Jihad

holy warjihādoffensive jihadDefensive jihadIslamic holy warIslamic JihadGreater JihadLesser jihadjihad statestruggle
Jihad is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.wikipedia
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Islamic terrorism

Islamic terroristIslamic terroristsIslamist terrorism
The term has gained additional attention in recent decades through its use by terrorist groups.
These include retribution by armed jihad for the perceived injustices of unbelievers against Muslims (especially by Al-Qaeda); the belief that the killing of many self-proclaimed Muslims is required because they have violated Islamic law and actually unbelievers (kafir); the need to restore and purify Islam by establishing sharia law, especially by restoring the Caliphate as a pan-Islamic state (especially ISIS); the glory and heavenly rewards of martyrdom; the supremacy of Islam over all other religions.

Mujahideen

mujahidAfghan mujahideenmujahedin
A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid (plural mujahideen).
Mujahideen is the plural form of mujahid''', the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, “struggle”).

Ancillaries of the Faith

Practices of the ReligionAspects of the Religionpractices
In Twelver Shi'a Islam jihad is one of the ten Practices of the Religion.
The first is jihad, which is also important to the Sunni, but not considered a pillar.

Islamism

IslamistIslamistspolitical Islam
While modernist Islamic scholars have emphasized defensive and non-military aspects of jihad, some Islamists have advanced aggressive interpretations that go beyond the classical theory.
Jihadist organizations like al-Qaeda and the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, and groups such as the Taliban, entirely reject democracy, often declaring as kuffar those Muslims who support it (see takfirism), as well as calling for violent/offensive jihad or urging and conducting attacks on a religious basis.

Crusades

crusadeCrusadersCrusader
It is sometimes used without religious connotation, with a meaning similar to the English word "crusade" (as in "a crusade against drugs").
Jihad was dormant and there was no appetite for devotional warfare to subjugate non-Muslims.

Fula jihads

Fulani Jihad StatesFulbe jihad stateFulani jihads
The so-called Fulbe jihad states and a few other jihad states in West Africa were established by a series of offensive wars in the 19th century.
The Fula (or Fulani) jihads (sometimes the Fulani revolution) were a series of jihadist wars that occurred across West Africa during the 18th and 19th centuries led largely by the Muslim Fula people.

Sokoto Caliphate

SokotoFulani EmpireSardauna of Sokoto
The most powerful, the Sokoto Caliphate, lasted about a century until the British defeated it in 1903.
The Sokoto Caliphate was an independent Islamic Sunni Caliphate in West Africa that was founded during the jihad of the Fulani War in 1804 by Usman dan Fodio.

Abdullah Yusuf Azzam

Abdullah AzzamAbdallah AzzamAbdallah 'Azzam
Many other figures prominent in Global jihad started in the Muslim Brotherhood —Abdullah Azzam, bin-Laden's mentor, started in the Muslim Brotherhood of Jordan; Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin-Laden's deputy, joined the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood at the age of 14; and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who planned the 9/11 attack, claims to have joined the Kuwaiti Muslim Brotherhood at age 16.
Azzam preached both defensive and offensive jihad by Muslims to help the Afghan mujahideen against the Soviet invaders.

Moro Rebellion

MoroAmericansMoro Uprising
A "culture of jihad" emerged among the Moros due to the centuries-long war against the Spanish invaders.

Ibn Taymiyyah

Ibn TaymiyyaIbn TaymiyaIbn Taimiyya
Moreover, Ibn Taymiyyah's controversial fatwa allowing jihad against other Muslims is referenced by al-Qaeda and other jihadi groups.

Caucasian War

Caucasus WarCaucasian WarsRussian conquest of the Caucasus
In Dagestan, resistance to the Russians was described as jihad.

Sayyid Qutb

Sayid QutbSyed QutbSayyed Qutb
The highly influential Muslim Brotherhood leader, Sayyid Qutb, preached in his book Milestones that jihad, `is not a temporary phase but a permanent war ... Jihad for freedom cannot cease until the Satanic forces are put to an end and the religion is purified for God in toto.` Like Ibn Taymiyya, Qutb focused on martyrdom and jihad, but he added the theme of the treachery and enmity towards Islam of Christians and especially Jews.
He advocated violent, offensive jihad.

Twelver

Twelver ShiaTwelversTwelver Shi'ism
In Twelver Shi'a Islam jihad is one of the ten Practices of the Religion.

