John Hunyadi

János HunyadiJanos HunyadiIancu de HunedoaraHunyadiSibinjanin JankoHunyadi Jánoscoat of armsCorvinHungarian historical themeHunyad
John Hunyadi (Hunyadi János, Sibinjanin Janko, Ioan de Hunedoara; c. undefined 1406 – 11 August 1456) was a leading Hungarian military and political figure in Central and Southeastern Europe during the 15th century.wikipedia
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Crusade of Varna

long campaignVarna1443 crusade
Although defeated in the battle of Varna in 1444 and in the second battle of Kosovo in 1448, his successful "Long Campaign" across the Balkan Mountains in 1443–44 and defence of Belgrade/Nándorfehérvár in 1456, against troops led personally by the Sultan established his reputation as a great general.
It was called by Pope Eugene IV on 1 January 1443 and led by King Władysław III of Poland, John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania, and Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy.

Battle of Varna

Varnabattle10 November 1444
Although defeated in the battle of Varna in 1444 and in the second battle of Kosovo in 1448, his successful "Long Campaign" across the Balkan Mountains in 1443–44 and defence of Belgrade/Nándorfehérvár in 1456, against troops led personally by the Sultan established his reputation as a great general.
The Ottoman Army under Sultan Murad II defeated the Hungarian–Polish and Wallachian armies commanded by Władysław III of Poland (also King of Hungary), John Hunyadi (acting as commander of the combined Christian forces) and Mircea II of Wallachia.

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
He mastered his military skills on the southern borderlands of the Kingdom of Hungary that were exposed to Ottoman attacks.
On 10 November 1444, Murad repelled the Crusade of Varna by defeating the Hungarian, Polish, and Wallachian armies under Władysław III of Poland (also King of Hungary) and John Hunyadi at the Battle of Varna, although Albanians under Skanderbeg continued to resist.

Matthias Corvinus

Matthias Corvinus of HungaryKing MatthiasMatthias I
His fame was a decisive factor in the election of his son, Matthias Corvinus, as king by the Diet of 1457.
He was the son of John Hunyadi, Regent of Hungary, who died in 1456.

Battle of Kosovo (1448)

Second Battle of KosovoBattle of KosovoKosovo
Although defeated in the battle of Varna in 1444 and in the second battle of Kosovo in 1448, his successful "Long Campaign" across the Balkan Mountains in 1443–44 and defence of Belgrade/Nándorfehérvár in 1456, against troops led personally by the Sultan established his reputation as a great general.
In the three-day battle the Ottoman army under the command of Sultan Murad II defeated the Crusader army of regent John Hunyadi.

Ladislaus the Posthumous

Ladislaus VLadislausLadislaus V of Hungary
He actively took part in the civil war between the partisans of Wladislas I and the minor Ladislaus V, two claimants to the throne of Hungary in the early 1440s, on behalf of the former.
After Frederick III rejected the offer, the Diet of Hungary elected John Hunyadi regent in 1446.

Mehmed the Conqueror

Mehmed IIMehmet IISultan Mehmed II
In a letter of 1489, Matthias Corvinus wrote that his grandmother's sister, whom the Ottoman Turks had captured and forced to join the harem of an unnamed Sultan, became the ancestor of Cem, the rebellious son of Sultan Mehmed II.
In Mehmed II's first reign, he defeated the crusade led by John Hunyadi after the Hungarian incursions into his country broke the conditions of the truce Peace of Szeged.

Hunedoara

Peștișu MareboşBoș
In the document, King Sigismund of Hungary bestowed Hunyad Castle (in present-day Hunedoara, Romania) and the lands attached to it upon John's father, Voyk and Voyk's four kinsmen, including John himself.
The latter Hungarian name Vajdahunyad (voivode Hunyad) is a direct referral to John Hunyadi.

Hungary

HungarianHUNRepublic of Hungary
Two 15th-century chroniclers—Johannes de Thurocz and Antonio Bonfini—write that Voyk had moved from Wallachia to Hungary upon King Sigismund's initiative.
From a small noble family in Transylvania, John Hunyadi grew to become one of the country's most powerful lords, thanks to his outstanding capabilities as a mercenary commander.

Corvin Castle

Hunyad CastleHunyadi CastleHunedoara Castle
In the document, King Sigismund of Hungary bestowed Hunyad Castle (in present-day Hunedoara, Romania) and the lands attached to it upon John's father, Voyk and Voyk's four kinsmen, including John himself.
Corvin Castle was laid out in 1446, when construction began on the orders of Voivode of Transylvania John Hunyadi (Hunyadi János, Iancu or Ioan de Hunedoara) who wanted to transform the former keep built by Charles I of Hungary.

Voivode of Transylvania

voivodeTransylvaniaTransylvanian voivode
Appointed voivode of Transylvania and head of a number of southern counties, he assumed responsibility for the defense of the frontiers in 1441.
In contrast, John Hunyadi, voivode between 1441 and 1446, defeated a major Ottoman army at Gyulafehérvár in 1442.

