank of political chief of staff of the New Fourth Army during World War II until his assassination by a member of his staff in 1941.

War-time Chinese communist leader reaching the rank of political chief of staff of the New Fourth Army during World War II until his assassination by a member of his staff in 1941.

He held high office during the CCP's Jiangxi Soviet period (1931–1934).