John B. Henderson

John B. Henderson in his elder years.

United States senator from Missouri and a co-author of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

- John B. Henderson

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Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.

Abolitionist imagery focused on atrocities against slaves. (Photo of Gordon, 1863.)
Abraham Lincoln
Representative James Mitchell Ashley proposed an amendment abolishing slavery in 1863.
Celebration erupts after the Thirteenth Amendment is passed by the House of Representatives.
Amendment XIII in the National Archives, bearing the signature of Abraham Lincoln
John Marshall Harlan became known as "The Great Dissenter" for his minority opinions favoring powerful Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments.

On January 11, 1864, Senator John B. Henderson of Missouri submitted a joint resolution for a constitutional amendment abolishing slavery.

Ulysses S. Grant

American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1870–1880
Grant's birthplace, Point Pleasant, Ohio
Grant c. undefined 1845–1847
Battle of Monterrey Published 1847
Chinook Indian Plank House Published 1845
Grant believed Pacific Northwest Indians were a peaceful people and not a threat to settlers.
"Hardscrabble" Published 1891
The farm home Grant built in Missouri for his family. His wife Julia called the home an "unattractive cabin".
Brigadier General Grant photographed at Cairo, Illinois, September 1861 (Published 1911)
21st Illinois regiment monument in the Viniard Field, Chickamauga
Grant's successful gamble: Porter's gunboats night ran the Confederate gauntlet at Vicksburg on the Mississippi River.
Published 1863
The Battle of Jackson, fought on May 14, 1863, was part of the Vicksburg Campaign.
Published 1863
Union troops swarm Missionary Ridge and defeat Bragg's army. Published 1886
Commanding General Grant at the Battle of Cold Harbor, June 1864
Grant (center left) next to Lincoln with General Sherman (far left) and Admiral Porter (right) – The Peacemakers by Healy, 1868
Defeated by Grant, Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House
Ulysses S. Grant by Balling (1865)
Grant–Colfax Republican Ticket
Published 1868
Inauguration of President U.S. Grant, Capitol building steps.
March 4, 1869
Anthony Comstock Grant's vigorous prosecutor of abortionists and pornographers.
Amos T. Akerman, appointed Attorney General by Grant, who vigorously prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan
Image of mobs rioting entitled "The Louisiana Outrage". White Leaguers at Liberty Place attacked the integrated police force and state militia, New Orleans, September 1874.
Published October 1874
Secretary of Treasury George S. Boutwell aided Grant to defeat the Gold Ring.
Secretary of State Hamilton Fish and Grant successfully settled the Alabama Claims by treaty and arbitration.
Wharf of Santo Domingo City
Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
American Captain Frye and his crew were executed by Spanish authority.
King Kalākaua of Hawaii meets President Grant at the White House on his state visit, 1874.
Published January 2, 1875
Ely Samuel Parker
Grant appointed Parker the first Native American (Seneca) Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Battle of the Little Big Horn
Great Sioux War
Published 1889
Cartoon by Thomas Nast on Grant's opponents in the reelection campaign
Grant is congratulated for vetoing the "inflation bill" in 1874.
Cartoonist Thomas Nast praises Grant for rejecting demands by Pennsylvania politicians to suspend civil service rules.
Harper's Weekly
cartoon on Bristow's Whiskey Ring investigation
Grant and Bismarck in 1878
Cartoonist Joseph Keppler lampooned Grant and his associates. Grant's prosecutions of the Whiskey Ring and the Klan were ignored.
Puck, 1880
Official White House portrait of President Grant by Henry Ulke, 1875
Commanding General Grant
Constant Mayer's portrait of 1866
Grant National Memorial, known as "Grant's Tomb", largest mausoleum in North America

Grant appointed John Brooks Henderson and David Dyer, who prosecuted the Whiskey Ring.

Special counsel

Lawyer appointed to investigate, and potentially prosecute, a particular case of suspected wrongdoing for which a conflict of interest exists for the usual prosecuting authority.

Helena Normanton in her court dress, c. undefined 1950

The first federal special prosecutor, John B. Henderson, was appointed by Ulysses Grant in 1875 to investigate the Whiskey Ring scandal.

Whiskey Ring

The Whiskey Ring took place from 1871 to 1876 centering in St. Louis during the Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant.

Contemporary Whiskey Ring Cartoon Thomas Nast Harper's Weekly March 1876
Orville Babcock's Trial 1876
Louise Hawkins "SYLPH" St. Louis beauty who captured the attention of Orville Babcock. 1880

President Ulysses S. Grant appointed General John Brooks Henderson (a former U.S. Senator from Missouri) to serve as special prosecutor in charge of the indictments and trials, but Grant eventually fired Gen. Henderson for challenging Grant's interference in the prosecutions.

Danville, Virginia

Independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States, located in the Southside Virginia region and on the fall line of the Dan River.

View of the Dan River in downtown Danville
Danville home of tobacco entrepreneur William T. Sutherlin, called by locals the "Last Capitol of the Confederacy"
Dan's Hill estate, far western Danville
Wreck of the Old 97, 1903
Abandoned Dan River Mills on the Dan River
The Riverwalk Trail near the Dan Daniel Park along the Dan River.
Revitalized Craghead Street in the River District, 2019
Tobacco Warehouse Historic District
Pemberton & Penn Tobacco Co. building, built 1885–1890, Tobacco Warehouse Historic District
Old Danville Hotel that now works as a nursing facility for the elderly.
Danville Amtrak station, built 1899

John B. Henderson, U.S. Senator from Missouri

William P. Fessenden

American politician from the U.S. state of Maine.

