Jijiga

Jigjiga
Jijiga (ጂጂጋ; Jigjiga) is a city in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.wikipedia
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Somali Region

SomaliSomali Regional State eastern Ethiopia
Jijiga (ጂጂጋ; Jigjiga) is a city in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.
Jijiga is the capital of the Somali Regional State.

Fafan Zone

Jijiga ZoneFaafan ZoneJigjiga Zone
Located in the Faafan zone with 60 km (37 mi) west of the border with Somalia, the city has an elevation of 1,609 metres above sea level.
It was previously known as the Jijiga zone, so named after its largest city, Jijiga.

Gode

Godey
It became the capital of the Somali Regional State in 1995 after it was moved from Godey.
Gode was the capital of the Somali Region until 1995, when it was moved to Jijiga for political reasons.

Somalia

SomaliFederal Republic of SomaliaSOM
Located in the Faafan zone with 60 km (37 mi) west of the border with Somalia, the city has an elevation of 1,609 metres above sea level.
By September 1977, Somalia controlled 90% of the Ogaden and captured strategic cities such as Jijiga and put heavy pressure on Dire Dawa, threatening the train route from the latter city to Djibouti.

Tekle Hawariat Tekle Mariyam

Fitawrari Tekle HawaryatTeklehawariat Teklemariyam
However, Richard Pankhurst states that Jijiga was founded in 1916 by Fitawrari Tekle Hawariat Tekle Mariyam, who had the town methodically organized in a square grid of streets.
Under the patronage of Haile Selassie (then the regent Ras Tafari), Tekle Hawariat first was made governor of Jijiga in 1917, and his efforts at this post gave him "a reputation for enlightened administration," according to Bahru Zewde, who goes on to note that "much of the credit for the transformation of Jijjiga from a garrison town to a modern urban centre goes to Takla-Hawaryat".

Battle of Jijiga

During the Ogaden War, Jijiga experienced the Battle of Jijiga and was occupied by the Western Somali Liberation Front's Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi division led by Col. Yusuf Dheere, later with the Somali National Army, from September 1977 until February/March 1978.
The battles were fought in Jijiga, Ethiopia and were the largest battles of the conflict.

Second Italo-Ethiopian War

Second Italo-Abyssinian WarItalian invasion of Ethiopiainvasion of Ethiopia
During the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Jijiga served for some time as Dejazmach Nasibu Emmanual's headquarters and a supply center for the Ethiopian army.
On 22 March, the Regia Aeronautica bombed Harar and Jijiga, reducing them to ruins even though Harar had been declared an "open city".

Nasibu Zeamanuel

Nasibu EmmanualRas Nasibu
During the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Jijiga served for some time as Dejazmach Nasibu Emmanual's headquarters and a supply center for the Ethiopian army.
Nasibu's headquarters was initially at Degehabur, but later he moved to Jijiga.

1960 Ethiopian coup d'état attempt

1960 Ethiopian coup attemptcoup1960 attempted coup
Germame Neway, one of the leaders of the unsuccessful 1960 coup, served as governor over Jijiga in 1959.
Neway was then reassigned to Jijiga, where he "was immediately confronted with the abject poverty and underdevelopment of the region and with obvious signs of official neglect."

Yekatit 12

19 February 1937assassination attemptattempt on Graziani's life
Two days later, while inspecting a ruined Ethiopian Orthodox church in the city, Marshal Rodolfo Graziani fell into a concealed hole, which he was afterwards convinced was a mantrap; Anthony Mockler suggests this mishap contributed to his murderously paranoid mindset which led to the atrocities that followed the attempt on Graziani's life 19 February 1937.
During the previous year, following the capture of Jijiga by his men, he was inspecting an Ethiopian Orthodox church when he fell through a concealed hole in the floor, which he was convinced had been prepared as a mantrap for him.

East African campaign (World War II)

East African CampaignEast AfricaEast Africa Campaign
On 17 March 1941, during the East African Campaign of World War II, Jijiga was occupied by the 23rd Nigerian Brigade of the British 1st African Division.
By 17 March, the 11th (African) Division completed a 17-day dash along the Italian Strada Imperiale (Imperial Road) from Mogadishu to Jijiga in the Somali region of Ethiopia.

