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Korean Empire

KoreaEmpire of KoreaImperial Korea
It was founded by Yi Seong-gye in July 1392 and was replaced by the Korean Empire in October 1897.
Proclaimed in October 1897 by Emperor Gojong of the Joseon dynasty, the empire stood until Japan's outright annexation of Korea in August 1910.

Culture of Korea

KoreanKorean cultureKorea
The Joseon period has left a substantial legacy to modern Korea; much of modern Korean culture, etiquette, norms and societal attitudes towards current issues developed during this period.
Before the Joseon Dynasty, the practice of Korean shamanism was deeply rooted in the Korean culture.

Koreans

KoreanSouth Koreanethnic Korean
Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries. The modern Korean language, its dialects and Korea's majority ethnic group, which refer to themselves as the "Joseon people", derive from the culture and traditions of the Joseon dynasty.
North Koreans refer to themselves as Joseon-in or Joseon-saram, both of which literally mean "Joseon people".

Gojoseon

JoseonKingdom of Gojoseonan older dynasty
After much internal deliberation, as well as endorsement by the neighboring Ming dynasty's emperor, Taejo declared the name of the kingdom to be Joseon, a tribute to the ancient Korean state of Gojoseon.
The addition of Go, meaning "ancient", distinguishes it from the later Joseon kingdom (1392–1897).

Korean Buddhism

BuddhismKorean BuddhistBuddhist
Buddhism was accordingly discouraged and occasionally faced persecutions by the dynasty.
Though it initially enjoyed wide acceptance, even being supported as the state ideology during the Goryeo period, Buddhism in Korea suffered extreme repression during the Joseon era, which lasted over five hundred years.

Taejong of Joseon

TaejongKing TaejongYi Bang-won
That same year, Yi Bangwon assumed the throne of Joseon at long last as King Taejong, third king of Joseon.
Taejong of Joseon (13 June 1367 – 30 May 1422) was the third king of the Joseon dynasty in Korea and the father of King Sejong the Great.

Kaesong

KaesŏngGaegyeongGaeseong
It was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of Goryeo in what is today the city of Kaesong.
When Yi Songgye overthrew Goryeo in 1392 and established the Joseon as Taejo of Joseon, he moved the Korean capital from Kaesong to Hanyang (modern-day Seoul) in 1394.

Korean Peninsula

KoreapeninsulaKorean
However, the dynasty was severely weakened during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when the Japanese invasions of Korea in the 1590s and the first and second Manchu invasions nearly overran the Korean Peninsula, leading to an increasingly harsh isolationist policy, for which the country became known as the "hermit kingdom" in Western literature.
The peninsula's names, in Korean, Chinese and Japanese, all share the same origin, that being Joseon, the old name of Korea under the Joseon Dynasty and Gojoseon even longer before that.

Jeongjong of Joseon

JeongjongKing JeongjongJongjong
Aghast at the fact that his sons were willing to kill each other for the crown, and psychologically exhausted from the death of his second wife, King Taejo abdicated and immediately crowned his second son Yi Banggwa as King Jeongjong.
Jeongjong of Joseon (18 July 1357 – 15 October 1419), born Yi Bang-gwa, whose changed name is Yi Gyeong, was the second king of Joseon (or Chosun) Dynasty (1399–1400).

Ōei Invasion

Gihae Eastern ExpeditionThird Tsushima Expeditioncaptured Tsushima Island
In May 1419, King Sejong, under the advice and guidance of his father Taejong, embarked upon the Gihae Eastern Expedition to remove the nuisance of waegu (coastal pirates) who had been operating out of Tsushima Island.
The Ōei Invasion, known as the Gihae Eastern Expedition in Korea, was a 1419 invasion from Joseon against pirate bases on Tsushima Island, which is located in the middle of the Tsushima Strait between the Korean Peninsula and Kyushu.

Jeong Dojeon

Jeong Do-jeon
Although Yi Bangwon, Taejo's fifth son by Queen Sineui, had contributed most to assisting his father's rise to power, the prime minister Jeong Do-jeon and Nam Eun used their influence on King Taejo to name his eighth son (second son of Queen Sindeok) Grand Prince Uian (Yi Bangseok) as crown prince in 1392.
Jeong Dojeon (Korean: 정도전, Hanja: 鄭道傳, 1342 – October 6, 1398), also known by his pen name Sambong (Korean: 삼봉), was a prominent Korean scholar-official during the late Goryeo to the early Joseon periods.

State Council of Joseon

State CouncilUijeongbuChief State Councilor
In 1399, Taejong had played an influential role in scrapping the Dopyeong Assembly, a council of the old government administration that held a monopoly in court power during the waning years of the Goryeo Dynasty, in favor of the State Council of Joseon, a new branch of central administration that revolved around the king and his edicts.
The State Council of Joseon or Uijeongbu was the highest organ of government under the Joseon Dynasty of Korea.