Kingdom of Hungary

HungaryHungarianHungarian Kingdom
undefined 1406 – 11 August 1456) was a leading Hungarian military and political figure in Central and Southeastern Europe during the 15th century.
The Hungarian kingdom's golden age was during the reign of Matthias Corvinus (1458–1490), the son of John Hunyadi.

Hungarian nobility

Hungarian nobleHungarian noblemannobility
According to most contemporary sources, he was the son of a noble family of Romanian ancestry.
The talented military commander, John Hunyadi, was elected the sole regent in 1446.

Elizabeth Szilágyi

Erzsébet SzilágyiElisabeth SzilágyiElisabeth
Hunyadi's marriage with Elisabeth Szilágyi substantiates Chalkokondyles' report, because her father, Ladislaus was the Despot's familiaris around 1426.
Erzsébet Szilágyi (Szilágyi Erzsébet, c. 1410–1483) was a Hungarian noblewoman, spouse of John Hunyadi and mother of Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary.

John of Capistrano

Giovanni da CapistranoCapistranoSt. John Capistran
On the other hand, John of Capistrano writes, in a letter of 1456, that Hunyadi started his military career serving under Nicholas Újlaki.
Famous as a preacher, theologian, and inquisitor, he earned himself the nickname 'the Soldier Saint' when in 1456 at age 70 he led a crusade against the invading Ottoman Empire at the siege of Belgrade with the Hungarian military commander John Hunyadi.

Vlad II Dracul

Vlad DraculDraculVlad II
In the same year, Ottoman troops—supported by Vlad II Dracul, Prince of Wallachia—made an incursion into Transylvania, plundering Hermannstadt/Nagyszeben, Gyulafehérvár (present-day Alba Iulia, Romania) and other towns.
John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania, came to Wallachia to convince Vlad to join a crusade against the Ottomans in 1441.

Władysław III of Poland

Władysław IIIWładysław III of VarnaVladislaus I
He actively took part in the civil war between the partisans of Wladislas I and the minor Ladislaus V, two claimants to the throne of Hungary in the early 1440s, on behalf of the former.
Despite their alleged forthcoming help, the Venetian fleet carried the Turkish army from Asia into Europe but failed to sail to Varna, a surprising move that Władysław and his most senior military commander John Hunyadi failed to anticipate.

Densuș

DensusDensuşȘtei
According to historian László Makkai, John Hunyadi's mother was a member of the Muzsina (or Mușina) kenez family from Demsus (Densuș, Romania), but Pop refuses the identification of the Morzsina and Muzsina families.
One of the descendants of this family, Elisabeta de Margina, married John Hunyadi.

Athleta Christi

Athlete of Christathlete of Godchampion of Christ
This Athleta Christi (Christ's Champion), as Pope Pius II referred to him, died some three weeks after his triumph at Nándorfehérvár/Belgrade, falling to an epidemic that had broken out in the crusader camp.

Battle of Nish (1443)

Battle of NišbattleNiš
He captured Kruševac, Niš and Sofia.
At the Battle of Niš (Battle of Nish) (early November, 1443), crusaders led by John Hunyadi, captured the Ottoman stronghold of Nish (now Niš, Serbia) and defeated three armies of the Ottoman Empire.

John Hunyadi, Ban of Severin

his younger brother (who was his namesake)John the younger
A royal charter issued on this day mentions Hunyadi, Hunyadi's two brothers (John the younger and Voyk) and their uncle Radol, but does not refer to their father.
John Hunyadi, Jr. (c. 1419 – 1440 or 1441) was a Hungarian noble and knight banneret from the House of Hunyadi, younger brother of regent John Hunyadi as the second son of Vajk (Voyk) and Erzsébet (Elizabeth) Morzsinai (Morsina/Marsina).

Békésszentandrás

In short, Sigismund granted Hunyadi further domains, including Békésszentandrás, and Hódmezővásárhely, each incorporating about 10 villages.
Around 1436 King Sigismund donated it to his Knight János Hunyadi.

Belgrade

Belgrade, SerbiaBeogradBelgrad
This Athleta Christi (Christ's Champion), as Pope Pius II referred to him, died some three weeks after his triumph at Nándorfehérvár/Belgrade, falling to an epidemic that had broken out in the crusader camp. After being victorious in the Battle of Kunovica, they returned to Belgrade in January and Buda in February 1444.
As the city presented an obstacle to the Ottoman advance into Hungary and further, over 100,000 Ottoman soldiers besieged it in 1456, in which the Christian army led by the Hungarian General John Hunyadi successfully defended it.

List of rulers of Wallachia

PrincePrince of WallachiaVoivode of Wallachia
In the same year, Ottoman troops—supported by Vlad II Dracul, Prince of Wallachia—made an incursion into Transylvania, plundering Hermannstadt/Nagyszeben, Gyulafehérvár (present-day Alba Iulia, Romania) and other towns.

Battle of Kunovica

Kunovica
After being victorious in the Battle of Kunovica, they returned to Belgrade in January and Buda in February 1444.
The Battle of Kunovica or Battle at Kunovitsa was the battle between crusaders led by John Hunyadi and armies of the Ottoman Empire which took place on 2 or 5 January 1444 near mountain Kunovica (Suva Planina) between Pirot and Niš.