Ogaden War

Ethio-Somali WarOgaden campaign1977–1978 conflict with Ethiopia
During the Ogaden War, Jijiga experienced the Battle of Jijiga and was occupied by the Western Somali Liberation Front's Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi division led by Col. Yusuf Dheere, later with the Somali National Army, from September 1977 until February/March 1978.
The attacking forces did suffer some early setbacks; Ethiopian defenders at Dire Dawa and Jijiga inflicted heavy casualties on assaulting forces.

Jijiga (woreda)

JijigaJigjiga
This city is the largest settlement in Jijiga woreda.
Towns and cities in Jijiga include Jijiga.

Nega Mezlekia

In his memoirs of his homeland, Nega Mezlekia describes Jijiga as sitting "on the edge of a vast, unmitigated valley on the bottom of Mount Kramada the beginning of the mighty Ethiopian highlands, with vast lush greenery in sight,the soaring Eastern Ethiopian Highlands slowing climbing west, the very common tall grassland tree used as shelter by the wandering hyena, and the inevitable sacred tree in every compound. The city is surrounded by rocky tall green mountains on all sides save the north all the way past nearby Harar all the way to Addis, which is open as far as the eye can see."
Nega was born in Jijiga, the oldest son of Mezlekia, a bureaucrat in the Imperial government.

Ogaden National Liberation Front

ONLFan ethnic Somali rebel groupOgaden Liberation Front
The Ethiopian government blamed the attack on the Ogaden National Liberation Front.
During a national holiday ceremony held at the Ogaden town of Jijiga, the grenade thrown at the podium of the stadium also wounded Somali regional president Abdulahi Hassan Mohammed in the leg.

Central Statistical Agency

Central Statistical Agency (Ethiopia)Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia2007 census
Based on figures from the Central Statistical Agency in 2015, Jijiga has an estimated total population of 250,000 of whom 123,422 are men and 126,578 are women.
Besides the capital city of Addis Ababa, the cities and towns with offices are: Ambo, Arba Minch, Asebe Teferi, Asayita, Assosa, Awasa, Bahir Dar, Debre Berhan, Dessie, Dire Dawa, Gambela, Goba, Gondar, Harar, Hosaena, Inda Selassie, Jijiga, Jimma, Mek'ele, Mizan Teferi, Nazreth, Negele Boran, Nekemte, and Sodo.

Ethiopia

EthiopianAbyssiniaFederal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Adal Sultanate

AdalSultanate of AdalAdal Kingdom
In the medieval times, Jigjiga was under the Adal Sultanate domain.

Jidwaq (clan)

JidwaqJidwaaqJid Waaq
jigjiga population jidwaaq (60%) others (40%)

Zeila

AvalitesSaylacZaila
Jijiga was mentioned by W.C. Barker in 1842 as one of the mahalla or halting-places of the caravan route between Zeila and Harar.

Sayyid

SyedSeyyedSayyed
According to I. M. Lewis, Sayyid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan's men invaded Jijiga in March 1900.

Mohammed Abdullah Hassan

Mad MullahSayyid Mohammed Abdullah HassanMuhammad Abdullah Hassan
According to I. M. Lewis, Sayyid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan's men invaded Jijiga in March 1900.

Richard Pankhurst (academic)

Richard PankhurstRichardPankhurst, Richard
However, Richard Pankhurst states that Jijiga was founded in 1916 by Fitawrari Tekle Hawariat Tekle Mariyam, who had the town methodically organized in a square grid of streets.

Ethiopian aristocratic and court titles

DejazmachRasFitawrari
However, Richard Pankhurst states that Jijiga was founded in 1916 by Fitawrari Tekle Hawariat Tekle Mariyam, who had the town methodically organized in a square grid of streets. During the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Jijiga served for some time as Dejazmach Nasibu Emmanual's headquarters and a supply center for the Ethiopian army.