John A. Macdonald

Sir John A. MacdonaldJohn Alexander MacdonaldMacdonaldSir John Alexander MacdonaldPrime Minister MacdonaldSir John A MacdonaldJohn A MacDonaldJohn MacdonaldSir John Macdonaldfirst Prime Minister
Sir John Alexander Macdonald (11 January 1815 – 6 June 1891) was the first prime minister of Canada (1867–1873, 1878–1891).wikipedia
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George Brown (Canadian politician)

George BrownBrownGeorge Brown, Toronto publisher & politician
In 1864, when no party proved capable of governing for long, Macdonald agreed to a proposal from his political rival, George Brown, that the parties unite in a Great Coalition to seek federation and political reform.
His career in active politics faltered after 1865, but he remained a powerful spokesman for the Liberal Party promoting westward expansion and opposing the policies of Conservative Prime Minister John A. Macdonald.

National Policy

Canadian political and economic status quoNational Policy of Canada (1876–1920)protectionism
Macdonald's greatest achievements were building and guiding a successful national government for the new Dominion, using patronage to forge a strong Conservative Party, promoting the protective tariff of the National Policy, and completing the railway.
The National Policy was a Canadian economic program introduced by John A. Macdonald's Conservative Party in 1876 and put into action in 1879.

Louis Riel

RielexecutionRiel Rebellions
His most controversial move was to approve the execution of Métis leader Louis Riel for treason in 1885; it alienated many francophones from his Conservative Party.
He led two rebellions against the government of Canada and its first post-Confederation prime minister, John A. Macdonald.

William Lyon Mackenzie King

Mackenzie KingKingW.L. Mackenzie King
Macdonald was the first Prime Minister of the new nation, and served 19 years; only William Lyon Mackenzie King served longer.
A survey of scholars in 1997 by Maclean's magazine ranked King first among all Canada's prime ministers, ahead of Sir John A. Macdonald and Sir Wilfrid Laurier.

Canadian Pacific Railway

Canadian PacificCPRCP Rail
In 1873, he resigned from office over the Pacific Scandal, in which his party took bribes from businessmen seeking the contract to build the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Together with the Canadian Confederation, the creation of the Canadian Pacific Railway was a task originally undertaken as the National Dream by the Conservative government of Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald (1st Canadian Ministry).

Pacific Scandal

corruption in railway contractsscandals
In 1873, he resigned from office over the Pacific Scandal, in which his party took bribes from businessmen seeking the contract to build the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The scandal led to the resignation of Canada's first Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, and a transfer of power from his Conservative government to a Liberal government led by Alexander Mackenzie.

Ottawa

Ottawa, OntarioOttawa, CanadaOttawa, ON
He fought to block provincial efforts to take power back from the national government in Ottawa.
In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.

Donald Creighton

Donald G. CreightonCreightonD. G. Creighton
As Donald Creighton (who penned a two-volume biography of Macdonald in the 1950s) wrote, "law was a broad, well-trodden path to comfort, influence, even to power".
His biography of John A. Macdonald, published into two parts between 1952 and 1955, was considered by many Canadian historians as re-establishing biographies as a proper form of historical research in Canada.

Kingston, Ontario

KingstonKingston, ONKingston, Upper Canada
Macdonald was born in Scotland; when he was a boy his family immigrated to Kingston in the Province of Upper Canada (today in eastern Ontario).
Kingston was the home of Canada's first Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald.

Oliver Mowat

Sir Oliver MowatMowat The Honourable '''Sir Oliver Mowat
Oliver Mowat became premier of Ontario, and Alexander Campbell a federal cabinet minister and Lieutenant Governor of Ontario.
He is best known for defending successfully the constitutional rights of the provinces in the face of the centralizing tendency of the national government as represented by his longtime conservative adversary, John A. Macdonald.

Greater Napanee

NapaneeNapanee, OntarioSelby
After Hugh's store failed, the family moved to Hay Bay (south of Napanee, Ontario), west of Kingston, where Hugh unsuccessfully ran another shop.
Sir John A. Macdonald, Canada's first prime minister, practised law in Napanee.

Great Coalition

CoalitionGreat Coalition of 1864MacDonald–Cartier coalition
In 1864, when no party proved capable of governing for long, Macdonald agreed to a proposal from his political rival, George Brown, that the parties unite in a Great Coalition to seek federation and political reform.
The previous collapse after only three months of a coalition government formed by George-Étienne Cartier and Conservative John A. Macdonald and liberal George Brown, (the sixth government in six years) had demonstrated that continued governance of Canada East and Canada West under the 1840 Act of Union had become untenable.

