Johann Sebastian Bach

Portrait of Bach by E. G. Haussmann, 1748
Johann Ambrosius Bach, 1685, Bach's father. Painting attributed to Johann David Herlicius
The Wender organ Bach played in Arnstadt
Organ of the St. Paul's Church in Leipzig, tested by Bach in 1717.
Bach's autograph of the first movement of the first sonata for solo violin, BWV 1001[[File:Sonata in in G m J.S.Bach (1 mov prelude).ogg]]
St. Thomas Church and School, Leipzig in 1723
Café Zimmermann, c. 1720
Bach's seal (centre), used throughout his Leipzig years. It contains the superimposed letters J S B in mirror image topped with a crown. The flanking letters illustrate the arrangement on the seal.
A handwritten note by Bach in his copy of the Calov Bible. The note next to reads: "NB Bey einer andächtigen Musiq ist allezeit Gott mit seiner Gnaden Gegenwart" (Nota bene In a music of worship God is always present with his grace).
"O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden": the four-part chorale setting as included in the St. Matthew Passion
Bach's guide on ornaments as contained in the Klavierbüchlein für Wilhelm Friedemann Bach
"Aria" of the Goldberg Variations, showing Bach's use of ornaments[[File:Bach.Aria.Goldberg-Variationen.WerckmeisterIII.Harpsichord.ogg]]
Bach's autograph of the recitative with the gospel text of Christ's death from St Matthew Passion
The Art of Fugue (title page) – Performed by Mehmet Okonsar on organ and harpsichord
ArtofFugue-Part1of2-1to12.ogg
ArtofFugue-Part2of2-13to20.ogg
The church in Arnstadt where Bach had been the organist from 1703 to 1707. In 1935 the church was renamed "Bachkirche".
Painting of Johann Sebastian Bach by 'Gebel', before 1798.
Image of the erected by Felix Mendelssohn in Leipzig in 1843
1908 Statue of Bach in front of the Thomaskirche in Leipzig
28 July 1950: memorial service for Bach in Leipzig's Thomaskirche, on the 200th anniversary of the composer's death

German composer and musician of the late Baroque period.

- Johann Sebastian Bach

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Eisenach

Town in Thuringia, Germany with 42,000 inhabitants, located 50 km west of Erfurt, 70 km southeast of Kassel and 150 km northeast of Frankfurt.

Nikolaikirche (left) and Nikolaitor (right)
Eisenach in 1647
Car, produced in Automobilwerk Eisenach in 1898
Demolition of historic buildings during the 1970s and 1980s.
Eisenach's town centre, viewed from the west
District map
Evolution of population since 1830
A factory of Opel, Eisenach's largest employer
Typical example of mansion architecture in the southern town
Eisenach station
A tram at Marktplatz in 1974
The "R" is the symbol of the Rennsteig hiking trail in the Thuringian Forest, which starts in Eisenach
Ernst Abbe (Heliogravure Emil Tesch)
Bachhaus
Lutherhaus
"Automobile Welt"
Thüringer Museum inside the palace
Reuter-Wagner-Museum
Predigerkirche
Goldener Löwe
St. George's Church
St. Nicholas' Church
Preachers' Church
St. Elizabeth's Church
St. Anne's Church
St. Clement's Chapel
Holy Cross Church
Wartburg
Stadtschloss
Bechtolsheim Palace
Schloss Fischbach
Jagdschloss Hohe Sonne
Alte Residenz
Bach monument
Luther monument
Burschenschaftsdenkmal
"Dejudaization Institute" Memorial
Town gate Nikolaitor
The Wandelhalle at Kartausgarten
Town hall
Theatre
Narrow House

In 1685, Johann Sebastian Bach was born here.

Mühlhausen

City in the north-west of Thuringia, Germany, 5 km north of Niederdorla, the country's geographical centre, 50 km north-west of Erfurt, 65 km east of Kassel and 50 km south-east of Göttingen.

