Mao in 1959
A Hawker Siddeley Trident, similar to the aircraft involved.
Mao Zedong's childhood home in Shaoshan, in 2010, by which time it had become a tourist destination
A Hawker Siddeley Trident, similar to the aircraft involved.
Mao in 1913
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Students in Beijing rallying during the May Fourth Movement
Lin Biao with wife Ye Qun and their children
Location of the first Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in July 1921, in Xintiandi, former French Concession, Shanghai
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Mao Zedong around the time of his work at Guangzhou's PMTI in 1925
Lin as commander-in-chief of the Manchurian Field Army (~1947–1948)
Third Plenum of the KMT Central Executive Committee in March 1927. Mao is third from the right in the second row.
Lin Biao and Ye Qun
Flag of the HistoryChinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army
On 1 October 1959, Lin Biao, as defense minister, surveyed the honor guards at the military parade celebrating the 10th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China.
Mao in 1927
Lin Biao's calligraphy in the Summer Palace, 1966
Chinese Communist revolutionaries in the 1920s
Lin Biao (right), Mao Zedong (center) and Zhou Enlai, waving copies of the Little Red Book, at Tiananmen, during the Cultural Revolution (1967)
Mao in Yan'an
Lin Biao with Mao Zedong
Military parade on the occasion of the founding of a Chinese Soviet Republic in 1931
Lin Biao reading the Little Red Book. This is the last photo of him ever taken (1971)
An overview map of the Long March
Project 571 Outline
Zhang Guotao (left) and Mao Zedong in Yan'an, 1937
Lin Liguo with Ye Qun
In an effort to defeat the Japanese, Mao (left) agreed to collaborate with Chiang (right).
Qinhuangdao Shanhaiguan Airport, provenance of the aircraft
Mao in 1938, writing On Protracted War
Graffiti with Lin Biao's foreword to Mao's Little Red Book. Lin's name (lower right) was later scratched out, presumably after his death.
Mao with Kang Sheng in Yan'an, 1945
PLA troops, supported by captured M5 Stuart light tanks, attacking the Nationalist lines in 1948
Mao Zedong declares the founding of the modern People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949
Mao with his fourth wife, Jiang Qing, called "Madame Mao", 1946
Mao at Joseph Stalin's 70th birthday celebration in Moscow, December 1949
Mao and Zhou Enlai meeting with Dalai Lama (right) and Panchen Lama (left) to celebrate Tibetan New Year, Beijing, 1955
Photo of Mao Zedong sitting, published in "Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung", ca. 1955
Mao with Nikita Khrushchev, Ho Chi Minh and Soong Ching-ling during a state dinner in Beijing, 1959
Early in the Great Leap Forward, commune members were encouraged to eat their fill in communal canteens, but many canteens shut down as they ran out of food and fuel.
Mao with Henry Kissinger and Zhou Enlai, Beijing, 1972
U.S. President Gerald Ford watches as Henry Kissinger shakes hands with Mao during their visit to China, December 2, 1975
A public appearance of Chairman Mao and Lin Biao among Red Guards, in Beijing, during the Cultural Revolution (November 1966)
A large portrait of Mao at Tiananmen
Mao Zedong Square at Saoshan
Statue of young Mao in Changsha, the capital of Hunan
In 1978, the classroom of a kindergarten in Shanghai putting up portraits of then- Chairman Hua Guofeng and former Chairman Mao Zedong
Mao greets U.S. President Richard Nixon during his visit to China in 1972.
Statue of Mao in Lijiang
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Mao with Jiang Qing and daughter Li Na in the 1940s
Mao Zedong with his nephew Mao Yuanxin, and daughters Li Min (second from left) and Li Na
Mao and Zhang Yufeng in 1964
Mao's calligraphy: a bronze plaque of a poem by Li Bai. (Chinese: 白帝城毛澤東手書李白詩銅匾 )

Central Revolutionary Base, commonly called the Central Soviet (Zone), Kiangsi–Fukien Soviet, or the Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet, was the largest component territory of the Chinese Soviet Republic, an unrecognized state established in November 1931 by Mao Zedong and Zhu De during the Chinese civil war.

- Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet

During the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang (KMT) and the CCP, Mao helped to found the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, led the Jiangxi Soviet's radical land policies, and ultimately became head of the CCP during the Long March.

- Mao Zedong

Lin became instrumental in creating the foundations for Mao Zedong's cult of personality in the early 1960s, and was rewarded for his service in the Cultural Revolution by being named Mao's designated successor as the sole Vice Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, from 1966 until his death.

- Lin Biao

Following the failure of the revolt, Lin escaped to the remote Communist base areas, and joined Mao Zedong and Zhu De in the Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet in 1928.

- Lin Biao

Commander: Lin Biao

- Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet

Wandering the countryside, Mao's forces came across a CCP regiment led by General Zhu De and Lin Biao; they united, and attempted to retake Jinggangshan.

