Johann Philipp Reis

Philipp ReisJohann-Philipp-Reis AwardJohann ReisPhilip ReisReisReis, Johann PhilippReis, Philipp
Johann Philipp Reis (January 7, 1834 – January 14, 1874) was a self-taught German scientist and inventor.wikipedia
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Reis telephone

make-and-break transmittertelephone
In 1861, he constructed the first make-and-break telephone, today called the Reis telephone.
The Reis telephone was an invention named after Philipp Reis of a telephonelike device he constructed.

Telephone

phonetelephonesLocal Telephone Service
In 1861, he constructed the first make-and-break telephone, today called the Reis telephone.
Johann Philipp Reis used the term in reference to his invention, commonly known as the Reis telephone, in c. 1860.

Friedrichsdorf

Seulberg
His grandmother and guardians placed him at Garnier's Institute, in Friedrichsdorf, where he showed a taste for languages, and acquired both French and English, as well as a stock of miscellaneous information from the library.
The town's most famous son was Johann Philipp Reis, a teacher at the Institut Garnier.

Gelnhausen

HaitzMeerholzGelnhausen, West Germany
Reis was born in Gelnhausen, Germany, the son of Marie Katharine (Glöckner) and Karl Sigismund Reis, a master baker.

Thomas Edison

Thomas Alva EdisonEdisonThomas A. Edison
The result was the Gray-Bell telephone controversy, one of the United States' longest running patent interference cases, involving Bell, Thomas Alva Edison, Elisha Gray, Emil Berliner, Amos Dolbear, J. W. McDonagh, G. B. Richmond, W. L. Voeker, J. H. Irwin, and Francis Blake Jr.
Up to that point, microphones, such as the ones developed by Johann Philipp Reis and Alexander Graham Bell, worked by generating a weak current.

Elisha Gray and Alexander Bell telephone controversy

The Telephone GambitElisha Gray and Alexander Bell controversyfiled patents
The result was the Gray-Bell telephone controversy, one of the United States' longest running patent interference cases, involving Bell, Thomas Alva Edison, Elisha Gray, Emil Berliner, Amos Dolbear, J. W. McDonagh, G. B. Richmond, W. L. Voeker, J. H. Irwin, and Francis Blake Jr.
While electricians such as Reis, Gray and Edison used make-or-break currents (like a buzzer) in their attempts, Bell understood acoustics and wave theory and applied this knowledge to analogous work in his electrical experiments.

Charles Bourseul

Bourseul, Charles
Charles Bourseul, a French telegraphist, had conceived a plan for conveying sounds and even speech by electricity:

Alexander Graham Bell

BellGraham BellAlexander Bell
Reis, like Bell would later do, had studied the organs of ear and the idea of an apparatus for transmitting sound by means of electricity had floated on his mind for years.

History of the telephone

telephonemechanical telephonetelephone history
Charles Bourseul, Innocenzo Manzetti, Antonio Meucci, Johann Philipp Reis, Alexander Graham Bell, and Elisha Gray, amongst others, have all been credited with the telephone's invention.

Invention of the telephone

inventor of the telephoneinvented the telephonepatent for the telephone
Prior to his death, Meucci had lost his only concluded Federal lawsuit trial related to the telephone's invention.

Antonio Meucci

MeucciHRes 269
Another controversy arose over a century later when the U.S. Congress passed a resolution in 2002 recognizing Italian-American Antonio Meucci's contributions in the invention of the telephone (not for the invention of the telephone), a declaration that bore no legal or other standing at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).
Different from other pioneers of the telephone—such as Charles Bourseul, Philipp Reis, Innocenzo Manzetti, and others—he did not think about transmitting voice by using the principle of the telegraph key (in scientific jargon, the "make-and-break" method).

List of German inventors and discoverers

German inventors and discoverersfamous inventors and engineersfamous inventors, discoverers and engineers

Canadian Parliamentary Motion on Alexander Graham Bell

motion declaring Alexander Graham Bell the inventor of the telephonepassing a motion unanimously 10 days latertit-for-tat declaration
Canada's Parliament quickly followed with a tit-for-tat declaration, which clarified: "....that Alexander Graham Bell of Brantford, Ont., and Baddeck, N.S., [was] the inventor of the telephone."

Germany

GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
Johann Philipp Reis (January 7, 1834 – January 14, 1874) was a self-taught German scientist and inventor.

German Confederation

GermanyGermanGerman states
Reis was born in Gelnhausen, Germany, the son of Marie Katharine (Glöckner) and Karl Sigismund Reis, a master baker.

Frankfurt

Frankfurt am MainFrankfurt, GermanyFrankfurt-am-Main
At the end of his fourteenth year, Reis was accepted to a Hassel Institute, at Frankfurt am Main, where he learned Latin and Italian.

Karlsruhe

Karlsruhe, GermanyCarlsruheCounty of Karlsruhe
A love of science became apparent, and his guardians were recommended to send him to the Polytechnic School of Karlsruhe.

Mathematics

mathematicalmathmathematician
By diligent service he won the esteem of Beyerbach, and devoted his leisure to self-improvement, taking private lessons in mathematics and physics and attending the lectures of Professor R. Bottger on mechanics at the Trade School.

Physics

physicistphysicalphysicists
By diligent service he won the esteem of Beyerbach, and devoted his leisure to self-improvement, taking private lessons in mathematics and physics and attending the lectures of Professor R. Bottger on mechanics at the Trade School.

Kassel

CasselKassel, GermanyKassel-Wehlheiden
In 1855, he completed his year of military service at Kassel, then returned to Frankfurt to qualify as a teacher of mathematics and science by means of private study and public lectures.

Heidelberg University

University of HeidelbergHeidelbergRuprecht Karl University of Heidelberg
His intention was to finish his training at the University of Heidelberg, but in the spring of 1858 he visited his old friend and master, Hofrath Garnier, who offered him a post in Garnier's Institute.

Annalen der Physik

Annalen der Physik und ChemieAnnalenPoggendorf Annalen
The results were described in a paper, "On the Radiation of Electricity", which, in 1859, he mailed to Professor Poggendorff for insertion in the then well-known periodical, Annalen der Physik.

Magnetostriction

magnetostrictivemagnetostrictive actuatorsmagnetostrictive alloy
These faint sounds were due to magnetostriction.

Platinum

Ptcompounds of platinumdouble Platinum
Another of his early transmitters was a rough model of the human ear, carved in oak, and provided with a drum which actuated a bent and pivoted lever of platinum, making it open and close a springy contact of platinum foil in the metallic circuit of the current.

Tuberculosis

consumptionpulmonary tuberculosisTB
He was already stricken with tuberculosis, however.