Overview map of the route of the Long March
Light red areas show Communist enclaves. Areas marked by a blue "X" were overrun by Kuomintang forces during the Fourth Encirclement Campaign, forcing the Fourth Red Army (north) and the Second Red Army (south) to retreat to more western enclaves (dotted lines). The dashed line is the route of the First Red Army from Jiangxi. The withdrawal of all three Red Armies ends in the northeast enclave of Shaanxi.
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek encircled the Communists in Jiangxi in 1934.
Map drawn by the Red Army Command before the Battle of Xiangjiang
The Luding Bridge
Tiger Leaping Gorge in the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain massif of western Yunnan province
A Communist leader addressing Long March survivors

This last campaign in 1934-35 precipitated the most famous of the grand retreats known collectively as the Long March.

- Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet

1931: Unofficial founding of the Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet by Mao Zedong and Zhu De.

- Long March
Overview map of the route of the Long March
Light red areas show Communist enclaves. Areas marked by a blue "X" were overrun by Kuomintang forces during the Fourth Encirclement Campaign, forcing the Fourth Red Army (north) and the Second Red Army (south) to retreat to more western enclaves (dotted lines). The dashed line is the route of the First Red Army from Jiangxi. The withdrawal of all three Red Armies ends in the northeast enclave of Shaanxi.

9 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Mao in 1959

Mao Zedong

6 links

Chinese communist revolutionary who was the founder of the People's Republic of China (PRC), which he led as the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party from the establishment of the PRC in 1949 until his death in 1976.

Chinese communist revolutionary who was the founder of the People's Republic of China (PRC), which he led as the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party from the establishment of the PRC in 1949 until his death in 1976.

Mao in 1959
Mao Zedong's childhood home in Shaoshan, in 2010, by which time it had become a tourist destination
Mao in 1913
Students in Beijing rallying during the May Fourth Movement
Location of the first Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in July 1921, in Xintiandi, former French Concession, Shanghai
Mao Zedong around the time of his work at Guangzhou's PMTI in 1925
Third Plenum of the KMT Central Executive Committee in March 1927. Mao is third from the right in the second row.
Flag of the HistoryChinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army
Mao in 1927
Chinese Communist revolutionaries in the 1920s
Mao in Yan'an
Military parade on the occasion of the founding of a Chinese Soviet Republic in 1931
An overview map of the Long March
Zhang Guotao (left) and Mao Zedong in Yan'an, 1937
In an effort to defeat the Japanese, Mao (left) agreed to collaborate with Chiang (right).
Mao in 1938, writing On Protracted War
Mao with Kang Sheng in Yan'an, 1945
PLA troops, supported by captured M5 Stuart light tanks, attacking the Nationalist lines in 1948
Mao Zedong declares the founding of the modern People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949
Mao with his fourth wife, Jiang Qing, called "Madame Mao", 1946
Mao at Joseph Stalin's 70th birthday celebration in Moscow, December 1949
Mao and Zhou Enlai meeting with Dalai Lama (right) and Panchen Lama (left) to celebrate Tibetan New Year, Beijing, 1955
Photo of Mao Zedong sitting, published in "Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung", ca. 1955
Mao with Nikita Khrushchev, Ho Chi Minh and Soong Ching-ling during a state dinner in Beijing, 1959
Early in the Great Leap Forward, commune members were encouraged to eat their fill in communal canteens, but many canteens shut down as they ran out of food and fuel.
Mao with Henry Kissinger and Zhou Enlai, Beijing, 1972
U.S. President Gerald Ford watches as Henry Kissinger shakes hands with Mao during their visit to China, December 2, 1975
A public appearance of Chairman Mao and Lin Biao among Red Guards, in Beijing, during the Cultural Revolution (November 1966)
A large portrait of Mao at Tiananmen
Mao Zedong Square at Saoshan
Statue of young Mao in Changsha, the capital of Hunan
In 1978, the classroom of a kindergarten in Shanghai putting up portraits of then- Chairman Hua Guofeng and former Chairman Mao Zedong
Mao greets U.S. President Richard Nixon during his visit to China in 1972.
Statue of Mao in Lijiang
300x300px
Mao with Jiang Qing and daughter Li Na in the 1940s
Mao Zedong with his nephew Mao Yuanxin, and daughters Li Min (second from left) and Li Na
Mao and Zhang Yufeng in 1964
Mao's calligraphy: a bronze plaque of a poem by Li Bai. (Chinese: 白帝城毛澤東手書李白詩銅匾 )

During the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang (KMT) and the CCP, Mao helped to found the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, led the Jiangxi Soviet's radical land policies, and ultimately became head of the CCP during the Long March.

Chinese Soviet Republic

3 links

East Asian proto-state within the territory of China's Jiangxi (Kiangsi) province and the predecessor to the People's Republic of China.

East Asian proto-state within the territory of China's Jiangxi (Kiangsi) province and the predecessor to the People's Republic of China.

Map of the various Soviets comprising the Chinese Soviet Republic and the route of the Long March
A one yuan banknote with Lenin's image in the centre
Map of the various Soviets comprising the Chinese Soviet Republic and the route of the Long March

Its largest and base territory was the Jiangxi-Fujian Soviet.

When the Chinese Red Army's First Front began its Long March in October 1934, the communist bank was part of the retreating force; fourteen bank employees, over a hundred coolies and a company of soldiers escorted them with the money and mint machinery.

