Joint-stock company

joint stock companyJSCjoint stockjoint-stockjoint-stock companiesjoint stock companiesstock corporationClosed joint-stock companystock companytrading house
A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.wikipedia
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Limited company

LimitedLtdlimited liability companies
Therefore, joint-stock companies are commonly known as corporations or limited companies.
It is also common for a distinction to be made between the publicly tradable companies of the plc type (for example, the German Aktiengesellschaft (AG), British PLC, Czech a.s., Italian S.p.A., Hungarian Zrt.

East India Company

British East India CompanyHonourable East India CompanyEnglish East India Company
The much more famous, wealthy and powerful English (later British) East India Company was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intention of favouring trade privileges in India.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), or the British East India Company, and informally known as John Company, Company Bahadur, or simply The Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company.

Muscovy Company

Russia CompanyRussianCompany of Merchant Adventurers
Muscovy Company, which had a monopoly on trade between Moscow and London, was chartered soon after in 1555.
It was the first major chartered joint stock company, the precursor of the type of business that would soon flourish in England, and became closely associated with such famous names as Henry Hudson and William Baffin.

Stock

equitiesequityshares
A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.
These companies were similar to modern corporations, or joint-stock companies more specifically, in a couple of aspects.

Economy of the Song dynasty

first developed in ChinaSong DynastyChinese
The earliest records of joint stock company can be found in China during the Tang dynasty (618–907) and the Song Dynasty (960–1279).
...set up partnerships and joint stock companies, with a separation of owners (shareholders) and managers.

Corporate law

business lawcompany lawcorporate
In modern-day corporate law, the existence of a joint-stock company is often synonymous with incorporation (possession of legal personality separate from shareholders) and limited liability (shareholders are liable for the company's debts only to the value of the money they have invested in the company).
Originally, traders in these entities traded stock on their own account, but later the members came to operate on joint account and with joint stock, and the new Joint stock company was born.

London Company

Virginia Company of LondonVirginia CompanyGreat Charter
The first joint-stock companies to be implemented in the Americas were the London Company and the Plymouth Company.
The London Company (also called the Virginia Company of London) was an English joint-stock company established in 1606 by royal charter by King James I with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America.

Bazacle Milling Company

Bazacle Mills
Around 1250 in France at Toulouse, 96 shares of the Société des Moulins du Bazacle, or Bazacle Milling Company were traded at a value that depended on the profitability of the mills the society owned, making it probably the first company of its kind in history.
It was the first recorded European joint-stock company.

Plymouth Company

Virginia Company of Plymouthcolonisation of the New WorldPlymouth
The first joint-stock companies to be implemented in the Americas were the London Company and the Plymouth Company.
The Plymouth Company was an English joint-stock company founded in 1606 by James I of England.

Dutch East India Company

VOCDutch East Indies CompanyDutch
Soon afterwards, in 1602, the Dutch East India Company issued shares that were made tradable on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange.
This was the usual set-up for Dutch joint-stock companies at the time.

Joint Stock Companies Act 1844

Joint Stock Companies Act of 1844Joint Stock Companies ActStock Company Act
Consequently, registration and incorporation of companies, without specific legislation, was introduced by the Joint Stock Companies Act 1844.
c.110) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that expanded access to the incorporation of joint-stock companies.

Corporation

corporatecorporationsincorporated
Therefore, joint-stock companies are commonly known as corporations or limited companies.
In a joint-stock company the members are known as shareholders and each of their shares in the ownership, control, and profits of the corporation is determined by the portion of shares in the company that they own.

Hudson's Bay Company

Hudson’s Bay CompanyHBCHudson Bay Company
The oldest corporation in Canada is the Hudson's Bay Company; though its business has always been based in Canada, its Royal Charter was issued in England by King Charles II in 1670, and became a Canadian charter by amendment in 1970 when it moved its corporate headquarters from London to Canada.
It became operative for the outfit of 1780 and was the first joint-stock company in Canada and possibly North America.

Kabushiki gaisha

KKK.KK.K.
The predominant form is the Kabushiki gaisha, used by public corporations as well as smaller enterprises.
The term is often translated as "stock company", "joint-stock company" or "stock corporation".

Società per azioni

S.p.A.SpAcompany limited by shares
Italy recognizes three types of company limited by shares: the public limited company (società per azioni, or S.p.A.), the private limited company (società a responsabilità limitata, or S.r.l.), and the publicly traded partnership (società in accomandita per azioni, or S.a.p.a.).
Società per azioni (S.p.A. or SpA) is a form of corporation in Italy, meaning "company with shares" (although often translated as "joint-stock company", which may or may not be a limited liability entity).

Aktiengesellschaft

AGA.G.Limited company
Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Liechtenstein recognize two forms of company limited by shares: the Aktiengesellschaft (AG), analogous to public limited companies (or corporations in US/Can) in the English-speaking world, and the Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (GmbH), similar to the modern private limited company.
An English translation is thus "share company", or company limited by shares, or joint-stock company.

Massachusetts General Court

Great and General CourtMassachusetts legislatureGeneral Court
Founded in 1636, the second of Harvard’s two governing boards was incorporated by the Great and General Court of Massachusetts in 1650.
Much like other joint-stock companies of the time the first General Court was a meeting of shareholders, known as freemen.

Shareholder

shareholdersstockholderstockholders
A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.

Incorporation (business)

incorporatedincorporationincorporate
In modern-day corporate law, the existence of a joint-stock company is often synonymous with incorporation (possession of legal personality separate from shareholders) and limited liability (shareholders are liable for the company's debts only to the value of the money they have invested in the company).

Jurisdiction (area)

jurisdictionjurisdictionsstate
Some jurisdictions still provide the possibility of registering joint-stock companies without limited liability.

United Kingdom

BritishUKBritain
In the United Kingdom and in other countries that have adopted its model of company law, they are known as unlimited companies.

Unlimited company

unlimited liabilityunlimitedunlimited liability company
In the United Kingdom and in other countries that have adopted its model of company law, they are known as unlimited companies.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
In the United States, they are known simply as joint-stock companies.