Peng Dehuai in his Marshal uniform
By his mid-thirties, Peng was one of the most senior generals in the Jiangxi Soviet (1934-1935).
Peng Dehuai commanded the largest communist offensive in the war against Japan.
A statue of Peng now stands on the Chinese border with Korea, on the place that Peng crossed into North Korea in 1950.
In 1953, Peng signed the armistice agreement which ended the Korean War.
After returning to China from the Korean War, Peng became engaged in a rivalry with Mao Zedong over the political future of China (photo: Hou Bo).
Following the Korean War, Peng rose in prominence and is here seen welcoming Kim Il-sung to Beijing in 1955.
During the Great Leap Forward, many farmers were forced to work in primitive backyard furnaces in order to produce poor-quality steel.
Peng Dehuai (1966) was brought to Beijing in chains by Red Guards, where he would be tortured and publicly humiliated for years.

Peng was one of the most senior generals who defended the Jiangxi Soviet from Chiang's attempts to capture it, and his successes were rivaled only by Lin Biao.

- Peng Dehuai

Commander: Peng Dehuai

- Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet
Peng Dehuai in his Marshal uniform

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Mao in 1959

Mao Zedong

Chinese communist revolutionary who was the founder of the People's Republic of China (PRC), which he led as the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party from the establishment of the PRC in 1949 until his death in 1976.

Chinese communist revolutionary who was the founder of the People's Republic of China (PRC), which he led as the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party from the establishment of the PRC in 1949 until his death in 1976.

Mao in 1959
Mao Zedong's childhood home in Shaoshan, in 2010, by which time it had become a tourist destination
Mao in 1913
Students in Beijing rallying during the May Fourth Movement
Location of the first Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in July 1921, in Xintiandi, former French Concession, Shanghai
Mao Zedong around the time of his work at Guangzhou's PMTI in 1925
Third Plenum of the KMT Central Executive Committee in March 1927. Mao is third from the right in the second row.
Flag of the HistoryChinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army
Mao in 1927
Chinese Communist revolutionaries in the 1920s
Mao in Yan'an
Military parade on the occasion of the founding of a Chinese Soviet Republic in 1931
An overview map of the Long March
Zhang Guotao (left) and Mao Zedong in Yan'an, 1937
In an effort to defeat the Japanese, Mao (left) agreed to collaborate with Chiang (right).
Mao in 1938, writing On Protracted War
Mao with Kang Sheng in Yan'an, 1945
PLA troops, supported by captured M5 Stuart light tanks, attacking the Nationalist lines in 1948
Mao Zedong declares the founding of the modern People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949
Mao with his fourth wife, Jiang Qing, called "Madame Mao", 1946
Mao at Joseph Stalin's 70th birthday celebration in Moscow, December 1949
Mao and Zhou Enlai meeting with Dalai Lama (right) and Panchen Lama (left) to celebrate Tibetan New Year, Beijing, 1955
Photo of Mao Zedong sitting, published in "Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung", ca. 1955
Mao with Nikita Khrushchev, Ho Chi Minh and Soong Ching-ling during a state dinner in Beijing, 1959
Early in the Great Leap Forward, commune members were encouraged to eat their fill in communal canteens, but many canteens shut down as they ran out of food and fuel.
Mao with Henry Kissinger and Zhou Enlai, Beijing, 1972
U.S. President Gerald Ford watches as Henry Kissinger shakes hands with Mao during their visit to China, December 2, 1975
A public appearance of Chairman Mao and Lin Biao among Red Guards, in Beijing, during the Cultural Revolution (November 1966)
A large portrait of Mao at Tiananmen
Mao Zedong Square at Saoshan
Statue of young Mao in Changsha, the capital of Hunan
In 1978, the classroom of a kindergarten in Shanghai putting up portraits of then- Chairman Hua Guofeng and former Chairman Mao Zedong
Mao greets U.S. President Richard Nixon during his visit to China in 1972.
Statue of Mao in Lijiang
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Mao with Jiang Qing and daughter Li Na in the 1940s
Mao Zedong with his nephew Mao Yuanxin, and daughters Li Min (second from left) and Li Na
Mao and Zhang Yufeng in 1964
Mao's calligraphy: a bronze plaque of a poem by Li Bai. (Chinese: 白帝城毛澤東手書李白詩銅匾 )

During the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang (KMT) and the CCP, Mao helped to found the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, led the Jiangxi Soviet's radical land policies, and ultimately became head of the CCP during the Long March.

There they were joined by a defecting KMT regiment and Peng Dehuai's Fifth Red Army.

