Jonathan (1 Samuel)

JonathanJonathasYehonatan
Jonathan (Hebrew: Yəhōnāṯān or Yehonatan; or Yonatan) is a heroic figure in 1 Samuel in the Hebrew Bible.wikipedia
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Books of Samuel

1 Samuel2 SamuelSamuel
Jonathan (Hebrew: Yəhōnāṯān or Yehonatan; or Yonatan) is a heroic figure in 1 Samuel in the Hebrew Bible.
Saul's son and heir Jonathan befriends David and recognizes him as the rightful king.

Saul

King Saulbattle of GilboaKing Saul of Israel
A prince of the United Kingdom of Israel, he was the eldest son of King Saul as well as a close friend of David, who eventually succeeded Saul as king.
Saul married Ahinoam, daughter of Ahimaaz, with whom he sired four sons (Jonathan, Abinadab, Malchishua and Ish-bosheth) and two daughters (Merab and Michal).

David

King DavidDavid and GoliathDavidic
A prince of the United Kingdom of Israel, he was the eldest son of King Saul as well as a close friend of David, who eventually succeeded Saul as king.
He becomes a favorite of King Saul and a close friend of Saul's son Jonathan.

Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)

Kingdom of IsraelIsraelUnited Kingdom of Israel
A prince of the United Kingdom of Israel, he was the eldest son of King Saul as well as a close friend of David, who eventually succeeded Saul as king.
David and Saul become bitter enemies, at least from Saul's point of view, although sources describe Jonathan, Saul's son, and Michal, Saul's daughter, as assisting David to escape Saul, ultimately leading to a brief reconciliation before Saul's death.

David and Jonathan

JonathanDavidclose personal friendship
The story of David and Jonathan is introduced in chapter 18, where it says that "Jonathan became one in spirit with David, and he loved him as himself" (verse 1). Jonathan helps David escape from Saul, and asks him to show kindness to his family (1 Samuel 20:14–15); biblical scholar Joyce Baldwin suggests that this indicates that Jonathan recognised David as the future king. A homoerotic, chaste or otherwise, interpretation of the story of David and Jonathan has been adopted by some writers.
Jonathan was the son of Saul, king of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, and David was the son of Jesse of Bethlehem, of the tribe of Judah, and Jonathan's presumed rival for the crown.

Philistines

PhilistinePhilistiaPeleset
Jonathan first appears in the biblical narrative as the victor of Geba, a Philistine stronghold (1 Samuel 13), while in the following chapter he carries out a lone and secret attack on another Philistine garrison, demonstrating his "prowess and courage as a warrior."
Skirmish at Michmash, Philistines routed by Jonathan and his men.

Mount Gilboa

GilboaGilboa mountainsin the book of Samuel
Jonathan died at the battle of Mount Gilboa along with his father and brothers (1 Samuel 31).
In the Bible, King Saul, Israel's first King, led a charge against the Philistines at Mount Gilboa . The battle ends with the king falling on his own sword and Saul's sons, Jonathan, Abinadab, and Melchishua being killed in battle . King David, who hears about the tragedy after the battle, curses the mountain:

Honey

bee honeyforest honeyhonied
However, he eats honey without knowing that his father had said, "Cursed be any man who eats food before evening comes" (1 Samuel 14:24).
In the Books of Samuel, Jonathan is forced into a confrontation with his father King Saul after eating honey in violation of a rash oath Saul has made.

Mephibosheth

Jonathan was the father of Mephibosheth, to whom David showed special kindness for Jonathan's sake (2 Samuel 9).
According to the Books of Samuel of the Tanakh, Mephibosheth was the son of Jonathan, grandson of King Saul and father of Mica or Micha.

Hebrew language

HebrewHeb.Hebrew-language
Jonathan (Hebrew: Yəhōnāṯān or Yehonatan; or Yonatan) is a heroic figure in 1 Samuel in the Hebrew Bible.

Hebrew Bible

biblicalBibleHebrew
Jonathan (Hebrew: Yəhōnāṯān or Yehonatan; or Yonatan) is a heroic figure in 1 Samuel in the Hebrew Bible.

Archery

archerarchersbowmen
Like his father, he was a man of great strength and swiftness ( 2 Samuel 1:23), and he excelled in archery (, 2 Samuel 1:22) and slinging ( 1 Chronicles 12:2).

Geba (city)

GebaGeba, GabaGeva
Jonathan first appears in the biblical narrative as the victor of Geba, a Philistine stronghold (1 Samuel 13), while in the following chapter he carries out a lone and secret attack on another Philistine garrison, demonstrating his "prowess and courage as a warrior."

Joyce Baldwin

The story of David and Jonathan is introduced in chapter 18, where it says that "Jonathan became one in spirit with David, and he loved him as himself" (verse 1). Jonathan helps David escape from Saul, and asks him to show kindness to his family (1 Samuel 20:14–15); biblical scholar Joyce Baldwin suggests that this indicates that Jonathan recognised David as the future king.

Ahinoam

While this is an "idiom of insult directed at Jonathan", some scholars see in this verse support for the theory that Ahinoam, the wife of Saul was also the wife of David.

Jon D. Levenson

Jon LevensonLevenson
Jon Levenson and Baruch Halpern suggest that the phrase "to the shame of your mother's nakedness" suggests "David's theft of Saul's wife".

Baruch Halpern

HalpernHalpern, Baruch
Jon Levenson and Baruch Halpern suggest that the phrase "to the shame of your mother's nakedness" suggests "David's theft of Saul's wife".

Homoeroticism

homoeroticsame-sex lovehomo-erotic
A homoerotic, chaste or otherwise, interpretation of the story of David and Jonathan has been adopted by some writers.

André Gide

GideAndre GideGide, André
André Gide's play Saul portrays Jonathan as "a beautiful, fainting, effeminate creature, in a state of hysterical rapture over David’s physical strength."

The Lutterworth Press

Lutterworth
*Adam Green, King Saul, The True History of the First Messiah (Lutterworth Press, 2007) – includes a critical literary reassessment of the character and personality of Jonathan and his relationships with Saul and David.

Saul (Handel)

SaulDead MarchDead March" from ''Saul
The work, which Handel composed in 1738, includes the famous "Dead March", a funeral anthem for Saul and his son Jonathan, and some of the composer's most dramatic choral pieces.

Jonathon

Jonathan (1 Samuel), son of King Saul and friend of David

Jonathan (name)

JonathanYonatan
The earliest known use of the name was in the Bible, one Jonathan was the son of King Saul, a close friend of David.

Christianity and sexual orientation

changing positions on sexual orientationChristianitysexual orientation
Examples cited are Ruth and her mother-in-law Naomi, Daniel and the court official Ashpenaz, and, most famously, David and King Saul's son Jonathan.

List of minor Old Testament figures, A–K

AdahHobabBecher
Based on interpretations of I Chronicles 11:34 and II Samuel 23:32–33 Agee was either the grandfather of Jonathan or his brother.