Joseph E. Johnston

Johnston in uniform, c. undefined 1862
Portrait by Benjamin Franklin Reinhart (c. 1860)
Johnston's map Reconnoissances [sic.] of Routes from San Antonio de Bexar to El Paso del Norte, 1849
Vicksburg Campaign
The Atlanta Campaign from Dalton to Kennesaw Mountain
Carolinas Campaign
The surrender of Gen. Joe Johnston - Currier & Ives lithograph
Joseph E. Johnston and Robert E. Lee in 1869–1870
Johnston statue in Dalton, Georgia, where he took command of the Army of Tennessee
Johnston statue at the location of the Battle of Bentonville, in North Carolina

American career army officer, serving with distinction in the United States Army during the Mexican–American War (1846–1848) and the Seminole Wars.

- Joseph E. Johnston

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Confederate States Army

The military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865), fighting against the United States forces in order to uphold the institution of slavery in the Southern states.

Battle flag of the Army of Northern Virginia
Private Edwin Francis Jemison, whose image became one of the most famous portraits of the young soldiers of the war
A cartoon from the war, showing the Confederates forcibly drafting a Unionist man into the Confederate army. The Unionist man objects, with the Confederates threatening to lynch him if he does not comply.
An 1861 Confederate recruiting poster from Virginia, urging men to join the Confederate cause and fight off the U.S. Army, which it refers to as a "brutal and desperate foe"
CSA M1857 Napoleon Artillery Piece
General Robert E. Lee, the Confederacy's most famous general
An 1895 illustration showing the uniforms of the Confederate Army contrasted with those of the U.S. Army
A painting of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia fighting the U.S. Army at Spotsylvania in 1864
A group of Confederate soldiers-possibly an artillery unit captured at Island No. 10 and taken at POW Camp Douglas (Chicago); photograph possibly by D. F. Brandon
Confederate troops marching south on N Market Street, Frederick, Maryland, during the Civil War
A Cherokee Confederates reunion in New Orleans, 1903
Jackson McCurtain, Lieutenant Colonel of the First Choctaw Battalion in Oklahoma, CSA
1862 illustration showing Confederates escorting kidnapped African American civilians south into slavery. A similar instance occurred in Pennsylvania when the Army of Northern Virginia invaded it in 1863 to fight the U.S. at Gettysburg.
An 1862 illustration of a Confederate officer forcing slaves at gunpoint to fire a cannon at U.S. soldiers in battle. A similar instance occurred at the first Battle of Bull Run, where slaves were forced by the Confederates to load and fire a cannon at U.S. forces.
An 1864 cartoon lampooning the Confederacy's deliberating on the use of black soldiers, showing them defecting en masse towards U.S. lines if such proposals were adopted.
"Marlboro", an African-American body servant to a white Confederate soldier
Julian Scott's 1873 painting, Surrender of a Confederate Soldier
Corporal of the Artillery division of the Confederate Army
Confederate mortar crew at Warrington, Florida in 1861, across from Fort Pickens
Confederate artillery at Charleston Harbor, 1863
Lt Col. E. V. Nash, 4th Georgia Infantry Doles-Cook Brigade, who was killed in 1864
<Center>General (CSA)</Center>
<Center>Colonel (Infantry shown)</Center>
<Center>Lieutenant-colonel (Headquarters shown)</Center>
<Center>Major (Medical Corps shown)</Center>
<Center>Captain (Marine Corps shown)</Center>
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The main Confederate armies, the Army of Northern Virginia under General Robert E. Lee and the remnants of the Army of Tennessee and various other units under General Joseph E. Johnston, surrendered to the U.S. on April 9, 1865 (officially April 12), and April 18, 1865 (officially April 26).

First Battle of Bull Run

The first major battle of the American Civil War.