Marshal Zhu De (1955)

Zhu De

Chinese general, military strategist, politician and revolutionary in the Chinese Communist Party.

Chinese general, military strategist, politician and revolutionary in the Chinese Communist Party.

Marshal Zhu De (1955)
Zhu De in 1916.
Zhu (second from right) photographed with Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai (second from left) and Bo Gu (left) in 1937.

Here they formed the Jiangxi Soviet, which would eventually grow to cover some 30,000 square kilometers (11,584 square miles) and include some three million people.

At the Lushan Conference, he tried to protect Peng Dehuai, by giving some mild criticisms of Peng; rather than denouncing him, he merely gently reproofed his targeted comrade, who was a target of Mao Zedong.

A Hawker Siddeley Trident, similar to the aircraft involved.

Lin Biao

Chinese politician and Marshal of the People's Republic of China who was pivotal in the Communist victory during the Chinese Civil War, especially in Northeast China from 1946 to 1949.

Chinese politician and Marshal of the People's Republic of China who was pivotal in the Communist victory during the Chinese Civil War, especially in Northeast China from 1946 to 1949.

A Hawker Siddeley Trident, similar to the aircraft involved.
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Lin Biao with wife Ye Qun and their children
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Lin as commander-in-chief of the Manchurian Field Army (~1947–1948)
Lin Biao and Ye Qun
On 1 October 1959, Lin Biao, as defense minister, surveyed the honor guards at the military parade celebrating the 10th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China.
Lin Biao's calligraphy in the Summer Palace, 1966
Lin Biao (right), Mao Zedong (center) and Zhou Enlai, waving copies of the Little Red Book, at Tiananmen, during the Cultural Revolution (1967)
Lin Biao with Mao Zedong
Lin Biao reading the Little Red Book. This is the last photo of him ever taken (1971)
Project 571 Outline
Lin Liguo with Ye Qun
Qinhuangdao Shanhaiguan Airport, provenance of the aircraft
Graffiti with Lin Biao's foreword to Mao's Little Red Book. Lin's name (lower right) was later scratched out, presumably after his death.

Zhu De and Peng Dehuai were considered senior to Lin, and Lin ranked directly ahead of He Long and Liu Bocheng.

Following the failure of the revolt, Lin escaped to the remote Communist base areas, and joined Mao Zedong and Zhu De in the Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet in 1928.

Liu Bocheng in his Marshal uniform

Liu Bocheng

Chinese Communist military commander and Marshal of the People's Liberation Army.

Chinese Communist military commander and Marshal of the People's Liberation Army.

Liu Bocheng in his Marshal uniform
(L-R): Li Da, Deng Xiaoping, Liu Bocheng and Cai Shufan in NRA uniform

Liu was sent to the Central Soviet Territory, the CPC's power base in Jiangxi.

During his time in the Jiangxi-Fujian Soviet (and during the subsequent Long March) Liu experienced conflicts with other Communist leaders, including Mao Zedong and Peng Dehuai.

Su Yu in his Senior General uniform (1955)

Su Yu

Chinese military commander, general of the People's Liberation Army.

Chinese military commander, general of the People's Liberation Army.

Su Yu in his Senior General uniform (1955)
Su Yu in Battle of Suzhong (Central Jiangsu)
Su Yu, holding map wearing dark uniform surveying the battlefield before the Menglianggu Campaign started in 1947.
Hong Xuezhi, Xiao Hua, Su Yu, and Chen Geng in 1955 (left to right)
Su Yu, Chu Qing, and their two sons Su Rongsheng and Su Hansheng in Shanghai, September 1949

He was considered by Mao Zedong to be among the best commanders of the PLA, only next to Peng Dehuai, Lin Biao and Liu Bocheng.

He emerged as one of the ablest guerrilla commanders in the Jiangxi Soviet during the 1930s.

Marshal He Long in 1955

He Long

Chinese Communist revolutionary and one of the ten marshals of the People's Liberation Army.

Chinese Communist revolutionary and one of the ten marshals of the People's Liberation Army.

Marshal He Long in 1955
In 1925 He met his first Communists while running a Kuomintang military training school.
He Long with Deng Xiaoping (left) and Zhu De (right) (1949)

He commanded a force of 170,000 troops forces by the end of 1945, when his force was placed under the command of Peng Dehuai and He became Peng's second-in-command.

He joined the Long March in November 1935, over a year after forces led by Zhu De and Mao Zedong were forced to evacuate their own soviet in Jiangxi.