# John Hubbard (physicist)

British physicist, best known for the Hubbard model for interacting electrons, the Hubbard–Stratonovich transformation, and the Hubbard approximations.

- John Hubbard (physicist)2 related topics

## Hubbard model

Approximate model used, especially in solid-state physics, to describe the transition between conducting and insulating systems.

Approximate model used, especially in solid-state physics, to describe the transition between conducting and insulating systems.

The Hubbard model, named after John Hubbard, is a simple model of interacting particles in a lattice, with only two terms in the Hamiltonian (see example below): a kinetic term allowing for tunneling ("hopping") of particles between sites of the lattice and a potential term consisting of an on-site interaction.

## Hubbard–Stratonovich transformation

The Hubbard–Stratonovich (HS) transformation is an exact mathematical transformation invented by Russian physicist Ruslan L. Stratonovich and popularized by British physicist John Hubbard.