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in 1933

Fifth encirclement campaign against the Jiangxi Soviet

2 links

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in 1933
location of Jiangxi Soviet

The fifth encirclement campaign against Kiangsi (Jiangxi) Soviet was a series of battles fought during the Chinese Civil War from 25 September 1933, to October 1934 between Chiang Kai-shek's Chinese Nationalists (Kuomintang) and the Chinese Communists.

During this campaign, the Kuomintang successfully overran the communist Chinese Soviet Republic and forced the Communists on the run, an event later known as the Long March.

Marshal Zhu De (1955)

Zhu De

3 links

Chinese general, military strategist, politician and revolutionary in the Chinese Communist Party.

Chinese general, military strategist, politician and revolutionary in the Chinese Communist Party.

Marshal Zhu De (1955)
Zhu De in 1916.
Zhu (second from right) photographed with Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai (second from left) and Bo Gu (left) in 1937.

Here they formed the Jiangxi Soviet, which would eventually grow to cover some 30,000 square kilometers (11,584 square miles) and include some three million people.

Zhu helped form the 1934 break-out that began the Long March.

A Hawker Siddeley Trident, similar to the aircraft involved.

Lin Biao

3 links

Chinese politician and Marshal of the People's Republic of China who was pivotal in the Communist victory during the Chinese Civil War, especially in Northeast China from 1946 to 1949.

Chinese politician and Marshal of the People's Republic of China who was pivotal in the Communist victory during the Chinese Civil War, especially in Northeast China from 1946 to 1949.

A Hawker Siddeley Trident, similar to the aircraft involved.
A Hawker Siddeley Trident, similar to the aircraft involved.
200px
Lin Biao with wife Ye Qun and their children
280px
Lin as commander-in-chief of the Manchurian Field Army (~1947–1948)
Lin Biao and Ye Qun
On 1 October 1959, Lin Biao, as defense minister, surveyed the honor guards at the military parade celebrating the 10th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China.
Lin Biao's calligraphy in the Summer Palace, 1966
Lin Biao (right), Mao Zedong (center) and Zhou Enlai, waving copies of the Little Red Book, at Tiananmen, during the Cultural Revolution (1967)
Lin Biao with Mao Zedong
Lin Biao reading the Little Red Book. This is the last photo of him ever taken (1971)
Project 571 Outline
Lin Liguo with Ye Qun
Qinhuangdao Shanhaiguan Airport, provenance of the aircraft
Graffiti with Lin Biao's foreword to Mao's Little Red Book. Lin's name (lower right) was later scratched out, presumably after his death.

Following the failure of the revolt, Lin escaped to the remote Communist base areas, and joined Mao Zedong and Zhu De in the Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet in 1928.

After the Communists finally resolved to abandon their base, later in 1934, Lin continued his position as one of the most successful commanders in the Red Army during the Long March.

Marshal He Long in 1955

He Long

1 links

Chinese Communist revolutionary and one of the ten marshals of the People's Liberation Army.

Chinese Communist revolutionary and one of the ten marshals of the People's Liberation Army.

Marshal He Long in 1955
In 1925 He met his first Communists while running a Kuomintang military training school.
He Long with Deng Xiaoping (left) and Zhu De (right) (1949)

He joined the Long March in 1935, over a year after forces associated with Mao Zedong and Zhu De were forced to do so.

He joined the Long March in November 1935, over a year after forces led by Zhu De and Mao Zedong were forced to evacuate their own soviet in Jiangxi.

Liu Shaoqi

2 links

Chinese revolutionary, politician, and theorist.

Chinese revolutionary, politician, and theorist.

Liu Shaoqi, 1927
Liu Shaoqi and Zhou Enlai, 1939
Liu Shaoqi and Indira Gandhi, 1954
Liu Shaoqi in June 1966, the first year of the Cultural Revolution
Liu Shaoqi being subjected to public humiliation at a rally during the Cultural Revolution
Liu with his wife Wang Guangmei, 1960s

Later in 1932, he left Shanghai and traveled to the Jiangxi Soviet.

He accompanied the Long March in 1934 at least as far as the crucial Zunyi Conference, but was then sent to the so-called "White Areas" (areas controlled by the Kuomintang) to reorganize underground activities in northern China, centered around Beijing and Tianjin.

Xiao Ke in 1955

Xiao Ke

0 links

General of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, former vice chairman of the CPPCC, as well as principal of the University of Military and Politics.

General of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, former vice chairman of the CPPCC, as well as principal of the University of Military and Politics.

Xiao Ke in 1955
Xiao Ke in 1955
Xiao Ke, left, with Nie Rongzhen and Yang Chengwu near the front lines during the Chinese Civil War in 1947.

In August 1934, he led the Sixth Army Group out west of the Jiangxi Soviet as pathfinders for what was to become the Long March.

Xiang Ying

0 links

War-time Chinese communist leader reaching the rank of political chief of staff of the New Fourth Army during World War II until his assassination by a member of his staff in 1941.

War-time Chinese communist leader reaching the rank of political chief of staff of the New Fourth Army during World War II until his assassination by a member of his staff in 1941.

He held high office during the CCP's Jiangxi Soviet period (1931–1934).

In October 1934, at the beginning of the Long March, Xiang stayed behind to fight a rearguard action that would allow the marchers to get out of the ring of surrounding Nationalist forces.