John Cagewikipedia
John Milton Cage Jr. (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American composer and music theorist.
John CageCageCage, JohnCageanJohn Cage’s[John] CagechanceJohnpost-CageianJ.Cage

Merce Cunningham

Merce CunninghamMerce Cunningham Dance CompanyCunningham
He was also instrumental in the development of modern dance, mostly through his association with choreographer Merce Cunningham, who was also Cage's romantic partner for most of their lives.
He is also notable for his frequent collaborations with artists of other disciplines, including musicians John Cage and David Tudor, and artists Robert Rauschenberg and Bruce Nauman.

Indeterminacy (music)

indeterminacyindeterminateindeterminate music
A pioneer of indeterminacy in music, electroacoustic music, and non-standard use of musical instruments, Cage was one of the leading figures of the post-war avant-garde.
John Cage, a pioneer of indeterminacy, defined it as "the ability of a piece to be performed in substantially different ways".

4′33″

4′33″4'334' 33
Cage is perhaps best known for his 1952 composition 4′33″, which is performed in the absence of deliberate sound; musicians who present the work do nothing aside from being present for the duration specified by the title.
4′33″ (pronounced "Four minutes, thirty-three seconds" or just "Four thirty-three") is a three-movement composition by American experimental composer John Cage (1912–1992).

Extended technique

extended techniqueextended techniquesnew playing techniques
A pioneer of indeterminacy in music, electroacoustic music, and non-standard use of musical instruments, Cage was one of the leading figures of the post-war avant-garde.
Twentieth-century exponents of extended techniques include Henry Cowell (use of fists and arms on the keyboard, playing inside the piano), John Cage (prepared piano), and George Crumb.

Sonatas and Interludes

Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared PianoSonatas I & II
The best known of these is Sonatas and Interludes (1946–48).
Sonatas and Interludes is a cycle of twenty pieces for prepared piano by American avant-garde composer John Cage (1912–1992).

Electroacoustic music

electroacoustic musicelectroacoustictape
A pioneer of indeterminacy in music, electroacoustic music, and non-standard use of musical instruments, Cage was one of the leading figures of the post-war avant-garde. Nevertheless, Cage managed to survive and maintained an active artistic life, giving lectures, performances, etc. In 1952–53 he completed another mammoth project—the Williams Mix, a piece of tape music, which Earle Brown helped to put together.
US composer John Cage's assembly of the Williams Mix serves as an example of the rigors of tape music.

Prepared piano

prepared pianomuting a piano by taping its stringsprepared upright piano
Cage was also a pioneer of the prepared piano (a piano with its sound altered by objects placed between or on its strings or hammers), for which he wrote numerous dance-related works and a few concert pieces.
Although Cowell's techniques don't call for placing objects (other than the hands) inside the piano, John Cage frequently cited Cowell's work as the primary inspiration for his development of the prepared piano.

Arnold Schoenberg

SchoenbergArnold SchoenbergArnold Schönberg
His teachers included Henry Cowell (1933) and Arnold Schoenberg (1933–35), both known for their radical innovations in music, but Cage's major influences lay in various East and South Asian cultures.
Schoenberg was also an influential teacher of composition; his students included Alban Berg, Anton Webern, Hanns Eisler, Egon Wellesz, Nikos Skalkottas, and later John Cage, Lou Harrison, Earl Kim, Roberto Gerhard, Leon Kirchner, Dika Newlin, and other prominent musicians.

Cathy Berberian

BerberianCathy Berberian
Cage also countered the lack of percussion instruments by writing, on one occasion, for voice and closed piano: the resulting piece, The Wonderful Widow of Eighteen Springs (1942), quickly became popular and was performed by the celebrated duo of Cathy Berberian and Luciano Berio.
She interpreted contemporary avant-garde music composed, among others, by Luciano Berio, Bruno Maderna, John Cage, Henri Pousseur, Sylvano Bussotti, Darius Milhaud, Roman Haubenstock-Ramati, and Igor Stravinsky.

Etudes Australes

Études Australes
They became close, lifelong friends, and Cage later dedicated part of his Music for Piano and his monumental piano cycle Etudes Australes to her.
Etudes Australes is a set of etudes for piano solo by John Cage, composed in 1974–75 for Grete Sultan.

Aleatoric music

aleatoricaleatoric musicaleatory
Through his studies of Indian philosophy and Zen Buddhism in the late 1940s, Cage came to the idea of aleatoric or chance-controlled music, which he started composing in 1951.
American composer John Cage's Music of Changes (1951) was "the first composition to be largely determined by random procedures", though his indeterminacy is of a different order from Meyer-Eppler's concept.

Morton Feldman

Morton FeldmanFeldmanFeldmanesque
More important was Cage's chance encounter with Morton Feldman in New York City in early 1950.
A major figure in 20th-century music, Feldman was a pioneer of indeterminate music, a development associated with the experimental New York School of composers also including John Cage, Christian Wolff, and Earle Brown.

