Joint

jointsarticulationarticulatedarticulatesarticular surfaceintra-articulararticulationsarticular facetarticulatearticular facets
A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.wikipedia
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Knee

knee injuryknee jointknees
Some joints, such as the knee, elbow, and shoulder, are self-lubricating, almost frictionless, and are able to withstand compression and maintain heavy loads while still executing smooth and precise movements.
In humans and other primates, the knee joins the thigh with the leg and consists of two joints: one between the femur and tibia (tibiofemoral joint), and one between the femur and patella (patellofemoral joint).

Shoulder

shouldersShoulder fractureglenohumeral joint
Some joints, such as the knee, elbow, and shoulder, are self-lubricating, almost frictionless, and are able to withstand compression and maintain heavy loads while still executing smooth and precise movements.
The articulations between the bones of the shoulder make up the shoulder joints.

Cartilage

cartilaginouscartilagescartilagenous
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.

Bone

cortical bonebone tissuecancellous bone
A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.
They provide a frame to keep the body supported, and an attachment point for skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints, which function together to generate and transfer forces so that individual body parts or the whole body can be manipulated in three-dimensional space (the interaction between bone and muscle is studied in biomechanics).

Synovial joint

synovialsynovial jointsjoint space
They are the most common and most movable type of joint in the body of a mammal.

Synarthrosis

synarthrosessynarthrodialsynarthrodial joints
A synarthrosis is a type of joint which permits very little or no movement under normal conditions.

Amphiarthrosis

amphiarthrodialamphiarthroses
Amphiarthrosis is a type of continuous, slightly movable joint.

Intervertebral disc

nucleus pulposusdiscanulus fibrosus
Each disc forms a fibrocartilaginous joint (a symphysis), to allow slight movement of the vertebrae, to act as a ligament to hold the vertebrae together, and to function as a shock absorber for the spine.

Skull

craniumcranialhuman skull
Other joints such as sutures between the bones of the skull permit very little movement (only during birth) in order to protect the brain and the sense organs.
Except for the mandible, all of the bones of the skull are joined together by sutures—synarthrodial (immovable) joints formed by bony ossification, with Sharpey's fibres permitting some flexibility.

Hinge joint

ginglymushinge-jointginglymoid
A hinge joint (ginglymus) is a bone joint in which the articular surfaces are molded to each other in such a manner as to permit motion only in one plane.

Trochlea

trochleartrochlear surface
Types of articular surfaces include trochlear surfaces.

Hip

hip jointhipship-joint
coxae''), is the joint between the femur and acetabulum of the pelvis and its primary function is to support the weight of the body in both static (e.g. standing) and dynamic (e.g. walking or running) postures.

Sternoclavicular joint

sternoclavicular articulationSC jointsternoclavicular
The sternoclavicular joint or sternoclavicular articulation is the joint between the manubrium of the sternum and the clavicle bone.

Sacroiliac joint

sacroiliacSI jointsacro-iliac
The sacroiliac joint or SI joint (SIJ) is the joint between the sacrum and the ilium bones of the pelvis, which are connected by strong ligaments.

Foot

feetinstepft
The human foot is a strong and complex mechanical structure containing 26 bones, 33 joints (20 of which are actively articulated), and more than a hundred muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

Articular disk

articular disc
The articular disk (or disc) is a thin, oval plate of fibrocartilage present in several joints which separates synovial cavities.

Arthritis

arthriticjoint inflammationarthritic changes
A joint disorder is termed arthropathy, and when involving inflammation of one or more joints the disorder is called arthritis.
Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.

Arthropathy

joint diseasearthropathiesDiabetic arthropathy
A joint disorder is termed arthropathy, and when involving inflammation of one or more joints the disorder is called arthritis.
An arthropathy is a disease of a joint.

Degrees of freedom (mechanics)

degrees of freedomdegree of freedompitch
Another classification is according to the degrees of freedom allowed, and distinguished between joints with one, two or three degrees of freedom.
A specific type of linkage is the open kinematic chain, where a set of rigid links are connected at joints; a joint may provide one DOF (hinge/sliding), or two (cylindrical).

Septic arthritis

infectious arthritisjoint infectionjoint infections
Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection.
Septic arthritis, also known as joint infection or infectious arthritis, is the invasion of a joint by an infectious agent resulting in joint inflammation.

Rheumatoid arthritis

rheumatoidrheumatic arthritisarthritis, rheumatoid
Other forms of arthritis are rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, which are autoimmune diseases in which the body is attacking itself.
RA primarily affects joints, but it also affects other organs in more than 15–25% of cases.

Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfections
The most common form of arthritis, osteoarthritis (also known as degenerative joint disease), occurs following trauma to the joint, following an infection of the joint or simply as a result of aging and the deterioration of articular cartilage.
As an example, several staphylococcal species remain harmless on the skin, but, when present in a normally sterile space, such as in the capsule of a joint or the peritoneum, multiply without resistance and cause harm.

Joint replacement

artificial jointjoint replacement surgeryjoint replacements
Replacement arthroplasty (from Greek arthron, joint, limb, articulate, + plassein, to form, mould, forge, feign, make an image of), or joint replacement surgery, is a procedure of orthopedic surgery in which an arthritic or dysfunctional joint surface is replaced with an orthopedic prosthesis.

Osteoarthritis

arthrosisdegenerative joint diseaseKnee osteoarthritis
The most common form of arthritis, osteoarthritis (also known as degenerative joint disease), occurs following trauma to the joint, following an infection of the joint or simply as a result of aging and the deterioration of articular cartilage.
The typical changes seen on X-ray include: joint space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis (increased bone formation around the joint), subchondral cyst formation, and osteophytes.

Human musculoskeletal system

musculoskeletalmusculoskeletal systemlocomotor
It is made up of the bones of the skeleton, muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints, and other connective tissue that supports and binds tissues and organs together.