Jim Bolger

BolgerJames BolgerJames Brendan BolgerBolger, JimJoan BolgerJoan Maureen BolgerMr Jim Bolger
James Brendan Bolger (born 31 May 1935) is a New Zealand politician of the National Party who was the 35th Prime Minister of New Zealand, serving from 1990 to 1997.wikipedia
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New Zealand National Party

National PartyNationalThe National Party
James Brendan Bolger (born 31 May 1935) is a New Zealand politician of the National Party who was the 35th Prime Minister of New Zealand, serving from 1990 to 1997. Bolger entered politics in 1972 as the New Zealand National Party Member of Parliament for King Country, a newly created electorate in the rural western portion of North Island.
In 1990, Jim Bolger formed another National government, which continued the radical free-market reforms initiated by the preceding Labour government.

Fourth National Government of New Zealand

Fourth National GovernmentNational governmentFourth National
The Fourth National Government was elected on the promise of delivering a "Decent Society" following the previous Labour government's economic reforms, known as "Rogernomics", which Bolger criticised.
Following electoral reforms in the 1996 election, Jim Bolger formed a coalition with New Zealand First.

1996 New Zealand general election

1996 election19961996 general election
In the subsequent 1996 election National emerged as the largest party but it was forced to enter into a coalition with New Zealand First.
It saw the National Party, led by Jim Bolger, retain its position in government, but only after protracted negotiations with the smaller New Zealand First party to form a coalition.

1993 New Zealand general election

1993 election19931993 general election
National retained power in the 1993 election, albeit with a much-reduced majority.
The election saw the governing National Party, led by Jim Bolger, win a second term in office, despite a major swing away from National in both seats and votes.

1984 New Zealand National Party leadership election

1984challenged for the party leadership
Following one unsuccessful bid for the party leadership in 1984, Bolger was elected as National Party leader in 1986.
Two main candidates emerged for the leadership; Jim McLay, a more socially liberal and free market friendly candidate, and Jim Bolger who occupied the middle ground between Muldoon and McLay projecting himself as a compromise candidate.

Jenny Shipley

ShipleyJennifer Mary ShipleyDame Jenny Shipley
On 8 December 1997, Bolger was effectively ousted as leader by his party caucus, and was replaced as Prime Minister by Jenny Shipley.
When the National Party returned to power in 1990, she was appointed to Cabinet under Jim Bolger.

Opunake

St Joseph's SchoolSt Joseph's School (Opunake)Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Tamarongo
Bolger was born to an Irish immigrant family in Opunake, Taranaki.

1986 New Zealand National Party leadership election

26 March 198619861986, when he was deposed by Bolger
Following one unsuccessful bid for the party leadership in 1984, Bolger was elected as National Party leader in 1986.
In November 1984, Muldoon was challenged for the party leadership by four candidates, with Jim McLay and Jim Bolger as the two main challengers.

Electoral reform in New Zealand

electoral reform1993 electoral referendumNew Zealand
Bolger's second term in office saw the introduction of the MMP electoral system.
Sensing Labour’s vulnerability on the issue, the National opposition criticised the government inaction, and National Party Leader Jim Bolger promised to carry on with a referendum if elected in 1990 and do so before the next election in 1993.

King Country (New Zealand electorate)

King CountryKing Country electorate
Bolger entered politics in 1972 as the New Zealand National Party Member of Parliament for King Country, a newly created electorate in the rural western portion of North Island.
It existed from 1972 to 1996 and was represented by Jim Bolger of the National Party for those 24 years.

1990 New Zealand general election

1990 election19901990 general election
Following an unsuccessful election in 1987, National under Bolger capitalised on public anger at the Labour government's neoliberal reforms (Rogernomics) to win National's biggest ever majority in 1990.
The National Party, led by Jim Bolger, won a landslide victory and formed the new government.

Fourth Labour Government of New Zealand

Fourth Labour GovernmentLabour governmentFourth Labour
The Fourth National Government was elected on the promise of delivering a "Decent Society" following the previous Labour government's economic reforms, known as "Rogernomics", which Bolger criticised.
Jim Bolger said after inheriting two financial crisis from Labour (a budget deficit not a surplus, and the need to bail out the Bank of New Zealand) that Labour had lied during the campaign: he was still angry because the lie was so big.