String Quartet in Four Parts

The first fruits of these studies were works inspired by Indian concepts: Sonatas and Interludes for prepared piano, String Quartet in Four Parts, and others.
String Quartet in Four Parts is a string quartet by John Cage, composed in 1950.

Henry Cowell

Henry CowellCowell, HenryCowell
His teachers included Henry Cowell (1933) and Arnold Schoenberg (1933–35), both known for their radical innovations in music, but Cage's major influences lay in various East and South Asian cultures.
Cowell's endeavors with string piano techniques were the primary inspiration for John Cage's development of the prepared piano.

Music of Changes

The first results of the new approach were Imaginary Landscape No. 4 for 12 radio receivers, and Music of Changes for piano.
Music of Changes is a piece for solo piano by John Cage.

The Wonderful Widow of Eighteen Springs

Cage also countered the lack of percussion instruments by writing, on one occasion, for voice and closed piano: the resulting piece, The Wonderful Widow of Eighteen Springs (1942), quickly became popular and was performed by the celebrated duo of Cathy Berberian and Luciano Berio.
The Wonderful Widow of Eighteen Springs is a song for voice and closed piano by John Cage.

Bonnie Bird

Bonnie Bird
After several months he left and moved to Seattle, Washington, where he found work as composer and accompanist for choreographer Bonnie Bird at the Cornish College of the Arts.
Educated at The Cornish School 1927-30, now Cornish College of the Arts, she is most popularly known for bringing together Merce Cunningham and John Cage upon her return to Cornish as head of dance in 1937.

Graphic notation (music)

graphic notationgraphic scoresgraphic score
Among his works completed during the last years of the decade were Concert for Piano and Orchestra (1957–58), a seminal work in the history of graphic notation, and Variations I (1958).
One of the earliest pioneers of the technique, along with John Cage, was Earle Brown, who sought to liberate performers from the constraints of notation and makes them active participants in the creation of the music.

Imaginary Landscape

Imaginary Landscape No. 4Imaginary Landscape #1Imaginary Landscape No. 5
The first results of the new approach were Imaginary Landscape No. 4 for 12 radio receivers, and Music of Changes for piano.
Imaginary Landscape is the title of a series of five pieces by American composer John Cage, all of which include instruments or other elements requiring electricity.

The New School

New School for Social Researchthe New SchoolNew School
Following Cowell's advice, Cage travelled to New York City in 1933 and started studying with Weiss as well as taking lessons from Cowell himself at The New School.
John Cage later pioneered the subject of Experimental Composition at the school.

Fluxus

fluxusFluxus movementflux-
Cage's "Experimental Composition" classes at The New School have become legendary as an American source of Fluxus, an international network of artists, composers, and designers.
The ideas and practices of composer John Cage heavily influenced Fluxus.

Number Pieces

number piecesTwoJohn Cage
Cage went on to write some forty such pieces, one of the last being Eighty (1992, premiered in Munich on 28 October 2011), usually employing a variant of the same technique; together, these works are known as Number Pieces.
The term Number Pieces refers to a body of late compositions (40, or 41 if Seventeen was actually composed) by John Cage.

Jackson Mac Low

They included Jackson Mac Low, Allan Kaprow, Al Hansen, George Brecht, and Dick Higgins, as well as many others Cage invited unofficially.
Jackson Mac Low (September 12, 1922 – December 8, 2004) was an American poet, performance artist, composer and playwright, known to most readers of poetry as a practioneer of systematic chance operations and other non-intentional compositional methods in his work, which Mac Low first experienced in the musical work of John Cage, Earle Brown, and Christian Wolff.

Williams Mix

Nevertheless, Cage managed to survive and maintained an active artistic life, giving lectures, performances, etc. In 1952–53 he completed another mammoth project—the Williams Mix, a piece of tape music, which Earle Brown helped to put together.
Williams Mix (1951–1953) is a 4'15" electronic composition by John Cage for eight simultaneously played independent quarter-inch magnetic tapes. The first octophonic music, the piece was created by Cage with the assistance of Earle Brown, Morton Feldman, and David Tudor, using a large number of tape sound sources and a paper score he created for the construction. "Presignifying the development of algorithmic composition, granular synthesis and sound diffusion," it was the third of five pieces completed in the Project for Music for Magnetic Tape (1951–1954), funded by dedicatee architect Paul Williams.

Luciano Berio

Luciano BerioBerioBerio, Luciano
Cage also countered the lack of percussion instruments by writing, on one occasion, for voice and closed piano: the resulting piece, The Wonderful Widow of Eighteen Springs (1942), quickly became popular and was performed by the celebrated duo of Cathy Berberian and Luciano Berio.
He invited a number of significant composers to work there, among them Henri Pousseur and John Cage.