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Roxbury Latin School

The Roxbury Latin SchoolRoxbury LatinLatin
1604 – 21 May 1690) was a Puritan missionary to the American Indians who some called "the apostle to the Indians" and the founder of Roxbury Latin School in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1645.
The Roxbury Latin School, which was founded in Roxbury, Massachusetts, by the Rev. John Eliot under a charter received from King Charles I of England, is the oldest school in continuous existence in North America.

Missionary

missionariesmissionary workmission
1604 – 21 May 1690) was a Puritan missionary to the American Indians who some called "the apostle to the Indians" and the founder of Roxbury Latin School in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1645.
Early Protestant missionaries included John Eliot and contemporary ministers including John Cotton and Richard Bourne, who ministered to the Algonquin natives who lived in lands claimed by representatives of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the early 17th century.

Widford, Hertfordshire

WidfordBlakesmoor in H——shire
John Eliot was born in Widford, Hertfordshire, England and lived at Nazeing as a boy.

Dorchester, Boston

DorchesterDorchester, MassachusettsDorchester, MA
He and fellow ministers Thomas Weld (also of Roxbury), Thomas Mayhew of Martha's Vineyard, and Richard Mather of Dorchester, are credited with editing the Bay Psalm Book, the first book published in the British North American colonies (1640).
In 1649, Puritan missionaries, including John Eliot, began a campaign to convert the Indigenous people in Dorchester to Christianity with the help of Cockenoe and John Sassamon, two Indian servants in Dorchester.

Samuel Danforth

DanforthSamuel
From 1649 to 1674, Samuel Danforth assisted Eliot in his Roxbury ministry.
Samuel Danforth (1626–1674) was a Puritan minister, preacher, poet, and astronomer, the second pastor of The First Church in Roxbury and an associate of the Rev. John Eliot of Roxbury, Massachusetts, known as the “Apostle to the Indians.”

Thomas Mayhew

Gov. Thomas MayhewGovernor Thomas Mayhew, the ElderMayhews
He and fellow ministers Thomas Weld (also of Roxbury), Thomas Mayhew of Martha's Vineyard, and Richard Mather of Dorchester, are credited with editing the Bay Psalm Book, the first book published in the British North American colonies (1640).
They are: John Eliot (known as the Apostle to the Indians); Thomas Mayhew (who was already ministering to the natives); and, three generations later, Eleazar Wheelock, who established "Doctor Wheelock's Academy for the promotion of Christianity and civility among the savage Indians of this continent" (now known as Dartmouth College).

Jesus College, Cambridge

Jesus CollegeJesusJesus College, Cambridge University
He attended Jesus College, Cambridge.

Bay Psalm Book

Bay Psalme Book
He and fellow ministers Thomas Weld (also of Roxbury), Thomas Mayhew of Martha's Vineyard, and Richard Mather of Dorchester, are credited with editing the Bay Psalm Book, the first book published in the British North American colonies (1640).
They hired "thirty pious and learned Ministers", including Richard Mather, Thomas Mayhew, and John Eliot, to undertake a new translation, which they presented here.

Massachusett language

WampanoagMassachusettWampanoag language
John Eliot began to study the Massachusett or Wampanoag language, which was the language of the local Indians.
John Eliot's translation of the Christian Bible in 1663 using the Natick dialect, known as Mamusse Wunneetupanatamwe Up-Biblum God, was the first printed in the Americas, the first Bible translated by a non-native speaker, and one of the earliest examples of a Bible translation into a previously unwritten language.

Antinomian Controversy

Free Grace Controversyreligious controversystatement of banishment from the Massachusetts Bay Colony
From 1637 to 1638 Eliot participated in both the civil and church trials of Anne Hutchinson during the Antinomian Controversy.
With him was his colleague John Eliot who was opposed to the doctrines of Hutchinson.

Massachusett

MassachusetMassachusett peopleMassachuset Indian
An important part of Eliot's ministry focused on the conversion of Massachusett and other Algonquian Indians.
Under the missionary John Eliot, the majority of the Massachusett were converted to Christianity and settled in 'Praying towns' established where the converted Native Americans were expected to submit to the colonial laws, accept some elements of English culture and forced to abandon their traditional religion, but were allowed to use their language.

Praying Indian

Praying IndiansCaughnawaga IndiansCaughnawaga
This was important because the settlements of "praying Indians" could be provided with other preachers and teachers to continue the work John Eliot started. At one point, there were 14 towns of so-called "Praying Indians", the best documented being at Natick, Massachusetts.
These villages were known as praying towns and were established by missionaries such as Puritan leader John Eliot and Jesuit missionaries St. Regis and Kahnawake (formerly known as Caughnawaga) and the missionaries among the Huron in western Ontario.

Nazeing

Lower NazeingNazeing Park
John Eliot was born in Widford, Hertfordshire, England and lived at Nazeing as a boy.

Roxbury, Boston

RoxburyRoxbury, MassachusettsRoxbury, MA
Eliot became minister and "teaching elder" at the First Church in Roxbury.