The Mühlhausen territories on a map of 1725
Mühlhausen in 1650
The Eichsfeld in 1900
An old hornbeam at Stadtwald
Municipal museum at Lindenbühl
The city's skyline is dominated by St. Mary's steeple, the highest one in Thuringia
Popperode well house
The Mühlhausen barracks in 1937
Mühlhausen station
Tram at Untermarkt in 1959
Johann Sebastian Bach monument next to St Blaise's Church where he worked in 1707–1708
St. Blaise's Church
St. Mary's Church
All Saints Church
Corn Market Church
St. James's Church
St. Kilian's Church
St. George's Church
St. Martin's Church
St. Nicholas' Church
St. Peter's Church
St. Joseph's Church
St. Boniface's Church
Inner city walls with the Frauentor on the right and the Rabenturm on the left
Town hall
Brotlaube
Court of the Teutonic Knights in the new town
Some citizens' houses at Untermarkt
Smaller houses at Holzstraße

Johann Sebastian Bach worked as the city's organist in 1707–08.

Thuringia

State of Germany.

Coat of arms of the landgraves of Thuringia (1265)
Map of the Thuringian States in 1890
Meuselbach-Schwarzmühle at the Thuringian Highland
Thuringian Forest in winter
Großer Inselsberg
Districts of Thuringia
The Jen Tower is a symbol of East Germany's economy. According to the 2019 study by Forschungsinstitut Prognos, Jena is one of the most dynamic regions in Germany. It ranks at number 29 of all 401 German regions.
Opel Eisenach manufacturing
TEAG Thüringer Energie AG in Erfurt, the largest electric utility company in Thuringia
Bundesautobahn 4 near Jena
Erfurt Central Station is an important junction on the German rail network.
Erfurt Stadtbahn at Anger (city centre)
Friedrich Schiller University Jena is the largest university in Thuringia and one of the best in Germany.
EKD Protestant membership in 2011 (municipalities)
Catholic membership in 2011 (municipalities)
Wartburg
Goethe–Schiller Monument in Weimar
Thuringian Forest
Oberhof
Erfurt skyline
Krämerbrücke in Erfurt
Oldtown of Mühlhausen
Friedenstein Palace, Gotha
Johann Sebastian Bach
Franz Liszt
Richard Wagner
Chamber of Martin Luther at Wartburg castle
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Friedrich Schiller
Ernst Haeckel
Max Weber
Carl Zeiss
Otto Schott

Thuringia was favoured or was the birthplace of three key intellectuals and leaders in the arts: Johann Sebastian Bach, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and Friedrich Schiller.

Bach cantata

Bach's autograph of the soprano aria in the cantata Herr, gehe nicht ins Gericht mit deinem Knecht, BWV 105
Schlosskirche in Weimar (c. 1660, burned 1774) where Bach composed and performed church cantatas monthly from 1714 to 1717
Thomaskirche in 1885, one of the two Leipzig churches where Bach composed and performed church cantatas almost weekly from 1723 to 1726

The cantatas composed by Johann Sebastian Bach, known as Bach cantatas (German: Bachkantaten), are a body of work consisting of over 200 surviving independent works, and at least several dozen that are considered lost.

Chamber music

Form of classical music that is composed for a small group of instruments—traditionally a group that could fit in a palace chamber or a large room.