First Battle of Bull Run.
Chromolithograph by Kurz & Allison, 1889
Virginia (1861)
Northeastern Virginia (1861)
Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott, General in Chief, USA
Cartoon map illustrating Gen. Winfield Scott's plan to crush the Confederacy, economically. It is sometimes called the "Anaconda plan".
Movements July 16–21, 1861
Situation July 18
Battlefield of Manassas
Situation morning, July 21
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U.S. cavalry at Sudley Spring Ford
An 1862 illustration of a Confederate officer forcing slaves to fire a cannon at U.S. forces at gunpoint. According to John Parker, a former slave, he was forced by his Confederate captors to fire a cannon at U.S. soldiers at the Battle of Bull Run.
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Attacks on Henry House Hill, 1–3 p.m
Union retreat, after 4 p.m.
Ruins of Judith Henry's house, "Spring Hill", after the battle
Postwar house on site of Judith Henry house in Manassas
Judith Henry grave
Capture of Ricketts' Battery, painting by Sidney E. King, National Park Service
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The National Jubilee of Peace building at Grant and Lee avenues in Manassas, Virginia, is draped with the U.S. flag for the 150th anniversary commemoration, held on July 21, 2011, of the First Battle of Bull Run.
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Confederate reinforcements under Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston arrived from the Shenandoah Valley by railroad, and the course of the battle quickly changed.

Peninsula campaign

Major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater.

George B. McClellan and Joseph E. Johnston, respective commanders of the Union and Confederate armies in the Peninsula campaign
Peninsula campaign, map of Southeastern Virginia
Peninsula campaign, map of Southeastern Virginia (additional map)
Federal Battery # 4 with 13 in seacoast mortars, Model 1861, during the siege of Yorktown, Virginia, 1862
Movements and battles in the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, up through the start of the Battle of Seven Pines
Siege of Yorktown
Engagement Near Hanover Court-House, Virginia
The Chickahominy - Sumner's Upper Bridge: 1862 watercolor by William McIlvaine
Battle of Seven Pines
Brig. Gen. Thomas Francis Meagher at the Battle of Fair Oaks, June 1, 1862
Seven Days Battles: map of events (left side)
<center>Brig. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Erasmus D. Keyes</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill</center>
<center>Lt. Gen. James Longstreet</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin</center>

McClellan was initially successful against the equally cautious General Joseph E. Johnston, but the emergence of the more aggressive General Robert E. Lee turned the subsequent Seven Days Battles into a humiliating Union defeat.

Robert E. Lee

Confederate general who served the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War, during which he was appointed the overall commander of the Confederate States Army.

Lee in March 1864
Lee at age 31 in 1838, as a Lieutenant of Engineers in the U.S. Army
Robert E. Lee, around age 38, and his son William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, around age 8, c.1845
Robert E. Lee around age 43, when he was a brevet lieutenant-colonel of engineers, c. 1850
Lee in uniform, 1863
Lee mounted on Traveller (September 1866)
Battle of Gettysburg, by Thure de Thulstrup
Lee with son Custis (left) and aide Walter H. Taylor (right) by Brady, April 16, 1865
Lee in 1869 (photo by Levin C. Handy)
General Lee and his Confederate officers in their first meeting since Appomattox, August 1869.
Oath of amnesty submitted by Robert E. Lee in 1865
Robert E. Lee, oil on canvas, Edward Calledon Bruce, 1865. Virginia Historical Society
Robert Edward Lee in art at the Battle of Chancellorsville in a stained glass window of the Washington National Cathedral
Facade view of Arlington House, the Robert E. Lee Memorial — at Arlington National Cemetery, in Virginia, pictured in 2006
Unveiling of the Equestrian Statue of Robert E. Lee, May 29, 1890, Richmond, Virginia
The removal of Lee's statue from a monument in New Orleans
Stained glass of Lee's life in the National Cathedral
Robert E. Lee, National Statuary Hall, Washington, D.C. Edward Virginius Valentine, sculptor, 1909
Robert E Lee, Virginia Monument, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Frederick William Sievers, sculptor, 1917
Robert E. Lee Monument by Mercié, Monument Avenue, Richmond, Virginia, 1890
Statue of Lee at the Confederate War Memorial, Dallas, 1896
Statue of Lee in Murray, Kentucky
University Chapel on the campus of Washington and Lee University

Lee took command of the Army of Northern Virginia in June 1862 during the Peninsula Campaign following the wounding of Joseph E. Johnston.

