John Marshall

Chief Justice MarshallMarshallChief Justice John MarshallMarshall courtMarshall, John[Chief Justice John] MarshallJohn C. MarshallJohn Marshall AwardJustice John MarshallJustice Marshall
John Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835.wikipedia
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Supreme Court of the United States

United States Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtSupreme Court
Marshall remains the longest-serving chief justice and fourth-longest serving justice in Supreme Court history, and he is widely regarded as one of the most influential justices to ever sit on the Supreme Court.
The court's power and prestige grew substantially during the Marshall Court (1801–1835).

Marshall Court

predecessorSupreme Court under Chief Justice Marshallthe Marshall Court
The 1803 case of Marbury v. Madison presented the first major case heard by the Marshall Court.
The Marshall Court refers to the Supreme Court of the United States from 1801 to 1835, when John Marshall served as the fourth Chief Justice of the United States.

Judicial review

judicial oversightreviewjudicially reviewed
In his opinion for the court, Marshall upheld the principle of judicial review, whereby courts could strike down federal and state laws if they conflicted with the Constitution.
In contrast to legislative supremacy, the idea of separation of powers was first introduced by Montesquieu; it was later institutionalized in the United States by the Supreme Court ruling in Marbury v. Madison under the court of John Marshall.

List of United States Supreme Court Justices by time in office

List of U.S. Supreme Court Justices by time in officelongest-serving justice in Supreme Court historybriefest tenure
Marshall remains the longest-serving chief justice and fourth-longest serving justice in Supreme Court history, and he is widely regarded as one of the most influential justices to ever sit on the Supreme Court.

Federalist Party

FederalistFederalistsF
After returning to the United States, Marshall won election to the United States House of Representatives and emerged as a leader of the Federalist Party in Congress.
After losing executive power, they decisively shaped Supreme Court policy for another three decades through Chief Justice John Marshall.

XYZ Affair

failed diplomatic attemptsLucien HautevalM. Hauteval
In what became known as the XYZ Affair, the government of France refused to open negotiations unless the United States agreed to pay bribes.
The diplomats, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry, were approached through informal channels by agents of the French foreign minister, Talleyrand, who demanded bribes and a loan before formal negotiations could begin.

Chief Justice of the United States

Chief JusticeChief Justice of the United States Supreme CourtChief Justice of the Supreme Court
John Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835.
Additionally, in December 1800, former chief justice John Jay was nominated and confirmed to the position a second time, but ultimately declined it, opening the way for the appointment of John Marshall.

Thomas Marshall (Virginia politician, born 1730)

Thomas MarshallColonel Thomas Marshall
His parents were Thomas Marshall and Mary Randolph Keith, the granddaughter of politician Thomas Randolph of Tuckahoe and a second cousin of U.S. President Thomas Jefferson.
Thomas Marshall (Washington parish, Westmoreland County, Virginia, 2 April 1730 – Mason County, Kentucky, 22 June 1802) was a United States soldier and politician, best known as the father of Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court John Marshall.

Constitution of the United States

United States ConstitutionU.S. ConstitutionConstitution
Marshall favored the ratification of the United States Constitution, and he played a major role in Virginia's ratification of that document.
Chief Justice Marshall clarified: "Let the end be legitimate, let it be within the scope of the Constitution, and all means which are appropriate, which are plainly adapted to that end, which are not prohibited, but consist with the letter and spirit of the Constitution, are Constitutional."

George Wythe

WytheWythe, George
Marshall read law under the famous Chancellor George Wythe at the College of William and Mary, and he was admitted to the state bar in 1780.
Wythe taught and was a mentor to Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, Henry Clay and other men who became American leaders.

Randolph family of Virginia

Randolph familyRandolphsRandolph
Despite her ancestry, Mary was shunned by the Randolph family because her mother, Mary Isham Randolph, had eloped with a man believed beneath her station in life.
John Marshall, great-grandson of Thomas Randolph of Tuckahoe, was the 4th Chief Justice of the United States.

Democratic-Republican Party

Democratic-RepublicanDemocratic-RepublicansRepublican
Marshall's holding avoided direct conflict with the executive branch, which was led by Democratic-Republican President Thomas Jefferson.
In the final months of his presidency, Adams reached an agreement with France to end the Quasi-War and appointed several Federalist judges, including Chief Justice John Marshall.

