Joseph Chamberlain

ChamberlainJ Chamberlain The Right Honourable '''Joseph ChamberlainJoseph Joseph ChamberlainChamberlain family of BirminghamChamberlain, Rt Hon. JosephChamberlainsFrancis Chamberlain (Australian politician)his father
Joseph Chamberlain (8 July 1836 – 2 July 1914) was a British statesman who was first a radical Liberal, then, after opposing home rule for Ireland, a Liberal Unionist, and eventually served as a leading imperialist in coalition with the Conservatives.wikipedia
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Birmingham

Birmingham, United KingdomBirmingham, EnglandCity of Birmingham
Chamberlain made his career in Birmingham, first as a manufacturer of screws and then as a notable mayor of the city.
The resulting high level of social mobility also fostered a culture of political radicalism which, under leaders from Thomas Attwood to Joseph Chamberlain, was to give it a political influence unparalleled in Britain outside London, and a pivotal role in the development of British democracy.

Liberal Unionist Party

Liberal UnionistLiberal UnionistsUnionist
He helped to engineer a Liberal Party split and became a Liberal Unionist, a party which included a bloc of MPs based in and around Birmingham.
Led by Lord Hartington (later the Duke of Devonshire) and Joseph Chamberlain, the party formed a political alliance with the Conservative Party in opposition to Irish Home Rule.

Conservative Party (UK)

ConservativeConservative PartyConservatives
Joseph Chamberlain (8 July 1836 – 2 July 1914) was a British statesman who was first a radical Liberal, then, after opposing home rule for Ireland, a Liberal Unionist, and eventually served as a leading imperialist in coalition with the Conservatives.
In 1886, the party formed an alliance with Spencer Compton Cavendish, Lord Hartington (later the 8th Duke of Devonshire) and Joseph Chamberlain's new Liberal Unionist Party and, under the statesmen Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour, held power for all but three of the following twenty years before suffering a heavy defeat in 1906 when it split over the issue of free trade.

Elementary Education Act 1870

Education Act 18701870 Education ActEducation Act
He was a radical Liberal Party member and an opponent of the Elementary Education Act 1870 on the basis that it could result in subsidising Church of England schools with local ratepayers' money.
In Birmingham, Joseph Chamberlain, not yet a Member of Parliament, was a prominent campaigner on the issue.

Austen Chamberlain

Sir Austen ChamberlainAustenChamberlain
Harriet, who had had a premonition that she would die in childbirth, became ill two days after the birth of their son Austen in October 1863, and died three days later.
Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain, KG MP (16 October 1863 – 16 March 1937) was a British statesman, son of Joseph Chamberlain and older half-brother of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain.

Workmen's Compensation Act 1897

Workmen's Compensation Actworkmen's compensation lawWorkmen’s Compensation Act
In that government Chamberlain promoted the Workmen's Compensation Act 1897.
Joseph Chamberlain, leader of the Liberal Unionist party and in coalition with the Conservatives, designed a plan that was enacted under the Salisbury government in 1897.

Neville Chamberlain

ChamberlainNevilleArthur Neville Chamberlain
Chamberlain and Florence had four children: the future Prime Minister Neville in 1869, Ida in 1870, Hilda in 1871 and Ethel in 1873.
After working in business and local government, and after a short spell as Director of National Service in 1916 and 1917, Chamberlain followed his father, Joseph Chamberlain, and older half-brother, Austen Chamberlain, in becoming a Member of Parliament in the 1918 general election for the new Birmingham Ladywood division at the age of 49.

Second Boer War

Boer WarSouth African WarAnglo-Boer War
He had major responsibility for causing the Second Boer War (1899–1902) in South Africa and was the government minister most responsible for the war effort.
The June 1899 negotiations in Bloemfontein failed, and in September 1899 British Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain demanded full voting rights and representation for the uitlanders residing in the Transvaal.

Beatrice Chamberlain

Their daughter Beatrice Chamberlain was born in May 1862.
Her father was Joseph Chamberlain, who later became Mayor of Birmingham and a Cabinet minister.

Liberal Party (UK)

LiberalLiberal PartyLiberals
Joseph Chamberlain (8 July 1836 – 2 July 1914) was a British statesman who was first a radical Liberal, then, after opposing home rule for Ireland, a Liberal Unionist, and eventually served as a leading imperialist in coalition with the Conservatives. He was a radical Liberal Party member and an opponent of the Elementary Education Act 1870 on the basis that it could result in subsidising Church of England schools with local ratepayers' money.
Gladstone personally supported Home Rule, but a strong Liberal Unionist faction led by Joseph Chamberlain, along with the last of the Whigs, Hartington, opposed it.

Tariff Reform League

Tariff Reformtariff reform movementtariff reformer
In 1903, he resigned from the Cabinet to campaign for tariff reform (i.e. taxes on imports as opposed to the existing policy of free trade with no tariffs).
It is associated with the national campaign of Joseph Chamberlain, the most outspoken and charismatic supporter of Tariff Reform.

John Sutton Nettlefold

Nettlefold and ChamberlainEdward John NettlefoldGKN
The company became known as Nettlefold and Chamberlain when Chamberlain became a partner with Joseph Nettlefold.
Hers was a family of Birmingham manufacturers and politicians: her brother's son, Joseph Chamberlain (1836–1914), was a radical Liberal and a leading imperialist.

