Jiaozhi

Giao ChỉJiaozhi CommanderyGiao ChiJiaozhi provinceJiāozhǐGiao-chiGiaochiJiaozhi'' (交趾)northern Vietnam
Jiaozhi, was the name for various provinces, commanderies, prefectures, and counties in northern Vietnam from the era of the Hùng kings to the middle of the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam (c. 7th–10th centuries) and again during the Fourth Chinese domination (1407–1427).wikipedia
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Baiyue

YueBách ViệtYue people
It seems to be a Yue or Viet endonym of uncertain meaning, although it has had various folk etymologies over the years.
The Han shu describes the lands of Yue as stretching from the regions of Kuaiji to Jiaozhi .

Hùng king

Hùng VươngHùng KingsHung Kings
Jiaozhi, was the name for various provinces, commanderies, prefectures, and counties in northern Vietnam from the era of the Hùng kings to the middle of the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam (c.
As different groups of local elites in Jiaozhi in the 1000s and worked at the transition to an independent Đại Việt, the question of political legitimation was an urgent one that needed tackling – especially given the lack of ancient Viet sources to base on, and after about a thousand years of Chinese rule.

Tai languages

TaiTai languageTai language family
According to them, the Red River Delta region was originally Tai-speaking, ethnic Li people in particular.
Citing the fact that both the Zhuang and Thai peoples have the same exonym for the Vietnamese, kɛɛu A1, Jerold A. Edmondson of the University of Texas at Arlington posited that the split between Zhuang (a Central Tai language) and the Southwestern Tai languages happened no earlier than the founding of Jiaozhi in Vietnam in 112 BCE but no later than the 5th-6th century AD.

Cochinchina

Cochin ChinaCochin-ChinaCochinchinese
It was subsequently called "Cochinchina".
They named the area "Cochin-China", borrowing the first part from the Malay Kuchi, which referred to all of Vietnam, and which in turn derived from the Chinese Jiāozhǐ, pronounced Giao Chỉ in Vietnam.

Long Biên

LongbianLong Uyen
According to the Book of Han’s "Treatise on Geography", Jiaozhi contained 10 counties: Leilou, Anding, Goulou, Miling, Quyang, Beidai, Jixu, Xiyu, Longbian, and Zhugou . During the Three Kingdoms period, Jiaozhi was administered from Longbian (Long Biên) by Shi Xie on behalf of the Wu. The Sui divided the commandery into 9 counties: Songping, Longbian, Zhuyuan, Longping, Pingdao, Jiaozhi, Jianing, Xinchang and Anren .
Long Biên (Vietnamese), also known as Longbian (lit. "Dragons Interweaving"), was the capital of the Chinese Jiao Province and Jiaozhi Commandery during the Han dynasty.

First Chinese domination of Vietnam

First Chinese dominationFirst Northern DominationChinese control
The Han received the submission from the Nanyue commanders in Jiaozhi and Jiuzhen, confirming them in their posts and ushering in the "First Northern Domination" of Vietnam.
Following annexation, the name of Jiaozhi (Giao Chỉ) was established, dividing the former kingdom into nine commanderies with the last three commonly used in modern Vietnamese history books:

Luy Lâu

LeilouLuy Lẩu
Under the Han, the capital of Jiaozhi was first Miling (within Hanoi's Me Linh district) and then Leilou (Luy Lâu, within Bac Ninh's Thuan Thanh district).
Luy Lâu (Vietnamese) or Leilou (Chinese: Traditional, Simplified, Pinyin Léilóu) was the first capital of the Han commandery of Jiaozhi (Giao Chỉ) following its 111 submission during China's conquest of Nanyue.

Trưng Sisters

Trung SistersTrưng TrắcHai Ba Trung
Ma Yuan's bronze column was supposedly erected by Ma Yuan after he had suppressed the uprising of the Trưng Sisters in the early 40s.
The sisters were born in Giao Chi, in rural Northern Vietnam, a commandery of the Han dynasty (and in modern Northern Vietnam).

Guangxi

Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous RegionGuangxi ProvinceKwangsi
Southwestern Guangxi was also a part of Jiaozhi.
Harassed by both Song and the Jiaozhi in modern Vietnam, the Zhuang leader Nong Zhigao led a revolt in 1052 for which he is still remembered by the Zhuang people.

Names of Vietnam

AnnamĐại ViệtĐại Cồ Việt
However by viewpoint of researcher Trần Như Vĩnh Lạc, 交趾 or 交阯 in the transcribing a pronunciation "Viet", as "/ˈɡw:ət/" in the ancient Annamese.

Shi Xie

Sĩ NhiếpKing ShiShi Gan
During the Three Kingdoms period, Jiaozhi was administered from Longbian (Long Biên) by Shi Xie on behalf of the Wu.
He served as the Administrator of Jiaozhi Commandery in present-day northern Vietnam.

Ma Yuan (Han dynasty)

Ma Yuangeneral Ma Yuan
Ma Yuan's bronze column was supposedly erected by Ma Yuan after he had suppressed the uprising of the Trưng Sisters in the early 40s.
His military and political achievements included helping Emperor Guangwu unite the empire and putting down rebellions of the Trung Sisters (in Jiaozhi, modern Vietnam) and the Wulin tribes (in modern eastern Guizhou and northwestern Hunan).

Rinan

Rinan CommanderyNhat-namNhật Nam (region)
Later, the Han dynasty created another commandery named Rinan (Nhật Nam) located south of Jiuzhen from the Ngang Pass to Quảng Nam Province.
It was administered by a local mandarin under direction from the capital of Jiaozhi at Leilou or Longbian (after c.

