The 'Ain Ghazal Statues (c. 7250 BC) of Amman are some of the oldest human statues ever found.
The Mesha Stele (c. 840 BC) records the glory of Mesha, King of Moab
Al-Khazneh in Petra (c. 1st century AD), is believed to be the mausoleum of the Arab Nabataean King Aretas IV.
The Oval Forum of Jerash (c. 1st century AD), then member of the ten-city Roman league, the Decapolis. Seven out of the ten Decapolis cities are present in modern-day Jordan.
The earliest detailed map of the land which became Jordan, showing the travels of Johann Ludwig Burckhardt (the first European to see Petra since the Crusades) in 1822
Soldiers of the Hashemite-led Arab Army holding the flag of the Great Arab Revolt in 1916
Al-Salt residents gather on 20 August 1920 during the British High Commissioner's visit to Transjordan.
King Abdullah I on 25 May 1946 reading the declaration of independence.
King Hussein on 21 March 1968 checking an abandoned Israeli tank in the aftermath of the Battle of Karameh.
Army Chief Habis Majali and Prime Minister Wasfi Tal during a military parade in 1970, two widely acclaimed national figures.
Wadi Rum's resemblance to the surface of Mars has made it a popular filming and tourist attraction.
The Dead Sea is the lowest point on earth.
A forest in Ajloun, northern Jordan.
The House of Representatives during a parliamentary session
U.S. President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump with King Abdullah II and Queen Rania of Jordan at the White House, 2017.
An Amman City Centre Police patrol vehicle.
Change in per capita GDP of Jordan, 1950–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International Geary-Khamis dollars.
View of a part of the capital Amman
Queen Alia International Airport near Amman was chosen as the best airport in the Middle East for 2014 and 2015 by ASQ.
Al-Maghtas ruins on the Jordanian side of the Jordan River, believed by many to have been the location of the Baptism of Jesus and the ministry of John the Baptist
The Dana Biosphere Reserve in southern Jordan lies along the Jordan Trail, a hiking path that is gaining popularity
A phosphate train at Ram station
The Aqaba Flagpole in the southernmost city of Aqaba, Jordan's only coastal outlet
The 117 MW Tafila Wind Farm in southern Jordan is the first and largest onshore wind farm in the Middle East.
An aerial view of a portion of the Zaatari refugee camp which contains a population of 80,000 Syrian refugees, the largest Syrian refugee camp in the world.
Jordanian school girls pictured reading in a public school. Jordan's total youth female literacy rate (15 – 24 years) was 99.37% in 2015.
Jordanian folklore band playing bagpipes in Jerash.
Mansaf, the traditional dish of Jordan. Inspired from Bedouin culture, it is a symbol of Jordanian hospitality.

Country in Western Asia.

- Jordan

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A theoretical map of the region around 830 BCE. Moab is shown in purple on this map, between the Arnon and Zered rivers.
Moab mountain range viewed from Jordan Valley
Moabite sarcophagus in Jordan Archaeological Museum in Amman
The Mesha stele describes King Mesha's wars against the Israelites
Al-Balu' Stele on display at the Jordan Museum.
Ruth in the fields of Boaz by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld

Moab is the name of an ancient Levantine kingdom whose territory is today located in the modern state of Jordan.


Ammon and its neighbors, around 830 BC
Statue of an Ammonite deified King on display at the Jordan Museum. The statue was found near the Amman Citadel and is thought to date to 8th century BC.
An Ammonite watch tower at Rujm Al-Malfouf in Amman
Qasr Al Abd was built by the governor of Ammon in 200 BC
David punishing the Ammonites, by Gustave Doré
Gate of Ammon in Amman Citadel

Ammon (Ammonite: 𐤏𐤌𐤍 ʻAmān; עַמּוֹן ʻAmmōn; عمّون) was an ancient Semitic-speaking nation occupying the east of the Jordan River, between the torrent valleys of Arnon and Jabbok, in present-day Jordan.


Ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west, and the Arabian Desert to the south and east.

A theoretical map of the region around 830 BC (Edom shown in yellow)
Map showing kingdom of Edom (in red) at its largest extent, c. 600 BC. Areas in dark red show the approximate boundary of classical-age Idumaea.
Edomite goddess figure in the Israel Museum

Most of its former territory is now divided between present-day southern Israel and Jordan.


Transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

Temple of Derr ruins in 1960
The Giza Necropolis is the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.
Egyptian soldier of the Achaemenid army, c. 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
The Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII and her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, at the Temple of Dendera
The Amr ibn al-As mosque in Cairo, recognized as the oldest in Africa
The Ibn Tulun Mosque in Cairo, of Ahmad Ibn Tulun
The Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo, of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the sixth caliph, as renovated by Dawoodi Bohra
Napoleon defeated the Mamluk troops in the Battle of the Pyramids, 21 July 1798, painted by Lejeune.
Egypt under Muhammad Ali dynasty
Muhammad Ali was the founder of the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the first Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
The battle of Tel el-Kebir in 1882 during the Anglo-Egyptian War
Female nationalists demonstrating in Cairo, 1919
Fuad I of Egypt with Edward, Prince of Wales, 1932
British infantry near El Alamein, 17 July 1942
Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser in Mansoura, 1960
Smoke rises from oil tanks beside the Suez Canal hit during the initial Anglo-French assault on Egypt, 5 November 1956.
Egyptian tanks advancing in the Sinai desert during the Yom Kippur War, 1973
Celebrating the signing of the 1978 Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat
Cairo grew into a metropolitan area with a population of over 20 million.
Women in Cairo wear face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt in March 2020.
Egypt's topography
The Qattara Depression in Egypt's north west
The Eastern Imperial Eagle is the national animal of Egypt.
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi is the current President of Egypt.
Egyptian honor guard soldiers during a visit of U.S. Navy Adm. Mike Mullen
President el-Sisi with US President Donald Trump, 21 May 2017
The High Court of Justice in Downtown Cairo
Protesters from the Third Square movement, which supported neither the former Morsi government nor the Armed Forces, 31 July 2013
Prominent Egyptian dissident Alaa Abd El-Fattah was sentenced to five years of imprisonment in December 2021.
1. Matrouh
2. Alexandria
3. Beheira
4. Kafr El Sheikh
5. Dakahlia
6. Damietta
7. Port Said
8. North Sinai
9. Gharbia
10. Monufia
11. Qalyubia
12. Sharqia
13. Ismailia
14. Giza
15. Faiyum
16. Cairo
17. Suez
18. South Sinai
19. Beni Suef
20. Minya
21. New Valley
22. Asyut
23. Red Sea
24. Sohag
25. Qena
26. Luxor
27. Aswan
Change in per capita GDP of Egypt, 1820–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Smart Village, a business district established in 2001 to facilitate the growth of high-tech businesses
The Suez Canal
Tourists riding an Arabian camel in front of Pyramid of Khafre. The Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's main tourist attractions.
An offshore platform in the Darfeel Gas Field
The Cairo Metro (line 2)
The Suez Canal Bridge
Green irrigated land along the Nile amidst the desert and in the delta
Egypt's population density (people per km2)
St. Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria
Cairo University
Egyptian literacy rate among the population aged 15 years and older by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt
Al-Azhar Park is listed as one of the world's sixty great public spaces by the Project for Public Spaces.
The "weighing of the heart" scene from the Book of the Dead
Naguib Mahfouz, the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature
Salah Zulfikar, film star
Soad Hosny, film star
Tanoura dancers performing in Wekalet El Ghoury, Cairo
The Egyptian Museum of Cairo
Tutankhamun's burial mask is one of the major attractions of the Egyptian Museum of Cairo.
Kushari, one of Egypt's national dishes
A crowd at Cairo Stadium watching the Egypt national football team

The Gulf of Aqaba in the northeast separates Egypt from Jordan and Saudi Arabia.