James Monroe

MonroePresident MonroePresident James Monroe
With the exception of one year of formal schooling, during which time he befriended future president James Monroe, Marshall did not receive a formal education.
During this time, Monroe formed a lifelong friendship with an older classmate, John Marshall.

Marbury v. Madison

Marbury v Madisonjudicial precedentjudicial review
The 1803 case of Marbury v. Madison presented the first major case heard by the Marshall Court.
In an opinion written by Chief Justice John Marshall, the Court held firstly that Madison's refusal to deliver Marbury's commission was illegal, and secondly that it was normally proper for a court in such situations to order the government official in question to deliver the commission.

William Blackstone

BlackstoneSir William BlackstoneBlackstone, Sir William
Encouraged by his parents, the young Marshall read widely, reading works such as William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England and Alexander Pope's An Essay on Man.
In the United States, the Commentaries influenced Alexander Hamilton, John Marshall, James Wilson, John Jay, John Adams, James Kent and Abraham Lincoln, and remain frequently cited in Supreme Court decisions.

John Marshall Birthplace Park

log cabinwhere
John Marshall was born on September 24, 1755 in a log cabin in Germantown, a rural community on the Virginia frontier, close to present-day near Midland, Fauquier County.
The park provides access to a dedication monument at or near the birthplace of John Marshall.

Commerce Clause

interstate commerceInterstate Commerce Clauseinterstate
Marshall's opinion in Gibbons v. Ogden established that the Commerce Clause bars states from restricting navigation.
Chief Justice John Marshall ruled in Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) that the power to regulate interstate commerce also included the power to regulate interstate navigation: "Commerce, undoubtedly is traffic, but it is something more—it is intercourse ... [A] power to regulate navigation is as expressly granted, as if that term had been added to the word 'commerce' ... [T]he power of Congress does not stop at the jurisdictional lines of the several states. It would be a very useless power if it could not pass those lines."

Germantown, Virginia

Germantown
John Marshall was born on September 24, 1755 in a log cabin in Germantown, a rural community on the Virginia frontier, close to present-day near Midland, Fauquier County.
Chief Justice John Marshall was born in Germantown.

Midland, Virginia

Midland
John Marshall was born on September 24, 1755 in a log cabin in Germantown, a rural community on the Virginia frontier, close to present-day near Midland, Fauquier County.
Midland is the closest community to the birthplace of John Marshall, the longest-serving Chief Justice in U.S. Supreme Court history.

3rd Virginia Regiment

3rdThird Virginia RegimentWeedon's Regiment
After the 1775 Battles of Lexington and Concord, Thomas and John Marshall volunteered for service in the 3rd Virginia Regiment.
Weedon was succeeded in command by Colonel Thomas Marshall, the father of Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall.

Thomas Jefferson

JeffersonPresident JeffersonJeffersonian
Marshall's holding avoided direct conflict with the executive branch, which was led by Democratic-Republican President Thomas Jefferson.
Jefferson was sworn in by Chief Justice John Marshall at the new Capitol in Washington, D.C. on March 4, 1801.

6th United States Congress

6thSixth6th Congress
After winning the election, Marshall was sworn into office when the 6th Congress convened in December 1799.

John Adams

AdamsJohnPresident John Adams
Prior to joining the Supreme Court, Marshall served as the United States Secretary of State under President John Adams.
The peace commission that Adams appointed consisted of John Marshall, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney and Elbridge Gerry.

Bushrod Washington

Justice WashingtonWashingtonGeorge Washington
During the campaign, Marshall declined appointment as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, and President Adams instead appointed Marshall's friend, Bushrod Washington.
On the Supreme Court, he was a staunch ally of Chief Justice John Marshall.

Fletcher v. Peck

In Fletcher v. Peck and Dartmouth College v. Woodward, the court invalidated state actions because they violated the Contract Clause.
John Marshall wrote that the sale was a binding contract, which under Article I, Section 10, Clause I (the Contract Clause) of the Constitution, cannot be invalidated even if it is illegally secured.