Leader of the New Zealand National Party

LeaderLeader of the National Partyleadership
Following one unsuccessful bid for the party leadership in 1984, Bolger was elected as National Party leader in 1986.

Waikato

Waikato RegionWaikato Regional CouncilEnvironment Waikato
Before entering politics, he farmed in the Waikato and was involved in Federated Farmers, a nationwide agricultural association.

New Zealand First

NZ FirstNew Zealand First Party NZ First
In the subsequent 1996 election National emerged as the largest party but it was forced to enter into a coalition with New Zealand First.
Whatever the case, New Zealand First exacted a high price from incumbent Prime Minister Jim Bolger in return for allowing him to stay in power.

1997 New Zealand National Party leadership election

8 December 1997ousted as leader
On 8 December 1997, Bolger was effectively ousted as leader by his party caucus, and was replaced as Prime Minister by Jenny Shipley.
Senior cabinet minister Jenny Shipley grew increasingly frustrated and disillusioned with the cautious pace of National's leader, Jim Bolger, and with what she saw as the disproportionate influence of coalition partner New Zealand First.

Te Kuiti

OparureTe Kuiti, New ZealandTaupo
In 1963 he married Joan Riddell, and they moved to their own sheep and beef farm in Te Kuiti two years later.

Jim McLay

James Kenneth McLayHon. Jim McLayMcLay, Sir Jim
After the defeat of National at the 1984 general elections, Bolger and deputy leader Jim McLay challenged Muldoon for the leadership of the party.
The two main candidates in the leadership race (apart from Muldoon himself) were Jim McLay and Jim Bolger.

Ruthanasia

The economic reforms, dubbed "Ruthanasia", proved massively unpopular with National's traditional voter base.
The Prime Minister, Jim Bolger, defended the move on the grounds that he had been badly misled in the run-up to the 1990 election as to the actual state of the New Zealand economy.

Winston Peters

Rt Hon Winston PetersPeters, Winston Winston Peters
Its leader, Winston Peters, had left the National Party to form his own party, and opposed many of the free-market reforms implemented by National, and Labour before it.
Peters first served as a Cabinet minister when Jim Bolger led the National Party to victory in 1990.

Bill Birch

Birch, BillMinister of Energy, Science and TechnologySir William ("Bill") Birch
Following the close of the election Bolger demoted Richardson to the back benches and appointed Bill Birch, who was seen as more moderate.
The Prime Minister, Jim Bolger, had never been a supporter of Richardson's strong laissez-faire policies, and preferred the more conservative Birch for the Finance portfolio.

Rogernomics

1988Douglas reformseconomic reforms
The Fourth National Government was elected on the promise of delivering a "Decent Society" following the previous Labour government's economic reforms, known as "Rogernomics", which Bolger criticised. Following an unsuccessful election in 1987, National under Bolger capitalised on public anger at the Labour government's neoliberal reforms (Rogernomics) to win National's biggest ever majority in 1990.
However, Clark survived and steadily gained ground during the third and final term of the Jim Bolger and Jenny Shipley administrations.

Republicanism in New Zealand

New Zealand republicrepublicanismconstitutionally remove British sovereignty
During the 1994 Address-in-Reply debate, Bolger argued in favour of a New Zealand republic.
In March 1994 the Republican Coalition of New Zealand was formed to promote the move to a republic and Prime Minister Jim Bolger suggested to the 44th Parliament in the Address In Reply debate that New Zealand should become a republic by 2001.

Opunake High School

Opunake District High School
He left Opunake High School at age 15 to work on the family dairy farm.

Robert Muldoon

Rob MuldoonMuldoonSir Robert Muldoon
In the late 1960s he was asked to accompany the then Minister of Finance Robert Muldoon to see for himself the difficulties faced by farmers in the area.
Known as the Colonels' Coup after its originators—Jim Bolger, Jim McLay and Derek Quigley—it aimed to replace Muldoon with his more economically liberal deputy, Brian Talboys.