Battle of Seven Pines

The Battle of Seven Pines, also known as the Battle of Fair Oaks or Fair Oaks Station, took place on May 31 and June 1, 1862, in Henrico County, Virginia, nearby Sandston, as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War.

Franklin's corps retreating from the Battle of Fair Oaks (from a sketch by Alfred R. Waud)
Battle of Seven Pines
Prof. Lowe ascending in the Intrepid to observe the Battle of Seven Pines
The Battle of Fair Oaks, Va. by Currier and Ives (1862)
General Thomas Francis Meagher at the Battle of Fair Oaks, June 1, 1862
Burying the dead and burning dead horses after the battle
<center>Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, Commanding </center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Erasmus D. Keyes</center>
<center>General Joseph E. Johnston, Commanding </center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Gustavus W. Smith</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. James Longstreet</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder</center>

On May 31, Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston attempted to overwhelm two Federal corps that appeared isolated south of the Chickahominy River.

Atlanta campaign

Series of battles fought in the Western Theater of the American Civil War throughout northwest Georgia and the area around Atlanta during the summer of 1864.

Union Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman and his staff in the trenches outside of Atlanta
ATLANTA CAMPAIGN, Union advance: Chattanooga to Etowah (May 7–19, 1864).
ATLANTA CAMPAIGN, Union advance: Etowah River to Jonesboro (May 23 – September 2, 1864).
ATLANTA CAMPAIGN: Atlanta and Vicinity (Summer 1864).
The Siege of Atlanta by Thure de Thulstrup (c. 1888)
Palisades and chevaux-de-frise in front of the Ponder House, Atlanta, Georgia, 1864
Ruins of Rolling Mill and railroad cars destroyed by rebels on evacuation of Atlanta, Ga.
Roundhouse in Atlanta, following extensive damage from the Atlanta Campaign. Digitally restored albumen print, 1866.
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Union Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman invaded Georgia from the vicinity of Chattanooga, Tennessee, beginning in May 1864, opposed by the Confederate general Joseph E. Johnston.

Campaign of the Carolinas

The final campaign conducted by the United States Army (Union Army) against the Confederate States Army in the Western Theater.

The Burning of Columbia, South Carolina, on
February 17, 1865, as depicted in Harper's Weekly
Sherman's advance: Tennessee, Georgia and Carolinas (1863–65)
Movements in Carolinas campaign
Lithograph of Howard's Corps of Sherman's Army crossing the Edisto during the Carolinas campaign from 1872 children's textbook

The defeat of Confederate Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's army at the Battle of Bentonville, and its unconditional surrender to Union forces on April 26, 1865, effectively ended the American Civil War.

George B. McClellan

American soldier, Civil War Union general, civil engineer, railroad executive, and politician who served as the 24th governor of New Jersey.