The original Sharifian Solution, illustrated in a map presented by T. E. Lawrence to the Eastern Committee of the War Cabinet in November 1918, was superseded by the policy agreed at the March 1921 Cairo Conference.
The sons of Hussein: Ali, Abdullah and Faisal, in the mid-1920s
Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca (1853–1931), the founder of the modern dynasty
King Faisal I of Iraq and King Ali of Hejaz

The Hashemites (الهاشميون), also House of Hashim, are the royal family of Jordan, which they have ruled since 1921, and were the royal family of the kingdoms of Hejaz (1916–1925), Syria (1920) and Iraq (1921–1958).

State of Palestine

De jure sovereign state in Western Asia.

Demonstration against road block, Kafr Qaddum, March 2012
The destroyed Palestinian Legislative Council building in Gaza City, Gaza–Israel conflict, September 2009
Map of Israeli settlements in the West Bank
International recognition of the State of Palestine
Children waving a Palestinian flag, West Bank
Palestinian girls in Nablus
Illustration of Palestinian Christian home in Jerusalem, ca 1850. By W. H. Bartlett

It was soon recognized by all Arab League members except Transjordan, which had occupied and later annexed the West Bank, including East Jerusalem.

Abdullah I of Jordan

Emir Abdullah I of Jordan
Abdullah arrives in Amman 1920
Abdullah 1920
Abdullah I of Transjordan during the visit to Turkey with Turkish President Mustafa Kemal 1937
King Abdullah declaring the end of the British Mandate and the independence of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, 25 May 1946.
King Abdullah welcomed by Palestinian Christians in East Jerusalem on 29 May 1948, the day after his forces took control over the city.
Visiting the Dome of the Rock, 1948
King Abdullah, in white, leaving the Al-Aqsa Mosque a few weeks before his assassination, July 1951
King Abdullah with Glubb Pasha, the day before Abdullah's assassination, 19 July 1951
Postage stamp, Transjordan, 1930.
Emir Abdullah of Transjordan with Sir Herbert Samuel and Emir Shakir ibn Zayid, Amman, 1921
The Emir with Sir Herbert Samuel (centre) and T. E. Lawrence (left), Amman Airfield, 1921r
The Emir at the Cairo Conference with T. E. Lawrence, Air Marshal Sir Geoffrey Salmond and Sir Wyndham Deedes, March 1921
The Emir with Sir Herbert Samuel and Mr. and Mrs. Winston Churchill at Government House reception in Jerusalem, 28 March 1921
King Abdullah bin Hussein of Jordan
Emir Abdullah at his Amman camp with John Whiting of the American Colony (businessman, photographer, intelligence officer) and staff, 1921
Emir Abdullah with Arab notables during visit to Jaffa
Emir Abdulla with Arab Legion honour guard at Haifa port before boarding ship to Turkey
Herbert Samuel and King Faisal reviewing troops at Amman

AbdullahI of Jordan (عبد الله الأول بن الحسين; 2 February 1882 – 20 July 1951) was the ruler of Jordan from 11 April 1921 until his assassination in 1951.

Emirate of Transjordan

British protectorate established on 11 April 1921, which remained as such until achieving formal independence in 1946.

The region administered by the Emirate
Ottoman Sanjaks covering the areas of Palestine, Transjordan, and Syria
The region administered by the Emirate
Herbert Samuel's proclamation in Salt, August 1920, for which he was admonished by Curzon
British High Commissioner Herbert Samuel reads a speech in front of a crowd, April 1921
The first general election in Transjordan took place on 2 April 1929
Amman in 1940

After the Ottoman defeat in World War I, the Transjordan region was administered within OETA East; after British withdrawal in 1919, this region gained de facto recognition as part of the Hashemite-ruled Arab Kingdom of Syria, administering an area broadly comprising the areas of the modern countries of Syria and Jordan.

