Johann Philipp Reis

Johann-Philipp-Reis AwardJohann ReisPhilip ReisPhilipp ReisReisReis, Johann PhilippReis, Philipp
Johann Philipp Reis (January 7, 1834 – January 14, 1874) was a self-taught German scientist and inventor.wikipedia
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Reis telephone

make-and-break transmittertelephone
In 1861, he constructed the first make-and-break telephone, today called the Reis telephone.
The Reis telephone was an invention named after Philipp Reis of a telephonelike device he constructed.

Friedrichsdorf

His grandmother and guardians placed him at Garnier's Institute, in Friedrichsdorf, where he showed a taste for languages, and acquired both French and English, as well as a stock of miscellaneous information from the library.
The town's most famous son was Johann Philipp Reis, a teacher at the Institut Garnier.

Telephone

phonetelephonesLocal Telephone Service
In 1861, he constructed the first make-and-break telephone, today called the Reis telephone.
Later, c. 1860, Johann Philipp Reis used the term in reference to his Reis telephone, his device appears to be the first such device based on conversion of sound into electrical impulses, the term telephone was adopted into the vocabulary of many languages.

Gelnhausen

Gelnhausen, West Germany
Reis was born in Gelnhausen, Germany, the son of Marie Katharine (Glöckner) and Karl Sigismund Reis, a master baker.
Johann Philipp Reis, inventor of one of the first telephones, born 7 January 1834 at Gelnhausen, died 14 January 1874 at Friedrichsdorf

Thomas Edison

EdisonThomas Alva EdisonThomas A. Edison
The result was the Gray-Bell telephone controversy, one of the United States' longest running patent interference cases, involving Bell, Thomas Alva Edison, Elisha Gray, Emil Berliner, Amos Dolbear, J. W. McDonagh, G. B. Richmond, W. L. Voeker, J. H. Irwin, and Francis Blake Jr.
Up to that point, microphones, such as the ones developed by Johann Philipp Reis and Alexander Graham Bell, worked by generating a weak current.

Elisha Gray and Alexander Bell telephone controversy

filed patentsGray-Bell telephone controversypatent lawsuit with Bell Telephone Company
The result was the Gray-Bell telephone controversy, one of the United States' longest running patent interference cases, involving Bell, Thomas Alva Edison, Elisha Gray, Emil Berliner, Amos Dolbear, J. W. McDonagh, G. B. Richmond, W. L. Voeker, J. H. Irwin, and Francis Blake Jr.
While electricians such as Reis, Gray and Edison used make-or-break currents (like a buzzer) in their attempts, Bell understood acoustics and wave theory and applied this knowledge to analogous work in his electrical experiments.

Charles Bourseul

Bourseul, Charles
Charles Bourseul, a French telegraphist, had conceived a plan for conveying sounds and even speech by electricity:
Johann Philipp Reis

Alexander Graham Bell

BellGraham BellBell, Alexander Graham
Reis, like Bell would later do, had studied the organs of ear and the idea of an apparatus for transmitting sound by means of electricity had floated on his mind for years.
Reis, Philipp

Invention of the telephone

inventor of the telephoneinvented the telephonepatent for the telephone
Prior to his death, Meucci had lost his only concluded Federal lawsuit trial related to the telephone's invention.
On the basis of this prototype, Meucci worked on more than 30 kinds of sound transmitting devices inspired by the telegraph model as did other pioneers of the telephone, such as Charles Bourseul, Philipp Reis, Innocenzo Manzetti and others. Meucci later claimed that he did not think about transmitting voice by using the principle of the telegraph "make-and-break" method, but he looked for a "continuous" solution that did not interrupt the electric current.

History of the telephone

telephonemechanical telephonetelephone history
History of the telephone
Charles Bourseul, Innocenzo Manzetti, Antonio Meucci, Johann Philipp Reis, Alexander Graham Bell, and Elisha Gray, amongst others, have all been credited with the telephone's invention.

Antonio Meucci

MeucciHRes 269
Another controversy arose over a century later when the U.S. Congress passed a resolution in 2002 recognizing Italian-American Antonio Meucci's contributions in the invention of the telephone (not for the invention of the telephone), a declaration that bore no legal or other standing at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).
Different from other pioneers of the telephone—such as Charles Bourseul, Philipp Reis, Innocenzo Manzetti, and others—he did not think about transmitting voice by using the principle of the telegraph key (in scientific jargon, the "make-and-break" method).

List of German inventors and discoverers

famous inventors and engineersGerman inventor
German inventors and discoverers
Johann Philipp Reis: Inventor of the first phone transmitter in 1861, he also invented the term Telephone.

Canadian Parliamentary Motion on Alexander Graham Bell

motion declaring Alexander Graham Bell the inventor of the telephonepassing a motion unanimously 10 days latertit-for-tat declaration
Canada's Parliament quickly followed with a tit-for-tat declaration, which clarified: "....that Alexander Graham Bell of Brantford, Ont., and Baddeck, N.S., [was] the inventor of the telephone."
Johann Reis

Germany

🇩🇪GermanGER
Johann Philipp Reis (January 7, 1834 – January 14, 1874) was a self-taught German scientist and inventor.

German Confederation

GermanyGermanGerman states
Reis was born in Gelnhausen, Germany, the son of Marie Katharine (Glöckner) and Karl Sigismund Reis, a master baker.

Frankfurt

Frankfurt am MainFrankfurt, GermanyFrankfort
At the end of his fourteenth year, Reis was accepted to a Hassel Institute, at Frankfurt am Main, where he learned Latin and Italian.

Karlsruhe

CarlsruheKarlsruhe, GermanyCounty of Karlsruhe
A love of science became apparent, and his guardians were recommended to send him to the Polytechnic School of Karlsruhe.

Mathematics

mathematicalmathmathematician
By diligent service he won the esteem of Beyerbach, and devoted his leisure to self-improvement, taking private lessons in mathematics and physics and attending the lectures of Professor R. Bottger on mechanics at the Trade School.

Physics

physicistphysicalphysicists
By diligent service he won the esteem of Beyerbach, and devoted his leisure to self-improvement, taking private lessons in mathematics and physics and attending the lectures of Professor R. Bottger on mechanics at the Trade School.

Kassel

CasselKassel, GermanyKassel-Wehlheiden
In 1855, he completed his year of military service at Kassel, then returned to Frankfurt to qualify as a teacher of mathematics and science by means of private study and public lectures.

Heidelberg University

HeidelbergUniversity of HeidelbergRuprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg
His intention was to finish his training at the University of Heidelberg, but in the spring of 1858 he visited his old friend and master, Hofrath Garnier, who offered him a post in Garnier's Institute.

Annalen der Physik

AnnalenAnnalen der Physik und ChemiePoggendorfs Annalen
The results were described in a paper, "On the Radiation of Electricity", which, in 1859, he mailed to Professor Poggendorff for insertion in the then well-known periodical, Annalen der Physik.

Magnetostriction

magnetostrictivemagnetostrictive actuatorsmagnetostrictive alloy
These faint sounds were due to magnetostriction.

Platinum

Ptcompounds of platinumdouble Platinum
Another of his early transmitters was a rough model of the human ear, carved in oak, and provided with a drum which actuated a bent and pivoted lever of platinum, making it open and close a springy contact of platinum foil in the metallic circuit of the current.

Tuberculosis

consumptionpulmonary tuberculosisTB
Reis believed in his invention, even if no one else did; and had he been encouraged by his peers from the beginning he might have perfected it. He was already stricken with tuberculosis, however.