West Africa

West AfricanWestWestern Africa
The so-called Fulbe jihad states and a few other jihad states in West Africa were established by a series of offensive wars in the 19th century.
In the early 19th century, a series of Fulani reformist jihads swept across Western Africa.

Syed Ahmad Barelvi

Syed Ahmad ShaheedSayyid Ahmad BarelviBarelvi Mujahidin war
Syed Ahmad is thought by at least one scholar (Edward Mortimer), to have anticipated modern Islamists in waging jihad and attempting to create an Islamic state with strict enforcement of Islamic law, and by at least one other (Olivier Roy), to be the first modern Islamic leader to lead a movement that was "religious, military and political," and to address the common people and rulers with a call for jihad.

Java War

Diponegoro WarDipanegara Warsfive-year war
Among Diponegoro's followers, the war was described as a jihad "both against the Dutch and the murtad or apostate Javanese."

Muhammad al-Shaybani

al-Shaybaniash-ShaybaniMuhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani
The first documentation of the law of jihad was written by 'Abd al-Rahman al-Awza'i and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani.
Al-Shaybani wrote Introduction to the Law of Nations at the end of the 8th century, a book which provided detailed guidelines for the conduct of jihad against unbelievers, as well as guidelines on the treatment of non-Muslim subjects under Muslim rule.

Ayman al-Zawahiri

Ayman al ZawahiriAyman al-ZawahriAyman Zawahiri
Many other figures prominent in Global jihad started in the Muslim Brotherhood —Abdullah Azzam, bin-Laden's mentor, started in the Muslim Brotherhood of Jordan; Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin-Laden's deputy, joined the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood at the age of 14; and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who planned the 9/11 attack, claims to have joined the Kuwaiti Muslim Brotherhood at age 16.
Many years later, when the United States attacked Afghanistan following the September 11 attacks in October 2001, Azza apparently had no idea that al-Zawahiri had supposedly been a jihadi emir (commander) for the last decade.

French Algeria

AlgeriaFrench rule in AlgeriaFrench rule
In the western region of Oran, Sultan Abderrahmane of Morocco, the Commander of the Believers, could not remain indifferent to the massacres committed by the French Christian troops and to belligerent calls to enter jihad from the marabouts.

Osama bin Laden

Bin LadenUsama bin LadenOsama
Azzam also argued for a broader interpretation of who it was permissible to kill in jihad, an interpretation that some think may have influenced some of his students, including Osama bin Laden.
At university, bin Laden's main interest was religion, where he was involved in both "interpreting the Quran and jihad" and charitable work.

Hamas

Hamas charterChange and ReformHamas (Islamic Resistance Movement)
The group called for jihad against the new Jewish state of Israel in the 1940s, and its Palestinian branch, Hamas, called for jihad against Israel when the First Intifada started.
The charter rejects a two-state solution, envisaging no peaceful settlement of the conflict apart from jihad.

September 11 attacks

9/11September 11, 2001 attacksSeptember 11, 2001
Many other figures prominent in Global jihad started in the Muslim Brotherhood —Abdullah Azzam, bin-Laden's mentor, started in the Muslim Brotherhood of Jordan; Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin-Laden's deputy, joined the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood at the age of 14; and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who planned the 9/11 attack, claims to have joined the Kuwaiti Muslim Brotherhood at age 16.
Muslim legal scholars "have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries", according to bin Laden.

Sharia

Islamic lawSharia lawShariah
In classical Islamic law, the term refers to armed struggle against unbelievers, while modernist Islamic scholars generally equate military jihad with defensive warfare.
Some extremists have used their interpretation of Islamic scriptures and sharia, in particular the doctrine of jihad, to justify acts of war and terror against Muslim as well as non-Muslim individuals and governments.

Five Pillars of Islam

five pillarspillar of Islampillars of Islam
Jihad is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, though this designation is not commonly recognized.

Bernard Lewis

Lewis, BernardLewisThe Arabs in History
(Another source—Bernard Lewis—states that fighting rebels and bandits was legitimate though not a form of jihad, and that while the classical perception and presentation of the jihad was warfare in the field against a foreign enemy, internal jihad "against an infidel renegade, or otherwise illegitimate regime was not unknown."
In his essay "A License to Kill", Lewis indicated he considered bin Laden's language as the "ideology of jihad" and warned that bin Laden would be a danger to the West.