Ontario

Ontario, CanadaONProvince of Ontario
Macdonald was born in Scotland; when he was a boy his family immigrated to Kingston in the Province of Upper Canada (today in eastern Ontario).
His battles with the federal government greatly decentralized Canada, giving the provinces far more power than John A. Macdonald had intended.

Isabella Macdonald

Isabella ClarkIsabella Clark Macdonald
Sometime during his two months in Britain, he met his first cousin, Isabella Clark.
Isabella Macdonald née Clark (1809 – 28 December 1857) was the first wife of John A. Macdonald, one of the fathers of the Canadian federation, and ultimately the first Prime Minister of Canada.

Picton, Ontario

Picton
With his supervising lawyer dead, Macdonald remained at the cousin's law office in Hallowell (today Picton, Ontario).
It was here that Sir John A. Macdonald managed a law office for his uncle, Lowther P. MacPherson.

Joseph Pope (public servant)

Joseph PopeSir Joseph Pope
Nevertheless, Macdonald later regretted leaving school when he did, remarking to his secretary Joseph Pope that if he had attended university, he might have embarked on a literary career.
He was Private Secretary to Sir John A. Macdonald from 1882 to 1891 and Assistant Clerk to the Privy Council & Under Secretary of State for Canada from 1896 to 1926.

Hugh John Macdonald

Lady MacDonaldSir Hugh John MacdonaldSir Hugh Macdonald
In March 1850, Isabella Macdonald gave birth to another boy, Hugh John Macdonald, and his father wrote, "We have got Johnny back again, almost his image."
Sir Hugh John Macdonald, (March 13, 1850 – March 29, 1929) was the only surviving son of the first Prime Minister of Canada, Sir John A. Macdonald.

Province of Canada

Canada WestUnited Province of CanadaCanada
As a lawyer he was involved in several high-profile cases and quickly became prominent in Kingston, which elected him in 1844 to the legislature of the Province of Canada.
It was under Head, that true political party government was introduced with the Liberal-Conservative Party of John A. Macdonald and George-Étienne Cartier in 1856.

Liberal-Conservative Party

Liberal-ConservativeLiberal-ConservativesLiberal–Conservative
The coalition which came to power in 1854 became known as the Liberal-Conservatives (referred to, for short, as the Conservatives).
Both were part of Sir John A. Macdonald's government and official Conservative and Liberal-Conservative candidates would not, generally, run against each other.

Canadian Confederation

ConfederationConfederation of CanadaFather of Confederation
The dominant figure of Canadian Confederation, he had a political career which spanned almost half a century.
The Premier of the Province of Canada John A. Macdonald surprised the Atlantic premiers by asking if the Province of Canada could be included in the negotiations.

Alexander Campbell (Canadian senator)

Alexander CampbellSir Alexander Campbell
Oliver Mowat became premier of Ontario, and Alexander Campbell a federal cabinet minister and Lieutenant Governor of Ontario.
He became a partner in John A. Macdonald's law office.

List of elections in the Province of Canada

provincial general elections1854Province of Canada election of 1854
In March 1844, Macdonald was asked by local businessmen to stand as Conservative candidate for Kingston in the upcoming legislative election.
A good example of this is when a number of Liberal MPs supported John A. Macdonald, a Conservative, and his idea for Canadian Confederation, many other Liberal Party members were opposed to Confederation.

Quebec Conference, 1864

Quebec ConferenceQuebec Conference of 18641864 Quebec Conference
In October 1864, delegates for confederation met in Quebec City for the Quebec Conference, where the Seventy-Two Resolutions were agreed to—they would form the basis of Canada's government.
Canada West leader John A. Macdonald requested Governor-General Charles Monck to invite all representatives from the three Maritime provinces and Newfoundland to meet with the candidates who formed the United Canada to Quebec in October 1864.

Fathers of Confederation

Father of Confederationa Father of ConfederationCanadian Father of Confederation
The dominant figure of Canadian Confederation, he had a political career which spanned almost half a century.

George-Étienne Cartier

Sir George-Étienne CartierCartierCartier of Montreal
In 1855, George-Étienne Cartier of Canada East (today Quebec) joined the Cabinet.
From 1857 to 1862 he served alongside John A. Macdonald as co-premier of the united province.