Richard Chamberlain (MP for Islington West)

Richard ChamberlainRichard
His younger brother was Richard Chamberlain, later also a Liberal politician.
The younger brother of Joseph Chamberlain, he was Mayor of Birmingham from 1879 to 1880, and later Member of Parliament (MP) for Islington West from 1885 to 1892.

Joseph Henry Nettlefold

Nettlefolds LimitedJoseph Nettlefoldbearing their name
The company became known as Nettlefold and Chamberlain when Chamberlain became a partner with Joseph Nettlefold.
He was born in London to John Sutton Nettlefold who, in 1854, dispatched him to manage the business of Nettlefold and Chamberlain in Birmingham with his brother Edward John and cousin Joseph Chamberlain.

National Education League

Birmingham Education LeagueNational Education League/Birmingham Education League
The Birmingham Education League evolved into the National Education League, which held its first Conference in Birmingham in 1869 and proposed a school system funded by local rates and government grants, managed by local authorities subject to government inspection.
The National Education League, founded 1869, developed from the Birmingham Education League, co-founded in 1867 by George Dixon, a Birmingham Member of Parliament (MP) and past mayor, Joseph Chamberlain, a nonconformist and future mayor of Birmingham, and Jesse Collings, to include branches from all over England and Wales.

School boards in England and Wales

School Boardboard schoolschool boards
Chamberlain campaigned against the Act, and especially Clause 25, which gave school boards of England and Wales the power to pay the fees of poor children at voluntary schools, theoretically allowing them to fund church schools.

Corporation Street, Birmingham

Corporation Street
Chamberlain bought 50 acres (200,000 m²) of property to build a new road, (Corporation Street), through Birmingham's overcrowded slums.
The concept of a "Parisian boulevard" was vigorously promoted by Joseph Chamberlain when he was mayor.

Jesse Collings

Collings, JesseRt Hon Jesse Collings MP
Chamberlain and Jesse Collings had been amongst the founders of the Birmingham Education League in 1867, which noted that of about 4.25 million children of school age, 2 million children, mostly in urban areas, did not attend school, with a further 1 million in uninspected schools.
He was a close friend of Joseph Chamberlain and supported the radical group around Chamberlain in developing local improvement schemes in Birmingham, parks, and what at the time was called "gas-and-water socialism".

President of the Board of Trade

First Lord of TradeBoard of TradePresident
Rising to power through his influence with the Liberal grassroots organisation, he served as President of the Board of Trade in Gladstone's Second Government (1880–85).

1906 United Kingdom general election

19061906 general election1906 election
He obtained the support of most Unionist MPs for this stance, but the Unionists suffered a landslide defeat at the 1906 general election.
This election was a landslide defeat for the Conservative Party and their Liberal Unionist allies, with the primary reason given by historians as the party's weakness after its split over the issue of free trade (Joseph Chamberlain had resigned from government in September 1903 in order to campaign for Tariff Reform, which would allow "preferential tariffs").

Church of the Saviour, Birmingham

Church of the SaviourChamberlain's Unitarian church
Chamberlain became involved in Liberal politics, influenced by the strong radical and liberal traditions among Birmingham shoemakers and the long tradition of social action in Chamberlain's Unitarian church.
It became the centre of the programme of social and municipal improvement known as the Civic Gospel, and was instrumental in launching Joseph Chamberlain's political career.

Birmingham Corporation Water Department

Birmingham Corporation Waterworks departmentCity of Birmingham Water Department
Deploring the rising death rate from contagious diseases in the poorest parts of the city, in January 1876, Chamberlain forcibly purchased Birmingham's waterworks for a combined sum of £1,350,000, creating Birmingham Corporation Water Department, having declared to a House of Commons Committee that "We have not the slightest intention of making profit...We shall get our profit indirectly in the comfort of the town and in the health of the inhabitants".
The transaction was supervised by the Mayor of Birmingham, Joseph Chamberlain, and completed on 1 January 1876 for the sum of £1,350,000 (equivalent to £0 in ).

Home rule

home-ruleHome Rule MovementHome Rule Charter
Joseph Chamberlain (8 July 1836 – 2 July 1914) was a British statesman who was first a radical Liberal, then, after opposing home rule for Ireland, a Liberal Unionist, and eventually served as a leading imperialist in coalition with the Conservatives.
Liberal leader Joseph Chamberlain led the battle against Home Rule in Parliament.

Secretary of State for the Colonies

Colonial SecretaryColonial OfficeBritish Secretary of State for the Colonies
He served as Secretary of State for the Colonies, promoting a variety of schemes to build up the Empire in Asia, Africa, and the West Indies.

William Harris (Birmingham Liberal)

William HarrisHarris & MartinThe Caucus
In the autumn of 1869 a deputation headed by William Harris invited him to stand for the Town Council; and in November he was elected to represent St. Paul's Ward.
He became a founder-member of Dawson's non-denominational chapel, the Church of the Saviour, in 1847, where fellow-members included George Dixon, J. T. Bunce, J. A. Langford, Robert Martineau, Samuel Timmins, A. Follett Osler, and Joseph Chamberlain.