Natick, Massachusetts

NatickNatick, MASouth Natick, Massachusetts
At one point, there were 14 towns of so-called "Praying Indians", the best documented being at Natick, Massachusetts.
Natick was first settled in 1651 by John Eliot, a Puritan missionary born in Widford, Hertfordshire, England who received a commission and funds from England's Long Parliament to settle the Massachusett Indians on both sides of the Charles River, on land deeded from the settlement at Dedham.

First Church in Roxbury

The First Church in RoxburyFirst Church of RoxburyFirst Church
Eliot became minister and "teaching elder" at the First Church in Roxbury.
John Eliot was ordained as the first teacher on November 5, 1632.

Grafton, Massachusetts

GraftonNorth GraftonNorth Grafton, Massachusetts
Other praying Indian towns included: Littleton (Nashoba), Lowell (Wamesit, initially incorporated as part of Chelmsford), Grafton (Hassanamessit), Marlborough (Okommakamesit), a portion of Hopkinton that is now in the Town of Ashland (Makunkokoag), Canton (Punkapoag), and Mendon-Uxbridge (Wacentug).
Bands of the Nipmuc tribe are the indigenous inhabitants, and maintain a state-recognized reservation known as Hassanamessit, or Hassanamisco, which was formerly a Praying Indian village from 1647 when the Reverend John Eliot came and converted the Hassanamiscos to Christianity.

Uxbridge, Massachusetts

UxbridgeUxbridge, MAMendon-Uxbridge
Other praying Indian towns included: Littleton (Nashoba), Lowell (Wamesit, initially incorporated as part of Chelmsford), Grafton (Hassanamessit), Marlborough (Okommakamesit), a portion of Hopkinton that is now in the Town of Ashland (Makunkokoag), Canton (Punkapoag), and Mendon-Uxbridge (Wacentug).
John Eliot started Nipmuc Praying Indian villages.

Nipmuc

NipmuckNipmucsNipmuc people
In 1662, Eliot witnessed the signing of the deed for Mendon with Nipmuck Indians for "Squinshepauk Plantation".
The Reverend John Eliot arrived in Boston in 1631 and began an ambitious project to learn the Massachusett language, widely understood throughout New England, convert the Native Americans, and published a Bible and grammar of the language.

Marlborough, Massachusetts

MarlboroughMarlboro, MassachusettsMarlboro
Other praying Indian towns included: Littleton (Nashoba), Lowell (Wamesit, initially incorporated as part of Chelmsford), Grafton (Hassanamessit), Marlborough (Okommakamesit), a portion of Hopkinton that is now in the Town of Ashland (Makunkokoag), Canton (Punkapoag), and Mendon-Uxbridge (Wacentug).
Marlborough was one of the seven "Praying Indian Towns" because they were converted to Christianity by the Rev. John Eliot of Roxbury.

Richard Mather

grandfatherMather, RichardMathers in America
He and fellow ministers Thomas Weld (also of Roxbury), Thomas Mayhew of Martha's Vineyard, and Richard Mather of Dorchester, are credited with editing the Bay Psalm Book, the first book published in the British North American colonies (1640).
With Thomas Welde, Thomas Mayhew and John Eliot he wrote the "Bay Psalm Book", or, more accurately, The Whole Booke of Psalmes Faithfully Translated into English Metre (1640), probably the first book printed in the English colonies.

Samson Occom

Reverend Samson OccomSamson Occum
Praying Indian towns were also established by other missionaries, including the Presbyterian Samson Occom, himself of Mohegan descent.
Together with the missionary John Eliot, Occom became one of the foremost missionaries who cross-fertilised Native American communities with Christianized European culture.

Mendon, Massachusetts

Mendon MendonMendon, MA
In 1662, Eliot witnessed the signing of the deed for Mendon with Nipmuck Indians for "Squinshepauk Plantation".
These were two of the 14 Praying Indian villages established by Reverend John Eliot, from Natick and Roxbury, who translated the Bible into the Nipmuc language.

Richard Callicott (New England colonist)

Richard CallicotRichard CallicottRichard Collicott
Cockenoe had been captured in the Pequot War of 1637 and became a servant of an Englishman named Richard Collicott.
During the War, Callicot received a captured Indian, known as Cockenoe, as a servant, and Cockenoe later became a translator for John Eliot in completing the Eliot Indian Bible, the first Bible printed in America.

Newton, Massachusetts

NewtonNewton, MASolomon Schechter Day School of Greater Boston
Their son, John Eliot, Jr., was the first pastor of the First Church of Christ in Newton, Another son, Joseph Eliot, became a pastor in Guilford, Connecticut, and later fathered Jared Eliot, a noted agricultural writer and pastor.
Roxbury minister John Eliot convinced the Native American people of Nonantum, a sub-tribe of the Massachusett led by a sachem named Waban, to relocate to Natick in 1651, fearing that they would be exploited by colonists.