John Wesley Hyatt

Hyatt, John WesleyJohn and Isaiah Hyatt
John Wesley Hyatt (November 28, 1837 – May 10, 1920) was an American inventor.wikipedia
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Nitrocellulose

nitrate filmguncottoncellulose nitrate
Aided by his brother Isaiah, Hyatt experimented with Parkesine, a hardened form of nitrocellulose.
In 1868, American inventor John Wesley Hyatt developed a plastic material he named Celluloid, improving on Parkes' invention by plasticizing the nitrocellulose with camphor so it could be processed into finished form and used as a photographic film.

Billiard ball

billiard ballscue ballballs
Among the most well-known of his inventions was that of a substitute for ivory to produce billiard balls.
Although not the first artificial substance to be used for the balls (e.g. Sorel cement, invented in 1867, was marketed as an artificial ivory), John Wesley Hyatt invented a composition material in 1869 called nitrocellulose for billiard balls (US patent 50359, the first American patent for billiard balls).

Celluloid

ParkesineXylonitefilm
Aided by his brother Isaiah, Hyatt experimented with Parkesine, a hardened form of nitrocellulose. He is mainly known for simplifying the production of celluloid, the first industrial plastic.
In the 1860s, an American, John Wesley Hyatt, acquired Parkes's patent and began experimenting with cellulose nitrate with the intention of manufacturing billiard balls, which until that time were made from ivory.

Alexander Parkes

Parkes, Alexander
Parkesine had been invented by the Englishman Alexander Parkes in 1862, and is considered the first true plastic, although it was not a success as a commercial or industrial product.

Injection moulding

injection moldinginjection moldedinjection-molded
Hyatt's other patented inventions include the first injection moulding machine, sugarcane milling, juice extraction, roller bearings, and a multiple-stitch sewing machine.
American inventor John Wesley Hyatt, together with his brother Isaiah, patented the first injection moulding machine in 1872.

Daniel Spill

Hyatt's celluloid discovery went into court in a patent dispute with English inventor, Daniel Spill, who had patented essentially the same compound in the UK as "Xylonite".
Spill's later years were largely occupied in a long legal battle in America with John Wesley Hyatt and the Celluloid Manufacturing Company for infringement of his patents.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
John Wesley Hyatt (November 28, 1837 – May 10, 1920) was an American inventor. Hyatt's eventual result was a commercially viable way of producing solid, stable nitrocellulose, which he patented in the United States in 1869 as "Celluloid" (US patent 50359; now a genericized trademark).

Plastic

plasticsadditivesadditive
He is mainly known for simplifying the production of celluloid, the first industrial plastic.

Perkin Medal

Perkin Medal Award
Hyatt, a Perkin Medal recipient, is included in the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

National Inventors Hall of Fame

National Inventor's Hall of FameCollegiate Inventors CompetitionHall of Fame
Hyatt, a Perkin Medal recipient, is included in the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

Sugarcane

sugar canesugarsugar-cane
He had nearly 238 patents to his credit including improves sugar cane mills, and water filtration devices.

Starkey, New York

StarkeyTown of Starkey
Hyatt was born in Starkey, New York, and began working as a printer when he was 16.

Patent

patentspatent lawpatented
Later, he invented plastic, receiving several hundred patents.

Ivory

elephant ivorymammoth ivoryivories
Among the most well-known of his inventions was that of a substitute for ivory to produce billiard balls.

English people

EnglishEnglishmanEnglishmen
Parkesine had been invented by the Englishman Alexander Parkes in 1862, and is considered the first true plastic, although it was not a success as a commercial or industrial product.

Collodion

wet plate collodioncollodiumwet plate
Liquid nitrocellulose, or collodion, had been used as early as 1851 by another English inventor, Frederick Scott Archer, in photographic applications; it had also been used extensively as a quick-drying film to protect the fingertips of printers.

Frederick Scott Archer

Fred ArcherArcher, Frederick Scott
Liquid nitrocellulose, or collodion, had been used as early as 1851 by another English inventor, Frederick Scott Archer, in photographic applications; it had also been used extensively as a quick-drying film to protect the fingertips of printers.

Printer (publishing)

printerprintersprinting house
Liquid nitrocellulose, or collodion, had been used as early as 1851 by another English inventor, Frederick Scott Archer, in photographic applications; it had also been used extensively as a quick-drying film to protect the fingertips of printers.

Generic trademark

genericized trademarkgenericizedgeneric
Hyatt's eventual result was a commercially viable way of producing solid, stable nitrocellulose, which he patented in the United States in 1869 as "Celluloid" (US patent 50359; now a genericized trademark).

Albany, New York

AlbanyAlbany, NYCity
In 1870 Hyatt formed the Albany Dental Plate Company to produce, among other things, billiard balls, false teeth, and piano keys, Hyatt’s Celluloid Manufacturing Company was established in Albany, New York in 1872 and moved to Newark, New Jersey in 1873.

Newark, New Jersey

NewarkNewark, NJCity of Newark
In 1870 Hyatt formed the Albany Dental Plate Company to produce, among other things, billiard balls, false teeth, and piano keys, Hyatt’s Celluloid Manufacturing Company was established in Albany, New York in 1872 and moved to Newark, New Jersey in 1873.

United Kingdom

BritishUKBritain
Hyatt's celluloid discovery went into court in a patent dispute with English inventor, Daniel Spill, who had patented essentially the same compound in the UK as "Xylonite".

Rolling-element bearing

roller bearingroller bearingsball bearings
Hyatt's other patented inventions include the first injection moulding machine, sugarcane milling, juice extraction, roller bearings, and a multiple-stitch sewing machine.

Sewing machine

sewing machinesmachinefoot
Hyatt's other patented inventions include the first injection moulding machine, sugarcane milling, juice extraction, roller bearings, and a multiple-stitch sewing machine.

Harrison, New Jersey

HarrisonHarrison, NJHarrison Town
John Wesley Hyatt founded the Hyatt Roller Bearing Company in 1892 in Harrison, New Jersey.