John Locke

LockeLockeanLocke, JohnLockean individualismHon. John LockeLockean liberalismLockean mindLocke’sMr. Lockeof the same name
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".wikipedia
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Classical liberalism

classical liberalliberalclassical liberals
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
Notable individuals whose ideas contributed to classical liberalism include John Locke, Jean-Baptiste Say, Thomas Robert Malthus, and David Ricardo.

Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe Enlightenment18th-century philosophy
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
Earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Bacon, Descartes, Locke, and Spinoza.

Liberalism

liberalliberalssocially liberal
His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.
Philosopher John Locke is often credited with founding liberalism as a distinct tradition, arguing that each man has a natural right to life, liberty and property, adding that governments must not violate these rights based on the social contract.

Empiricism

empiricistempiricalempirically
Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. Contrary to Cartesian philosophy based on pre-existing concepts, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived from sense perception.
For example, John Locke held that some knowledge (e.g. knowledge of God's existence) could be arrived at through intuition and reasoning alone.

David Hume

HumeHumeanHume, David
Locke's theory of mind is often cited as the origin of modern conceptions of identity and the self, figuring prominently in the work of later philosophers such as David Hume, Rousseau, and Immanuel Kant.
Hume's empiricist approach to philosophy places him with John Locke, George Berkeley, Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes as a British Empiricist.

Consciousness

consciousconsciouslyhuman consciousness
Locke was the first to define the self through a continuity of consciousness.
Western philosophers, since the time of Descartes and Locke, have struggled to comprehend the nature of consciousness and identify its essential properties.

Social contract

social contract theorycontractariancontractarianism
Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory.
Prominent of 17th- and 18th-century theorists of social contract and natural rights include Hugo Grotius (1625), Thomas Hobbes (1651), Samuel von Pufendorf (1673), John Locke (1689), Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762), and Immanuel Kant (1797), each approaching the concept of political authority differently.

Innatism

innate ideasinnate ideainnate knowledge
Contrary to Cartesian philosophy based on pre-existing concepts, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived from sense perception.
Innatism is a philosophical and epistemological doctrine that holds that the mind is born with ideas/knowledge, and that therefore the mind is not a "blank slate" at birth, as early empiricists such as John Locke claimed.

Mind

mentalhuman mindmental content
He postulated that, at birth, the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasa.
Important philosophers of mind include Plato, Patanjali, Descartes, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Searle, Dennett, Fodor, Nagel, and Chalmers.

Alexander Popham

AlexanderPopham
In 1647, Locke was sent to the prestigious Westminster School in London under the sponsorship of Alexander Popham, a member of Parliament and his father's former commander.
He was patron of the philosopher John Locke.

Political philosophy

political theorypolitical philosopherpolitical theorist
His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy.
During the Enlightenment period, new theories about what the human was and is and about the definition of reality and the way it was perceived, along with the discovery of other societies in the Americas, and the changing needs of political societies (especially in the wake of the English Civil War, the American Revolution, the French Revolution), and the Haitian Revolution led to new questions and insights by such thinkers as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Montesquieu and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

Essay Concerning Human UnderstandingEssayEssay concerning the Human Understanding
Sydenham had a major effect on Locke's natural philosophical thinking – an effect that would become evident in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is a work by John Locke concerning the foundation of human knowledge and understanding.

Christ Church, Oxford

Christ ChurchChrist Church CollegeStudent
After completing studies there, he was admitted to Christ Church, Oxford, in the autumn of 1652 at the age of twenty.
Christ Church has many notable alumni including thirteen British prime ministers (more than any other Oxbridge college), King Edward VII, King William II of the Netherlands, seventeen Archbishops, writers Lewis Carroll (Alice in Wonderland) and W.H. Auden, philosopher John Locke, and scientist Robert Hooke.

René Descartes

DescartesCartesianDescartes, René
Contrary to Cartesian philosophy based on pre-existing concepts, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived from sense perception.
Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Spinoza and Leibniz, and opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume.