- Mao Zedong

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Overall

Overview map of the route of the Long March
Light red areas show Communist enclaves. Areas marked by a blue "X" were overrun by Kuomintang forces during the Fourth Encirclement Campaign, forcing the Fourth Red Army (north) and the Second Red Army (south) to retreat to more western enclaves (dotted lines). The dashed line is the route of the First Red Army from Jiangxi. The withdrawal of all three Red Armies ends in the northeast enclave of Shaanxi.

Long March

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Military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China (CPC), the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the National Army of the Chinese Nationalist Party (CNP/KMT).

Military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China (CPC), the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the National Army of the Chinese Nationalist Party (CNP/KMT).

Overview map of the route of the Long March
Light red areas show Communist enclaves. Areas marked by a blue "X" were overrun by Kuomintang forces during the Fourth Encirclement Campaign, forcing the Fourth Red Army (north) and the Second Red Army (south) to retreat to more western enclaves (dotted lines). The dashed line is the route of the First Red Army from Jiangxi. The withdrawal of all three Red Armies ends in the northeast enclave of Shaanxi.
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek encircled the Communists in Jiangxi in 1934.
Map drawn by the Red Army Command before the Battle of Xiangjiang
The Luding Bridge
Tiger Leaping Gorge in the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain massif of western Yunnan province
A Communist leader addressing Long March survivors

The CPC, under the eventual command of Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, escaped in a circling retreat to the west and north, which reportedly traversed over 9,000 km over 370 days.

1931: Unofficial founding of the Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet by Mao Zedong and Zhu De.

Other survivors of the March also went on to become prominent party leaders well into the 1990s, including Zhu De, Lin Biao, Liu Shaoqi, Dong Biwu, Ye Jianying, Li Xiannian, Yang Shangkun, Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping.

Marshal Zhu De (1955)

Zhu De

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Chinese general, military strategist, politician and revolutionary in the Chinese Communist Party.

Chinese general, military strategist, politician and revolutionary in the Chinese Communist Party.

Marshal Zhu De (1955)
Zhu De in 1916.
Zhu (second from right) photographed with Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai (second from left) and Bo Gu (left) in 1937.

Zhu's close affiliation with Mao Zedong began in 1928 when, with the help of Chen Yi and Lin Biao, Zhu defected from Fan Shisheng's protection and marched his army of 10,000 men to Jiangxi and the Jinggang Mountains.

Here they formed the Jiangxi Soviet, which would eventually grow to cover some 30,000 square kilometers (11,584 square miles) and include some three million people.

Peng Dehuai in his Marshal uniform

Peng Dehuai

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Prominent Chinese Communist military leader, who served as China's Defense Minister from 1954 to 1959.

Prominent Chinese Communist military leader, who served as China's Defense Minister from 1954 to 1959.

Peng Dehuai in his Marshal uniform
By his mid-thirties, Peng was one of the most senior generals in the Jiangxi Soviet (1934-1935).
Peng Dehuai commanded the largest communist offensive in the war against Japan.
A statue of Peng now stands on the Chinese border with Korea, on the place that Peng crossed into North Korea in 1950.
In 1953, Peng signed the armistice agreement which ended the Korean War.
After returning to China from the Korean War, Peng became engaged in a rivalry with Mao Zedong over the political future of China (photo: Hou Bo).
Following the Korean War, Peng rose in prominence and is here seen welcoming Kim Il-sung to Beijing in 1955.
During the Great Leap Forward, many farmers were forced to work in primitive backyard furnaces in order to produce poor-quality steel.
Peng Dehuai (1966) was brought to Beijing in chains by Red Guards, where he would be tortured and publicly humiliated for years.

After Wang was defeated, Peng briefly rejoined Chiang Kai-shek's forces before joining the Chinese Communist Party, allying himself with Mao Zedong and Zhu De.

Peng was one of the most senior generals who defended the Jiangxi Soviet from Chiang's attempts to capture it, and his successes were rivaled only by Lin Biao.

Liu Shaoqi

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Chinese revolutionary, politician, and theorist.

Chinese revolutionary, politician, and theorist.

Liu Shaoqi, 1927
Liu Shaoqi and Zhou Enlai, 1939
Liu Shaoqi and Indira Gandhi, 1954
Liu Shaoqi in June 1966, the first year of the Cultural Revolution
Liu Shaoqi being subjected to public humiliation at a rally during the Cultural Revolution
Liu with his wife Wang Guangmei, 1960s

For 15 years, Liu held high positions in Chinese leadership, behind only Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou Enlai.

Later in 1932, he left Shanghai and traveled to the Jiangxi Soviet.

Liu was labeled as a "traitor" and "the biggest capitalist roader in the Party"; he was displaced as Party Deputy Chairman by Lin Biao in July 1966.