Frederick the Great plays flute in his summer palace Sanssouci, with Franz Benda playing violin, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach accompanying on keyboard, and unidentified string players; painting by Adolph Menzel (1850–52)
Plato, Aristotle, Hippocrates and Galen play a quartet on viols in this fanciful woodcut from 1516.
Baroque musicians playing a trio sonata, 18th-century anonymous painting
Score of Joseph Haydn's Op. 20, No. 4, showing conversational mode.
Joseph Haydn playing string quartets
Copy of a pianoforte from 1805
Manuscript of the "Ghost" Trio, Op. 70, No. 1, by Beethoven
Violinist Joseph Joachim and pianist Clara Schumann. Joachim and Schumann debuted many of the chamber works of Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms and others.
Home music-making in the 19th century; painting by Jules-Alexandre Grün.
Vilemina Norman Neruda leading a string quartet, about 1880
The Joachim Quartet, led by violinist Joseph Joachim. The quartet debuted many of the works of Johannes Brahms.
The Seine at Lavacourt by Claude Monet. Impressionist music and art sought similar effects of the ethereal, atmospheric.
The Kneisel String Quartet, led by Franz Kneisel. This American ensemble debuted Dvořák's American Quartet, Op. 96.
Béla Bartók recording folksongs of Czech peasants, 1908
Painting of Pierrot, the object of Schoenberg's atonal suite Pierrot Lunaire, painted by Antoine Watteau
Leon Theremin performing a trio for voice, piano and theremin, 1924
Amateurs play a string sextet
Chamber musicians going at each other, from "The Short-tempered Clavichord" by illustrator Robert Bonotto
A graphic interpretation of the Burletta movement of Bartók's String Quartet No. 6, by artist Joel Epstein

The Art of Fugue by Johann Sebastian Bach, for example, can be played on a keyboard instrument (harpsichord or organ) or by a string quartet or a string orchestra.

Cantor (Christianity)

Chief singer, and usually instructor, employed at a church, with responsibilities for the choir and the preparation of the Mass or worship service.

John Koukouzeles, saint and one of the most famous maistores of Psaltic Art at Constantinople, leading a choir by the cheironomic gesture of Ison (picture of a 15th-century chant manuscript at the Great Lavra Monastery, Mount Athos)

Johann Sebastian Bach (Thomaskantor in Leipzig) and Georg Philipp Telemann (Hamburg) were among the famous musicians employed under this system.

St. Thomas School, Leipzig

Co-educational and public boarding school in Leipzig, Saxony, Germany.

Thomasschule

Johann Sebastian Bach held the position of Thomaskantor from 1723 until his death in 1750.

Goldberg Variations

Title page of the Goldberg Variations (first edition)
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First 8 bars of the fourth variation.
First four bars of Variation 5.
First 4 bars of the seventh variation.
The first section of Variation 10.
The final two bars of the first section of Variation 13.
First 2 bars of variation 20.
The first three bars of Variation 21
The first four bars of Variation 23
The last four bars of the first section of Variation 28
The Quodlibet as it appears in the first edition
Haussmann's portrait of Bach depicts him holding the manuscript to BWV 1076, which is also the thirteenth canon in the Goldberg Canon cycle.

The Goldberg Variations, BWV 988, is a musical composition for keyboard by Johann Sebastian Bach, consisting of an aria and a set of 30 variations.

Bach family

Portrait of Johann Sebastian Bach by E. G. Haussmann, 1748
Bach family house, Wechmar
Johann Sebastian Bach and his sons Carl Philipp Emanuel, Johann Christian, Wilhelm Friedemann, and Johann Christoph Friedrich

The Bach family refers to several notable composers of the baroque and classical periods of music, the best-known of whom was Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750).

Counterpoint

Relationship between two or more musical lines which are harmonically interdependent yet independent in rhythm and melodic contour.

Bach 3-part Invention BWV 795, bars 7–9
Beethoven Piano Sonata Op. 90, first movement bars 110–113
Beethoven, Symphony No. 9, finale, bars 116–123
Wagner Meistersinger Vorspiel bars 158–161
Mozart Symphony No. 41 Finale, bars 389–396
Example of "third species" counterpoint
Gradus ad Parnassum (1725) by Johann Joseph Fux defines the modern system of teaching counterpoint
Example of a double passing tone in which the two middle notes are a dissonant interval from the cantus firmus, a fourth and a diminished fifth
Example of a descending double neighbor figure against a cantus firmus
Example of an ascending double neighbor figure (with an interesting tritone leap at the end) against a cantus firmus

Bach's 3-part Invention in F minor combines three independent melodies: