John G. Kemeny

Commemorative plaque to John George Kemeny. It is affixed to the wall of his former domicile.

Hungarian-born American mathematician, computer scientist, and educator best known for co-developing the BASIC programming language in 1964 with Thomas E. Kurtz.

- John G. Kemeny

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Thomas E. Kurtz

Dartmouth College
True Basic example

Thomas Eugene Kurtz (born February 22, 1928) is a retired Dartmouth professor of mathematics and computer scientist, who along with his colleague John G. Kemeny set in motion the then revolutionary concept of making computers as freely available to college students as library books were, by implementing the concept of time-sharing at Dartmouth College.


Family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages designed for ease of use.

The HP 2000 system was designed to run time-shared BASIC as its primary task.
Commodore BASIC v2.0 on the Commodore 64
MSX BASIC version 3.0
"Train Basic every day!"—reads a poster (bottom center) in a Russian school (c. 1985–1986)
IBM Cassette BASIC 1.10
Three modern Basic variants: Mono Basic, Basic and Gambas
BASIC came to some video game systems, such as the Nintendo Famicom.

The original version was created by John G. Kemeny, Thomas E. Kurtz at Dartmouth College in 1964.

Three Mile Island accident

Partial meltdown of the Three Mile Island, Unit 2 reactor in Pennsylvania, United States.

Three Mile Island nuclear facility, circa 1979
Simplified schematic diagram of the TMI-2 plant
A sign dedicated in 1999 in Middletown, Pennsylvania, near the plant, describing the accident and the evacuation of the area.
Three Mile Island in background behind Harrisburg International Airport, a few weeks after the accident
Global history of the use of nuclear power. The Three Mile Island accident is one of the factors cited for the decline of new reactor construction.
A clean-up crew working to remove radioactive contamination at Three Mile Island
Anti-nuclear protest following the Three Mile Island accident, Harrisburg, 1979
After the accident, Three Mile Island used only one nuclear generating station, TMI-1, which is on the right. TMI-2, to the left, has not been used since the accident.
TMI-2 as of February 2014. The cooling towers are on the left. The spent fuel pool with containment building of the reactor is on the right.

The commission consisted of a panel of twelve people, specifically chosen for their lack of strong pro- or anti-nuclear views, and headed by chairman John G. Kemeny, president of Dartmouth College.

Dartmouth College

Private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States.

Eleazar Wheelock, Dartmouth College founder
The Charter of Dartmouth College on display in Baker Memorial Library. The charter was signed on December 13, 1769, on behalf of George III.
The earliest known image of Dartmouth appeared in the February 1793 issue of Massachusetts Magazine. The engraving may also be the first visual proof of cricket being played in the United States.
Lithograph of the President's House, Thornton Hall, Dartmouth Hall, and Wentworth Hall
College seal at the Collis Center
Baker Memorial Library
A view of East Campus from Baker Tower
Tuck School of Business
McNutt Hall, home to the Dartmouth Office of Undergraduate Admissions
Tower Room in Baker Memorial Library
Dartmouth Hall was reconstructed in 1906.
Drawing of Wilson Hall, Dartmouth's first library building, by architect Samuel J. F. Thayer (1842–1893), which appeared in American Architect and Building News in March 1885.
American elm on Dartmouth College campus, June 2011
The Hopkins Center
Sherman Fairchild Physical Sciences Center
Memorial Field
Robinson Hall houses many of the College's student-run organizations, including the Dartmouth Outing Club. The building is a designated stop along the Appalachian Trail.
Dartmouth Alpha Chi Alpha fraternity house
A Dartmouth varsity hockey game against Princeton at Thompson Arena
The 40th Dartmouth Powwow
Seal of Dartmouth College
Lord Hall, Allen House
Morton Hall, East Wheelock House
Woodward Hall, North Park House
Mid Massachusetts Hall, School House
Topliff Hall, South House
Russell Sage Hall, West House
Robert Frost, poet
Dr. Seuss, writer and illustrator
Henry Paulson, former CEO of Goldman Sachs and United States Secretary of the Treasury
Timothy Geithner, former United States Secretary of the Treasury
Salmon Chase, former Chief Justice of the U.S.
Daniel Webster, former Secretary of State
Nelson Rockefeller, former Vice President of the United States
Kirsten Gillibrand, United States senator
Robert Reich, former United States Secretary of Labor, political commentator, professor, and author
Sarah Wayne Callies, actress
Mindy Kaling, actress and comedian
Connie Britton, actress, singer and producer
Shonda Rhimes, television producer and writer
Brad Ausmus, baseball player
Jake Tapper, journalist, author, and commentator
David Benioff, screenwriter and television producer, writer, and director
Fred Rogers, television personality
Rachel Dratch, comedian

In 1970, longtime professor of mathematics and computer science John George Kemeny became president of Dartmouth.

Alonzo Church

Renowned American mathematician, logician, philosopher, professor and editor, who made major contributions to mathematical logic and the foundations of theoretical computer science.

Alonzo Church (1903–1995)

Many of Church's doctoral students have led distinguished careers, including C. Anthony Anderson, Peter B. Andrews, George A. Barnard, David Berlinski, William W. Boone, Martin Davis, Alfred L. Foster, Leon Henkin, John G. Kemeny, Stephen C. Kleene, Simon B. Kochen, Maurice L'Abbé, Isaac Malitz, Gary R. Mar, Michael O. Rabin, Nicholas Rescher, Hartley Rogers, Jr., J. Barkley Rosser, Dana Scott, Raymond Smullyan, and Alan Turing.

The Martians (scientists)

Term used to refer to a group of prominent Hungarian scientists (mostly, but not exclusively, physicists and mathematicians) of Jewish descent, who emigrated to the United States in the early half of the 20th century.

Bela Lugosi in Dracula
John von Neumann at Los Alamos
George Olah holding a lecture in the Ceremonial Hall of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences with the title "New Opportunity in Energy Policy: Symbiosis of Economic Policy and Methanol Economy – Opportunities in Hungary"
Eugene Wigner

Paul Erdős, Paul Halmos, Theodore von Kármán, John G. Kemeny, John von Neumann, George Pólya, Leó Szilárd, Edward Teller, and Eugene Wigner are included in The Martians group.

George Washington Educational Campus

Facility of the New York City Department of Education located at 549 Audubon Avenue at West 193rd Street in the Fort George neighborhood of Washington Heights, Manhattan, New York City, United States.

George Washington Educational Campus
As seen from the Bronx

John George Kemeny (1926–1992), atomic scientist and computer science pioneer

Markov chain

Stochastic model describing a sequence of possible events in which the probability of each event depends only on the state attained in the previous event.

A diagram representing a two-state Markov process, with the states labelled E and A. Each number represents the probability of the Markov process changing from one state to another state, with the direction indicated by the arrow. For example, if the Markov process is in state A, then the probability it changes to state E is 0.4, while the probability it remains in state A is 0.6.
Russian mathematician Andrey Markov
The continuous time Markov chain is characterized by the transition rates, the derivatives with respect to time of the transition probabilities between states i and j.

John G. Kemeny & J. Laurie Snell (1960) Finite Markov Chains, D. van Nostrand Company ISBN: 0-442-04328-7

Dartmouth Time Sharing System

Discontinued operating system first developed at Dartmouth College between 1963 and 1964.

DTSS hardware schematic, October 1964
GE-235 We Sing Thy Praises
Honeywell GE 635 Computer Hardware architecture at Kiewit, early 1971
Kiewit Network, early 1971

Professors John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz at Dartmouth College purchased a Royal McBee LGP-30 computer around 1959, which was programmed by undergraduates in assembly language.

Nándor Balázs

Hungarian-American physicist, external member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (from 1995).

Nándor Balázs, circa 1966

Balázs attended to the Rácz private primary school and was a classmate of Janos Kemeny.