Korean language

KoreanKorean-languageKorea
The modern Korean language, its dialects and Korea's majority ethnic group, which refer to themselves as the "Joseon people", derive from the culture and traditions of the Joseon dynasty.
Consequently, official documents were always written in Hanja during the Joseon era.

Munjong of Joseon

MunjongKing Munjongthe crown prince of Joseon
After King Sejong's death, his son Munjong continued his father's legacy but soon died of illness in 1452, just two years after coronation.
Munjong of Joseon (15 November 1414 – 1 June 1452) was the fifth King of the Joseon Dynasty, who ruled Korea from 1450 to 1452.

Gongyang of Goryeo

GongyangKing GongyangKing Gongyang of Goryeo
He later killed King U and his son after a failed restoration and forcibly placed a royal named Yi on the throne (he became Gongyang of Goryeo).
He was deposed by Yi Seonggye, who then established the Joseon Dynasty.

Treaty of Gyehae

Gyehae treaty
In 1443, The Treaty of Gyehae was signed in which the daimyō of Tsushima was granted rights to conduct trade with Korea in fifty ships per year in exchange for sending tribute to Korea and aiding to stop any Waegu coastal pirate raids on Korean ports.
The Gyehae Treaty was signed in 1443 ("gyehae" is the Korean name of the year in the sexagenary cycle) between the Joseon dynasty and Sō Sadamori as a means of controlling Japanese piracy and legitimizing trade between Tsushima island and three Korean ports.

Hermit kingdom

isolation policyunwilling to modernize, and under encroachment of European powers
However, the dynasty was severely weakened during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when the Japanese invasions of Korea in the 1590s and the first and second Manchu invasions nearly overran the Korean Peninsula, leading to an increasingly harsh isolationist policy, for which the country became known as the "hermit kingdom" in Western literature.
Korea in the age of Joseon dynasty was the subject of the first use of the term, in William Elliot Griffis' 1882 book Corea: The Hermit Nation, and Korea was frequently described as a hermit kingdom until 1905 when it became a protectorate of Japan.

Danjong of Joseon

DanjongKing DanjongKing Danjong of Joseon
He was succeeded by his twelve-year-old son, Danjong.
Danjong of Joseon (9 August 1441 – 24 December 1457, reigned 1452–1455) was the sixth king of the Joseon Dynasty.

Sarim (Korean political faction)

sarim
His reign was marked by the prosperity and growth of the national economy and the rise of neo-Confucian scholars called sarim who were encouraged by Seongjong to enter court politics.
The Sarim (sometimes Saarim), or "forest of scholars," was a powerful faction of literati that dominated Middle and Late Joseon politics in Korea.

Seongjong of Joseon

SeongjongKing SeongjongKing Seongjong of Joseon
Yejong's nephew Seongjong ascended the throne.
Seongjong of Joseon (August 20, 1457 – January 20, 1494) was the ninth king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea.

Six martyred ministers

six ministers loyal to DanjongSix Scholars6 martyred ministers
After six ministers loyal to Danjong attempted to assassinate Sejo to return Danjong to the throne, Sejo executed the six ministers and also killed Danjong in his place of exile.
The six martyred ministers or Sayuksin were six ministers of the Joseon Dynasty who were executed by King Sejo in 1456 for plotting to assassinate him and restore the former king Danjong to the throne.

Sejo of Joseon

SejoKing SejoGrand Prince Suyang
However, Danjong's uncle, Sejo, gained control of the government and eventually deposed his nephew to become the seventh king of Joseon himself in 1455.
Sejo of Joseon (korean:조선 세조, 2 November 1417 – 23 September 1468, r. 1455–1468) was the seventh king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea.

Princess Gyeonghye

In addition to two regents, Princess Gyeonghye also served as Danjong's guardian and, along with the general Kim Jongso, attempted to strengthen royal authority.
Princess Gyeonghye (1435–1473), also known as Princess Pyeongchang before her marriage, was a Joseon princess and the eldest child of Munjong of Joseon.

Yeonsangun of Joseon

YeonsangunPrince YeonsanKing Yeonsangun
King Seongjong was succeeded by his son, Yeonsangun, in 1494.
Yeonsan-gun or Prince Yeonsan (23 November 1476 – 20 November 1506, r. 1494–1506), born Yi Yung or Lee Yoong, was the 10th king of Korea's Joseon Dynasty.

Jungjong of Joseon

JungjongKing JungjongGrand Prince Jinseong
After twelve years of misrule, he was finally deposed in a coup that placed his half-brother Jungjong on the throne in 1506.
Jungjong of Joseon (16 April 1488 – 29 November 1544, r. 1506–1544), born Yi Yeok or Lee Yeok, ruled during the 16th century in what is now Korea.