Photograph by Mathew Brady, 1861
The Julian Scott portrait of McClellan in the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.
George B. McClellan and Mary Ellen Marcy (Nelly) McClellan
Patriotic cover honoring the arrival of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan in Washington, D.C., on July 26, 1861
General George B. McClellan with staff & dignitaries (from left to right): Gen. George W. Morell, Lt. Col. A.V. Colburn, Gen. McClellan, Lt. Col. N.B. Sweitzer, Prince de Joinville (son of King Louis Phillippe of France), and on the very right—the prince's nephew, Count de Paris
"Quaker guns" (logs used as ruses to imitate cannons) in former Confederate fortifications at Manassas Junction
Battle of Seven Pines
Seven Days' Battles, June 25 – July 1, 1862
Federal troops under heavy attack at the Battle of Gaines's Mill, sketched by Alfred R. Waud and published in Harper's Weekly, July 26, 1862
Wounded men after the Battle of Savage's Station, one of the Seven Days Battles
McClellan riding through Frederick, Maryland, September 12, 1862 (From Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper)
Maryland campaign, actions September 3–15, 1862
Battle of South Mountain
Overview of the Battle of Antietam
Lincoln with McClellan and staff after the Battle of Antietam. Notable figures (from left) are 5. Alexander S. Webb, Chief of Staff, V Corps; 6. McClellan;. 8. Dr. Jonathan Letterman; 10. Lincoln; 11. Henry J. Hunt; 12. Fitz John Porter; 15. Andrew A. Humphreys; 16. Capt. George Armstrong Custer
Lincoln in McClellan's tent after the Battle of Antietam
An anti-McClellan poster from Harper's Weekly, drawn by Thomas Nast, showing rioters assaulting children, slave-catchers chasing runaway slaves, and a woman being sold at a slave auction
Currier and Ives print of the McClellan–Pendleton Democratic presidential party ticket, 1864. Lithograph with watercolor.
Cartoon of McClellan used by his political opponents in 1864 presidential campaign
McClellan photographed by William S. Warren, circa 1880
Major General George B. McClellan on Connecticut Avenue in Washington, D.C.
McClellan statue in front of Philadelphia City Hall

Initially, McClellan was somewhat successful against General Joseph E. Johnston, but the emergence of General Robert E. Lee to command the Army of Northern Virginia turned the subsequent Seven Days Battles into a Union defeat.

P. G. T. Beauregard

Confederate general officer of Louisiana Creole descent who started the American Civil War by leading the attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, c. 1860-1865
A one-story Creole plantation home
Pierre G. T. Beauregard as a young man, painting by Richard Clague
U.S. Army Major P.G.T. Beauregard
The Battle of Churubusco, August 20, 1847
The Battle of Chapultepec, 13 September, 1847
The 1861 George Peter Alexander Healy portrait of Beauregard in the National Portrait Gallery, Washington
Confederate General P. Gustave Toutant Beauregard
The Battle of Fort Sumter, April 12–13, 1861
The Battle of First Manassas, July 21, 1861
Start of the First Battle of Bull Run
The Battle of Shiloh, April 6–7, 1862
Map of the Battle of Shiloh, afternoon of April 6, 1862, after Beauregard took command
A Confederate ironclad
A Confederate submarine, Dec. 6, 1863
The Battle of Cold Harbor, May 31 – June 12, 1864
Beauregard's defense of Petersburg, Federal assaults of June 15–18
The Battle of Nashville, December 15–16, 1864
Beauregard, later in life
Beauregard revolutionized New Orleans with his cable cars
Beauregard, civil rights advocate
The White League, a Democratic white supremacist paramilitary terrorist organization
The White League barricading a New Orleans road
The first African-American and Republican governor of Louisiana, Pinckney Pinchback of Georgia
The Battle of Liberty Place, September 14, 1874
Caesar Antoine, a Louisiana Creole and Republican lieutenant governor of Louisiana
New Orleans in the 1870's
General P.G.T. Beauregard Equestrian Statue in New Orleans (2008) by sculptor Alexander Doyle

In April 1865, Beauregard and his commander, General Joseph E. Johnston, convinced Davis and the remaining cabinet members that the war needed to end.

Quartermaster General of the United States Army

General officer who is responsible for the Quartermaster Corps, the Quartermaster branch of the U.S. Army.

Quartermaster General Maj Gen Gregory discusses Army nurses' clothing with Lt. Alice Montgomery, Lt. Josephine Etz, and Lt. Leophile Bouchard, of Walter Reed Hospital. The Quartermaster General is responsible for supplying all branches of the Army.

Brigadier General Joseph E. Johnston held the position from June 28, 1860, until his resignation on April 22, 1861.