Six-Day War

Map of the military movements and territories occupied during the Six-Day War. The territory of Israel is colored royal blue on this map, while the territories captured by Israel during the war are depicted in various shades of green.
On 22 May 1967, President Nasser addressed his pilots at Bir Gifgafa Airfield in Sinai: "The Jews are threatening war—we say to them ahlan wa-sahlan (welcome)!"
Israeli troops examine destroyed Egyptian aircraft
Dassault Mirage at the Israeli Air Force Museum. Operation Focus was mainly conducted using French built aircraft.
Conquest of Sinai. 5–6 June 1967
People in a bomb shelter at Kfar Maimon
Israeli reconnaissance forces from the "Shaked" unit in Sinai during the war
Major General Ariel Sharon during the Battle of Abu-Ageila
Israeli Armor of the Six-Day War: pictured here the AMX 13
Conquest of Sinai. 7–8 June 1967
An Israeli gunboat passes through the Straits of Tiran near Sharm El Sheikh.
The Jordan salient, 5–7 June.
Israeli paratroopers flush out Jordanian soldiers from trenches during the Battle of Ammunition Hill.
Silhouette of Israeli paratroops advancing on Ammunition Hill.
An Israeli airstrike near the Augusta-Victoria Hospital
David Rubinger's photograph of IDF paratroopers at Jerusalem's Western Wall shortly after its capture. The soldiers in the foreground are (from left) Zion Karasenti, Yitzhak Yifat, and Haim Oshri.
From left, General Uzi Narkiss, Defense Minister Moshe Dayan, and Chief of Staff Lt. General Yitzhak Rabin in the Old City of Jerusalem after its fall to Israeli forces
The Battle of Golan Heights, 9–10 June.
People in a bomb shelter at Kibbutz Dan
Israeli tanks advancing on the Golan Heights. June 1967

The Six-Day War (מִלְחֶמֶת שֵׁשֶׁת הַיָּמִים; النكسة or حرب 1967), also known as the June War, the 1967 Arab–Israeli War or the Third Arab–Israeli War, was an armed conflict fought from 5 to 10 June 1967 between Israel and a coalition of Arab states primarily comprising Jordan, Syria and Egypt (then known as United Arab Republic).

Transjordan (region)

Egyptian provinces of the Retjenu, Amurru, and Apu regions 1300 BCE
The historical Semitic region, defined by the pre-Islamic distribution of Semitic languages (very roughly coinciding; culturally, politically, and historically).
Assignment of Transjordan to the tribes; Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, per the Book of Joshua
"Reuben and Gad Ask for Land", engraving by Arthur Boyd Houghton based on Numbers 32.
Palestine & Coele-Syria according to Ptolemy (map by Claude Reignier Conder of the Palestine Exploration Fund)
Iturea, Gaulanitis (Golan), Trachonitis (Lajat), Auranitis (Hauran), and Batanaea in the first century CE.
Cities of the Decapolis
New Kingdom at its maximum territorial extent in the 15th century BCE
Near East 1300 BCE
Near East 1000 BCE
Transjordan Kingdoms of Ammon, Edom and Moab during the Iron Age 830 BCE
The British Mandate for Palestine. The Emirate of Transjordan is shown in brown.
Jordan, 1948–1967. The East Bank is the portion east of the Jordan River, the West Bank is the part west of the river
Countries pictured are (clockwise from top right) Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt (across the Gulf of Aqaba), Israel, the disputed West Bank Territory, and Lebanon. In the center is Jordan.
Levantine trade routes 1300 BCE
The Hanigalbat (Mitanni) and Egypt.
Map of the Ancient Near East during the Amarna Period.
Transjordan Kingdoms during the Iron Age 830 BCE
Network of primary Roman roads in the reign of Hadrian

Transjordan, the East Bank, or the Transjordanian Highlands (شرق الأردن), is the part of the Southern Levant east of the Jordan River, mostly contained in present-day Jordan.