Two Treatises of Government

Second Treatise of GovernmentSecond Treatise on GovernmentTwo Treatises
Around this time, most likely at Shaftesbury's prompting, Locke composed the bulk of the Two Treatises of Government.
The Latter Is an Essay Concerning The True Original, Extent, and End of Civil Government') is a work of political philosophy published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke.

Tabula rasa

blank slatetabulae rasaeblank tablet
He postulated that, at birth, the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasa.
The Latin translation of his philosophical novel, entitled Philosophus Autodidactus, published by Edward Pococke the Younger in 1671, had an influence on John Locke's formulation of tabula rasa in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.

A Letter Concerning Toleration

Letter Concerning Toleration
The bulk of Locke's publishing took place upon his return from exile – his aforementioned Essay Concerning Human Understanding, the Two Treatises of Civil Government and A Letter Concerning Toleration all appearing in quick succession.
A Letter Concerning Toleration by John Locke was originally published in 1689.

Robert Filmer

Sir Robert FilmerFilmer
The work is now viewed as a more general argument against absolute monarchy (particularly as espoused by Robert Filmer and Thomas Hobbes) and for individual consent as the basis of political legitimacy.
His best known work, Patriarcha, published posthumously in 1680, was the target of numerous Whig attempts at rebuttal, including Algernon Sidney's Discourses Concerning Government, James Tyrrell's Patriarcha Non Monarcha and John Locke's Two Treatises of Government.

American Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary WarRevolutionary
His writings influenced Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries.
John Locke's (1632–1704) ideas on liberty influenced the political thinking behind the revolution, especially through his indirect influence on English writers such as John Trenchard, Thomas Gordon, and Benjamin Hoadly, whose political ideas in turn had a strong influence on the American revolutionaries.

Legitimacy (political)

legitimacypolitical legitimacylegitimate
The work is now viewed as a more general argument against absolute monarchy (particularly as espoused by Robert Filmer and Thomas Hobbes) and for individual consent as the basis of political legitimacy.
The Enlightenment-era British social philosopher John Locke (1632–1704) said that political legitimacy derives from popular explicit and implicit consent of the governed: "The argument of the [Second] Treatise is that the government is not legitimate unless it is carried on with the consent of the governed."

Voltaire

VoltairianFrançois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)Voltairianism
His writings influenced Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries.
Although influenced by Socinian works such as the Bibliotheca Fratrum Polonorum, Voltaire's skeptical attitude to the Bible separated him from Unitarian theologians like Fausto Sozzini or even Biblical-political writers like John Locke.

Richard Lower (physician)

Richard LowerDr. Richard LowerLower, Richard
Through his friend Richard Lower, whom he knew from the Westminster School, Locke was introduced to medicine and the experimental philosophy being pursued at other universities and in the Royal Society, of which he eventually became a member. He obtained a bachelor of medicine in February 1675, having studied medicine extensively during his time at Oxford and worked with such noted scientists and thinkers as Robert Boyle, Thomas Willis, Robert Hooke and Richard Lower.
Lower was born in St Tudy, Cornwall and studied at Westminster School where he met John Locke, and Christ Church, Oxford where he met Thomas Willis.

Psychology of self

selfsense of selfSelfhood
Locke's theory of mind is often cited as the origin of modern conceptions of identity and the self, figuring prominently in the work of later philosophers such as David Hume, Rousseau, and Immanuel Kant.
One view of the Self, following from John Locke, sees it as a product of episodic memory.

United States Declaration of Independence

Declaration of IndependenceindependenceAmerican Declaration of Independence
His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.
English political theorist John Locke is usually cited as one of the primary influences, a man whom Jefferson called one of "the three greatest men that have ever lived".

Thomas Willis

Dr. Thomas WillisDr Thomas WillisSir Thomas Willis
He obtained a bachelor of medicine in February 1675, having studied medicine extensively during his time at Oxford and worked with such noted scientists and thinkers as Robert Boyle, Thomas Willis, Robert Hooke and Richard Lower.
Besides Hooke, others in the group were Nathaniel Hodges, John Locke, Richard Lower, Henry Stubbe and John Ward.