Photograph by Mathew Brady
Running the "Machine"
An 1864 cartoon featuring Fessenden, Edwin Stanton, Abraham Lincoln, William Seward and Gideon Welles takes a swing at the Lincoln administration.
Bureau of Engraving and Printing portrait of Fessenden as Treasury Secretary
Fessenden was one of only three people depicted on United States Fractional currency during their lifetime.
Frederic Porter Vinton's portrait of Fessenden, posthumous. Circa. 1870

He, Joseph S. Fowler, James W. Grimes, John B. Henderson, Lyman Trumbull, Peter G. Van Winkle, and Edmund G. Ross defied their party and public opinion and voted against conviction.

Andrew Johnson

The 17th president of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869.

Portrait by Mathew Brady
Johnson's birthplace and childhood home, located at the Mordecai Historic Park in Raleigh, North Carolina
Eliza McCardle Johnson
The Andrew Johnson House, built in 1851 in Greeneville, Tennessee
Portrait of Johnson, 1856, attributed to William Brown Cooper
Senator Johnson, 1859
Johnson in 1860
Poster for the Lincoln and Johnson ticket by Currier and Ives
1865 cartoon showing Lincoln and Johnson using their talents as rail-splitter and tailor to repair the Union
Contemporary woodcut of Johnson being sworn in by Chief Justice Chase as Cabinet members look on, April 15, 1865
Official portrait of President Johnson, c. 1880
Thomas Nast cartoon of Johnson disposing of the Freedmen's Bureau as African Americans go flying
"The Situation", a Harper's Weekly editorial cartoon, shows Secretary of War Stanton aiming a cannon labeled "Congress" to defeat Johnson. The rammer is "Tenure of Office Bill" and cannonballs on the floor are "Justice".
Illustration of Johnson's impeachment trial in the United States Senate, by Theodore R. Davis, published in Harper's Weekly
Illustration of Sergeant at Arms of the United States Senate George T. Brown delivering a summons for the impeachment trial to Johnson at the White House on March 7, 1868
Illustration of Johnson consulting with his counsel for the trial
"Farewell, a long farewell, to all my greatness!": Harper's Weekly cartoon mocking Johnson on leaving office
Senator Andrew Johnson in 1875 (age 66)
The grave of Andrew Johnson, Greeneville, Tennessee

Ten Republicans—Senators Grimes, Ross, Trumbull, James Dixon, James Rood Doolittle, Daniel Sheldon Norton, William Pitt Fessenden, Joseph S. Fowler, John B. Henderson, and Peter G. Van Winkle.—voted to acquit the President.

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson

Initiated on February 24, 1868, when the United States House of Representatives resolved to impeach Andrew Johnson, the 17th president of the United States, for "high crimes and misdemeanors", which were detailed in 11 articles of impeachment.

Signed House resolution to impeach President Johnson, adopted February 24, 1868
President Andrew Johnson
"The Situation", a Harper's Weekly editorial cartoon shows Secretary of War Stanton aiming a cannon labeled "Congress" to defeat Johnson. The rammer is "Tenure of Office Bill" and cannonballs on the floor are "Justice".
John Covode's single sentence impeachment resolution, presented on February 21, 1868
Illustration of Thaddeus Stevens and John Bingham notifying the Senate bar of the impeachment on February 25, 1868
Illustration of the seven-member committee meeting to draft the articles of impeachment. From left to right: Thaddeus Stevens, James F. Wilson, John A. Logan, George S. Boutwell, George Washington Julian, John Bingham
Illustration of Thaddeus Stevens speaking during March 2, 1868 debate
Bingham presents the articles of impeachment to the Senate
House impeachment managers.<Br>Seated L-R: Butler, Stevens, Williams, Bingham; Standing L-R: Wilson, Boutwell, Logan
Andrew Johnson impeachment trial admission ticket dated March 24, 1868
Judgment of the Senate
Scene from the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson as shown in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper March 28, 1868

Senators William P. Fessenden, Joseph S. Fowler, James W. Grimes, John B. Henderson, Lyman Trumbull, Peter G. Van Winkle, and Edmund G. Ross, who provided the decisive vote, defied their party by voting against conviction.

James W. Grimes

American politician, serving as the third Governor of Iowa and a United States Senator from Iowa.

Senators William Pitt Fessenden, Joseph S. Fowler, Grimes, John B. Henderson, Lyman Trumbull, Peter G. Van Winkle, and Edmund G. Ross of Kansas, who provided the decisive vote, defied their party and public opinion and voted against convicting Johnson because they were disturbed by how the proceedings had been manipulated in order to give a one-sided presentation of the evidence.

Peter G. Van Winkle

American lawyer, businessman and politician.

Sketch of Van Winkle by Joseph Diss Debar
Former Home of Peter Van Winkle in Parkersburg, WV

The other senators who voted against impeachment along with him were James Dixon, James Rood Doolittle, William Pitt Fessenden, Joseph S. Fowler, James W. Grimes, John B. Henderson, Lyman Trumbull, Daniel S. Norton, and Edmund G. Ross (the latter of whom provided the decisive vote).