Daqin

Da QinDà-chinDàqín
In the ninth Yanxi year [ 166], during the reign of Emperor Huan, the king of Da Qin [the Roman Empire], Andun (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, r. 161-180), sent envoys from beyond the frontiers through Rinan... During the reign of Emperor He [ 89-105], they sent several envoys carrying tribute and offerings.
These early embassies were said to arrive by a maritime route via the South China Sea in the Chinese province of Jiaozhi (now northern Vietnam).

Jiaozhou (region)

JiaozhouJiao ProvinceGiao Châu
(Shu Âu Lạc and Chinese Nanyue both reckoned by the Vietnamese as "native" states.) These commanderies were headed by grand administrators (taishou) who were later overseen by the inspectors (undefined, cishi) of Jiaozhou or "Jiaozhi Province" (Giao Chỉ bộ), the first of whom was Shi Dai.
In addition to six original commanderies (Nanhai, Hepu, Cangwu, Yulin, Jiaozhi and Jiuzhen), the Han Empire conquered new territories on Hainan as well as in the area south of the Ngang Pass and established them as the commanderies of Zhuya, Dan'er, and Rinan.

Dong Son drum

Đông Sơn drumsbronze drumDong Son drums
Ma Yuan followed his conquest with a brutal course of assimilation, destroying the natives' bronze drums in order to build the column at the edge of Chinese territory.
But the Book of the Later Han said Ma melt the bronze drums seized from the rebel Lạc Việt in Jiaozhi into horse.

Eastern Wu

WuKingdom of WuWu Kingdom
During the Three Kingdoms period, Jiaozhi was administered from Longbian (Long Biên) by Shi Xie on behalf of the Wu.
At the time, Wu was experiencing internal turmoil because rebellions had broken out in Jiaozhi in the south.

Guangdong

Guangdong ProvinceCantonKwangtung
Kattigara seems to have been the main port of call for ships traveling to China from the West in the first few centuries, before being replaced by Guangdong.
The Han dynasty administered Guangdong, Guangxi, and northern Vietnam as Jiaozhi Province, southernmost Jiaozhi Province was used as a gateway for traders from the west—as far away as the Roman Empire.

Tống Bình

SongpingTong BinhSongping County
The Sui divided the commandery into 9 counties: Songping, Longbian, Zhuyuan, Longping, Pingdao, Jiaozhi, Jianing, Xinchang and Anren .
A fortified settlement was founded by the Chinese Liu Song dynasty as the seat of Songping County ( t 宋平, s 宋平, p Sòngpíng Xiàn) within Jiaozhi (Giao Chỉ) commandery.

Three Kingdoms

Three Kingdoms periodThree Kingdoms eraThe Three Kingdoms
During the Three Kingdoms period, Jiaozhi was administered from Longbian (Long Biên) by Shi Xie on behalf of the Wu.
In 248, the people of Jiaozhi and Jiuzhen commanderies rebelled.

Han dynasty

Eastern Han dynastyHanWestern Han dynasty
The Han received the submission from the Nanyue commanders in Jiaozhi and Jiuzhen, confirming them in their posts and ushering in the "First Northern Domination" of Vietnam.
This was near the commandery of Rinan (also Jiaozhi) where Chinese sources claim the Romans first landed, as well as embassies from Tianzhu (in northern India) in the years 159 and 161.

Funan

Kingdom of FunanFunan KingdomFunan Empire
In 280, the governor of Jiaozhi wrote to the emperor of the Western Jin complaining about these attacks aided by allies from the Kingdom of Funan.
It is perhaps no small coincidence that the first Roman embassy from "Daqin" recorded in Chinese history is dated 166 AD, allegedly sent by a Roman ruler named "Andun" (Chinese: 安敦, corresponding with the names Antoninus Pius or Marcus Aurelius Antoninus) and arriving through the Eastern Han Empire's southernmost frontier province of Jiaozhi in northern Vietnam.

Kang Senghui

*Kang Senghui, a Sogdian Buddhist monk from Central Asia who lived in Jiaozhi during the 3rd century
He was born in Jiaozhi (modern-day northern Vietnam).

Geography (Ptolemy)

GeographyGeographiaPtolemy
This may have been the port city of Kattigara described by Ptolemy, laying beyond the Golden Chersonese (i.e. Malay Peninsula).
When it comes to the account of the Golden Chersonese (i.e. Malay Peninsula) and the Magnus Sinus (i.e. Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea), Marinus and Ptolemy relied on the testimony of a Greek sailor named Alexandros, who claimed to have visited a far eastern site called "Cattigara" (most likely Oc Eo, Vietnam, the site of unearthed Antonine-era Roman goods and not far from the region of Jiaozhi in northern Vietnam where ancient Chinese sources claim several Roman embassies first landed in the 2nd and 3rd centuries).

Sun Quan

Suen KuenDa of Eastern WuDa
During the 5th year of the Huangwu period of the reign of Sun Quan [ 226] a merchant of Da Qin, whose name was Qin Lun came to Jiaozhi [Tonkin]; the prefect [taishou] of Jiaozhi, Wu Miao, sent him to Sun Quan [the Wu emperor], who asked him for a report on his native country and its people."
The Book of Liang records the arrival in 226 of a merchant from the Roman Empire (Daqin) at Jiaozhi (Chinese-controlled northern Vietnam).